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the like; and also from any other interlocutory order, in the discretion of the said court of appeals, whenever it is made to appear to said court upon petition that it will be in the interest of justice to allow such appeal.

Sec. 227. APPEALS FROM POLICE COURT.--If, upon the trial of any cause in the police court, an exception be taken by or on behalf of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any defendant to any ruling or instruction of the court upon matter of law, the same shall be reduced to writing and stated in a bill of exceptions, with so much of the evidence as may be material to the question or questions raised, which said bill of exceptions shall be settled and signed by the judge within such time as may be prescribed by rules and regulations which shall be made by the court of appeals of the District of Columbia for the transaction of business to be brought before it under this section, and for the time and method of the entry of appeals and for giving notice of writs of error thereto from the police court of the District of Columbia; and if, upon presentation to any justice of the court of appeals of the District of Columbia of a petition which, in the case of a defendant, shall be verified, setting forth the matter or matters so excepted to, such justice shall be of opinion that the same ought to be reviewed, he may allow a writ of error in the cause, which shall issue out of the said court of appeals, addressed to the judge of the police court, who shall forthwith send up the information filed in the cause and a transcript of the record therein, certified under the seal of said court, to said court of appeals for review and such action as the law may require, which record shall be filed in said court of appeals within such time as may be prescribed by the court of appeals, as hereinbefore provided. Any party desiring the benefit of the provisions of this section shall give notice in open court of his or its intention to apply for a writ of error upon such exceptions and thereupon proceedings therein shall be stayed for ten days: Provided, That the defendant seeking an appeal shall then and there enter into recognizance, with sufficient surety to be approved by the judge of the police court, conditioned that in the event of a denial of his application for a writ of error he will, within five days next after the expiration of said ten days appear in said police court and abide by and perform its judgment, and that in the event of the granting of such writ of error he will appear in said court of appeals of the District of Columbia and prosecute the writ of error and abide by and perform its judgment in the premises. Upon failure of any defendant to enter into the recognizance provided for in this section the sentence of the police court shall stand and be executed; otherwise execution shall be stayed pending proceedings upon his application for a writ of error and until final disposition thereof by the said court of appeals.

Sec. 228. APPEALS FROM COMMISSIONER OF PATENTS. The determination of appeals from the decisions of the Commissioner of Patents shall remain vested in said court of appeals, as provided by the Act approved February ninth, eighteen hundred and ninety-three, chapter seventy-four, entitled “An Act to establish a court of appeals for the District of Columbia, and for other purposes," and any party aggrieved by a decision of the Commissioner of Patents in any interference case may appeal therefrom to said court of appeals.

Sec. 229. OPINIONS.—The opinion of the said court of appeals in every case shall be rendered in writing, and shall be filed in such case as a part of the record thereof, and the said court of appeals is authorized to appoint a reporter, who shall serve during the pleasure of the court and with a salary of one thousand dollars per annum, and whose duty shall be to report, edit, and publish, in form to be prescribed by the court, its opinions.

And the said reporter shall furnish and deliver one copy of each volume of the reports of said opinions which shall have been published at the date of the passage of this code to each of the justices of the said court of appeals, the supreme court, and the judges of the police court of said District, immediately after the passage hereof, and shall thereafter furnish and deliver one copy of each volume of the reports of said opinions that shall thereafter be published immediately after the issue thereof to each of said justices and judges, and the copies so received by each of them shall, in case of his death, resignation, or removal from oflice, be delivered to his successor. And there is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to pay the said reporter therefor at the rate of not exceeding five dollars per volume; and such appropriations shall be deemed permanent and annual appropriations, and one-half thereof shall be paid out of the revenues of the District of Columbia.

Sec. 230. WRITS.—The said court of appeals shall have power to issue all necessary and proper remedial prerogative writs in aid of its appellate jurisdiction.

Sec. 231. MARSHAL TO EXECUTE ORDERS.—The marshal of the United States for the District of Columbia shall execute the orders and processes of the court of appeals in the same manner as he executes those of the supreme court of the District.

Sec. 232. HALF OF SALARIES PAID BY DISTRICT OF COLUMLIA. -Onehalf of the amounts paid on account of salaries of the justices of the court of appeals shall be paid from the revenues of the District of Columbia.

Subchapter V.-THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.

Sec. 233. Any final judgment or decree of the court of appeals may be reexamined and affirmed, reversed, or moditied by the Supreme Court of the United States, upon writ of error or appeal, in all cases in which the matter in dispute, exclusive of costs, shall exceed the sum of five thousand dollars, in the same manner and under the same regulations as existed in cases of writs of error on judgments or appeals from decrees rendered in the supreme court of the District of Columbia on February ninth, eighteen hundred and ninety-three, and also in cases, without regard to the sum or value of the matter in dispute, wherein is involved the validity of any patent or copyright, or in which is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute of, or an authority exercised under, the United States.

Sec. 234. In any case heretofore made final in the court of appeals it shall be competent for the Supreme Court of the United States to require, by certiorari or otherwise, any such case to be certified to said Supreme Court for its review and determination, with the same power and authority in the case as if it had been carried by appeal or writ of error to said Supreme Court.

CHAPTER II.

ABATEMENT.

Sec. 235. RighT OF ACTION TO SURVIVE.—On the death of any person in whose favor or against whom a right of action may have accrued for any cause except an injury to the person or to the reputation, said right of action shall survive in favor of or against the legal representatives of the deceased; but no right of action for an injury to the person, except as provided in chapter forty-five of this code, or to the reputation, shall so survive.

Sec. 236. DEATH, EFFECT OF.—No action at common law shall abate by the death of either or any of the parties thereto if the right of action would survive as aforesaid; but upon the death of any defendant the action shall continue pending, and the heir, devisee, executor, administrator, or other person interested in the place of the deceased defendant, as the case may require, may appear to such action. And in case the proper person to defend such action shall not appear to the same during the term of the court in which such death may be suggested, the plaintiff may cause a summons to be issued, directed to the proper person to defend such action, to be served on such person, if found in the District of Columbia and legally suable therein, requiring him to appear thereto on or before the twentieth day, exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays, occurring after the service thereof, and show cause why such action should not be prosecuted to judgment; and if it shall appear to the court that such summons has been duly served, and the person so summoned shall not appear as thereby required, then the court may cause the appearance of such person to be entered, and there shall be the same proceedings in said action as if said person had voluntarily appeared; and all the proceedings had before the death of the defendant shall be considered as proceedings in the action, and such further proceedings shall be had to bring the cause fairly to trial as the court may deem proper. If the proper representative of a deceased defendant be not made a party to the action within one year from the death of said defendant, the action shall abate as to such defendant: Provided, however, That where the representative of the deceased is an executor or administrator the plaintiff shall have six months after the issuance of letters testamentary or of administration within which to make such representative a party: And provided further, That in case the summons above provided for shall be returned “Not to be found," publication may be substituted therefor in all cases in which proceeding by publication is authorized by this code.

Sec. 237. SUMMONS TO EXECUTOR, AND SO FORTH.-If [the] any plaintiff in any such action shall die before judgment is given, the heir, devisee, executor, administrator, or other proper person to prosecute such action may appear and prosecute the same; and if such person does not appear to prosecute such action during the term of said court in which the death may be suggested, the defendant may cause a summons to be issued, directed to the proper person to prosecute such action, requiring him to appear and prosecute the same on or before the twentieth day, exclusive of Sundays and legal holidays, occurring after service of the same; and if it shall appear to the court that such summons has been duly served, and the party summoned shall fail to appear in obedience thereto to prosecute the action, or if said party be not found in the District of Columbia and shall not appear to prosecute such action by the fourth day of the second term of the court after the term at which the death is suggested, the action shall abate or the cause may proceed to judgment notwithstanding such failure to appear, as the defendant may elect; but if the proper person to prosecute such action shall appear therein, either voluntarily or after being summoned as aforesaid, before said suit shall so abate, all proceedings in the action had before the death of the plaintiff shall be considered as proceedings in the cause, and such other proceedings shall be had to bring the cause fairly to trial as the court may deem proper.

Sec. 238. DEATH OF NEW PARTY.-In all cases where a new party has been made to any action under the provisions aforesaid, and the new party so made shall die before judgment, or if an executor or administrator shall be removed from his office, the proper person to prosecute or defend such action in the place of the party so dying or removed may be made a party thereto by the same proceeding herein authorized on the death of the original plaintiff or defendant.

Sec. 239. PLEADINGS. — Any new party to any action may use and rely upon any plearlings put in by his predecessor in such action, or shall have the same right to amend the pleadings or proceedings in such action as if he had been an original party thereto.

Sec. 240. Costs.-In all cases where a new party is made to an action the costs which accrued before such new party was made shall be taxed as part of the costs in such action, and the judgment rendered shall be the same as if the action had been originally commenced between the persons who are parties to such action: Provided, That no defendant who is made a new party to such action shall be burdened with debts, damages, or costs beyond the amount or property or assets descended or come to his hands from the deceased.

Sec. 241. JOINT PARTIES.— In case of the death of one of several joint defendants to an action, where the right of action will survive as aforesaid, the same proceedings shall be had to make the proper representative of the deceased a party to the action as in the case of a sole defendant.

Sec. 242. APPEALS FROM JUSTICES OF THE PEACE.-An appeal from a judgment rendered by any justice of the peace shall be deemed an action within the meaning of the aforegoing provisions.

Sec. 243. EQUITY SUITS.—No suit in equity shall abate by the death of any of the parties in cases where the rights involved in the suit survive.

Sec. 244. DEATH OF PARTY TO EQUITY SUIT.-If any of the parties to a suit in equity, whether complainant or defendant, shall die after the filing of the bill or petition, it shall not be necessary to file a bill of revivor; but any of the surviving parties may file a suggestion of such death, setting forth when the death occurred, and who is the legal representative of such deceased party, and how he is the representative, whether by devise, descent, or otherwise.

Sec. 245. SUBPENA TO REPRESENTATIVES. --Upon such a suggestion a subpæna shall issue for the legal representative of the deceased party, commanding him to appear and be made a party to such suit, if such representative reside within the District of Columbia; and if such representative is a nonresident, then such notice shall be given instead of the subpæna as is herein elsewhere provided for nonresident defendants.

Sec. 246. DEATH AFTER DECREE FOR ACCOUNT, AND SO FORTH. If any defendant shall die after a decree for an account, sale, or partition, or after such other proceedings shall have been had after appearance as would have warranted the passing of such a decree, or if such deceased defendant shall have answered, confessing the facts stated in the bill, or shall have set up no defense to the relief therein prayed, the court may, in its discretion, order the cause to be proceeded in as if no death had occurred, or may order a bill of revivor or a supplemental bill to be filed, and the proper representative of such deceased defendant to be made a party, as may seem best calculated to advance the purposes of justice: Provided, That the heir or other proper representative of such deceased defendant, at any time before final decree, may appear and be made a party on such reasonable terms as the court may direct; and such new party may file an answer to the original bill, subject to such terms as the court may impose, in which he may insist on such defenses, and none other, as might have been made to a bill of revivor or supplemental bill in the nature of a bill of revivor filed against him.

Sec. 247. MARRIAGE OF PARTY.—No suit at law or in equity shall abate by the marriage of any of the parties; but on application of any of the parties the court may, on such terms and notice as it shall deem proper, allow and order any amendment in the pleadings and the making of any new or additional parties that such marriage may render necessary or proper.

Sec. 248. DEATH AFTER FINAL DECREE. -If any of the parties to a suit die after final decree, the court may order execution of such decree as if no death had occurred, or the court may order a subpæna scire facias to be issued, or a bill of revivor to be filed against the proper representatives of such deceased party, or pass such other order or direct such other proceedings as may seem best calculated to advance the purposes of justice: Provided, That the heir or other proper representative may appear at any time before execution of said decree and be admitted as a party to the suit, on such terms as the court may prescribe, and such further proceeding may be had as may be appropriate to the merits of the cause.

Sec. 249. FAILURE TO APPEAR. If any representative of a deceased party shall fail to appear, after being summoned, within the time therein limited, or shall fail to appear after notice by publication, the court may order the appearance of such representative to be entered, to have the same effect as if such representative had appeared in person and been made a party.

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