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shell shock. When the psycho-analyst doubtedly it is easier-more “natural” discovers this festering energy, he sug —for the nations to distrust and fear gests to the patient some way to work it one another than it is to learn confidence. off and he calls the proceeding "sub The first steps toward "civilization" limation"—just as the old-fashioned were not the only hard ones. Our forpractitioner, if he were prescribing bears have been working untiringly and kitchen soda," would give it a cabalis- undismayed at experiments in communtic Latin name.

ity organization these millions and The man who returns to his office millions of years, and there is still terafter an active summer finds desk work ribly much to learn. Every step in social irksome. His internal laboratory has life, the family, the clan, the nation, has formed the habit of generating sufficient been hard, contrary to some instincts. energy for golf or tennis, and he can no Every step forward has necessitated longer spare the time for so much exer some change in human nature, has been cise. The symptoms of his trouble, prin a “sublimation,” a triumph in conscious cipally irritability, are at once notice- self-control, a redirection of energy from able to his business associates, but he an outgrown and hampering purpose to does not need to despair. There is prob some progressive enterprise. It is not ably a furnace in his cellar and he can easy to control the instincts, but it is “sublimate” this excess energy shovel- possible—at least it has always been ing coal.

possible for our ancestors. In the delicate matter of mating there is always the conflict between “the History adds its testimony to that of heart that desires and the reason that the natural sciences. Within the last reprehends." The psycho-analyst would few hundred years we have seen alteraprefer “subconscious” and “conscious tions in human behavior more sweeping mind” to the phraseology of Molière, than those required to realize a limitabut he would admit the conflict. We do tion of armaments. not, in fact, follow slavishly the habits There has been no noticeable change of our remote progenitors in regard to in the blood strain of the Italians since sex; we have achieved some self-control. the last barbarian invasion, no abrupt Freud himself has gone to great pains in break in the hereditary characteristics describing this process of “sublimation,” of the nation, but in the days of Dante by which the ancient urge of generation the combat instincts of the Italians is redirected into channels of creative found vent in fratricidal strife. The art and constructive statesmanship. To walled towns of the north were chronipretend that we cannot escape from the cally at war, and when there was no combat instincts is on a par with arguing good fight on with a neighboring city that because the dark people of the the Guelphs and Ghibellines fought out jungle days gave free rein to their lusts, their petty feuds in the streets. To-day we, who are their offspring, cannot be it is no longer fashionable for Italians to civilized in love.

kill one another. It is unfortunate that the psycho What has become of the ancient enanalysts have called this simple, com mity of Highland Scot and English Lowmonplace process of controlling the in- lander? It has been absorbed into the stincts by so transcendental a name as larger unity of Great Britain. “sublimation,” because the long word A friend from the South, whom I knew makes it sound difficult. It is this same in New York, enlisted in '98 for the simple and common-sense process—by Spanish War. He went home on leave to whatever name it is called—which is bid his family good-by, but his mother involved in discussing the possibility of would not let him into the house beorganizing the world for peace. Un cause he wore the hated Federal uni

causes.

form. After the experience of national The agonies of these last years have unity in 1917, it is difficult to remember forced us all to give thought to their the rancors of the Civil War and Recon

We know more than we did a struction-but it is very comforting. decade ago about why men fight. So,

added to our worries about the SisySancta Sophia is not to be condemned phean labor of rebuilding what we have because some of her acolytes take her destroyed, is the fear that we are aiming name in vain and try to marry herto Mars. for-arming for-a new war. The real prelates of Science have more The disputes of to-day are so sickenoftenfoundin herrevelationsreasonstobe- ingly similar to those which preceded lieve in progress and in developing peace. the last war-rivalries for foreign mar

This family of ours is very old. It has kets, trade barriers, strategic frontiers, outlived innumerable dangers and has the new irredenta, access to the sea—the eaten often of adversity. Not once nor old competition in armaments intensitwice, but very frequently, it has been fied. It seems so dismally certain that we threatened with extinction. Floods and are drifting in the same direction, toward famines, wars and ghastly plagues, are the same reef, and we all know that what an old, familiar story. Earthquakes was only devastation a few years ago more terrible than any since we have threatens destruction a few years hence. invented instruments of precision to Those who strive to ward off this danmeasure them, climatic disturbances geras our ancestors, through all the more catastrophic than any our very millions of generations, successfully modern weather bureaus have recorded, warded off the dangers which threatened have been survived. Savage and un them—need not be cast down when cercouth as they were, our ancestors had tain jumble-heads misquote Science to marvelous vitality. Not even the creep prove that the preservation of the ing glaciers could destroy them. We species is contrary to the natural income of a sturdy stock.

stincts. Science, on the contrary, tells Our generation has just gone through us how our ancestors, when they found a new ordeal by fire. It is impossible as life in the swamps no longer possible, yet to assess the damage done by the came ashore and learned to climb trees war. The actual destruction of capital, for safety. The task before our generathe debit which the bookkeepers can tion is modest indeed compared with that compute-has been staggering, and the great achievement. loss which is symbolized by all the new While pseudo-science is just as dangraves in Europe is at once harder to gerous as the slander which is half true, calculate and more appalling. The gaps Science and the scientific habit of mind in the next generation are even a graver are the one hope we have. The better matter. And in the recent months we understanding we have of all this new have begun to realize still another wound knowledge about heredity and psycholof the war, the breakdown of credit and ogy, the more chance we will have of the consequent dislocation of the eco working out sound projects for the prenomic machinery of our civilization. vention of wars. We shall not improve Unless the wheels of industry begin once ourselves by denying our ancestors. We more to turn, we shall find it increasingly shall only make ourselves ridiculous as difficult to keep the survivors of the well as miserable if we pretend to be Great War alive. Our family is inured descended from doves. But it would be to hardship, but the novelty of our pres- just as foolish to act as though we were ent situation is that the danger comes the

progeny

of the saber-toothed cats or not from an outside enemy, but from the heavily armored reptiles. ourselves. The wounds from which we We come of a stock which learned to still bleed are self-inflicted.

live by its wits, the most inventive, ver

satile, and adaptive of all the species. mained backward and “Balkanized” if, While it is true that we have in our blood after the Revolution, the irreconcilables a hereditary taint of churlish quarrel- of that day, who insisted on the undiminsomeness, we have also a long tradition ished sovereignty of the thirteen states, of progressive self-control. Our for had had their way. Disarmament agreebears were contentious, self-assertive, ments between them would have had suspicious—“sudden and quick in an small worth if the citizens of Massachuger”—but they knew how to conquer setts and Virginia had continued to centhemselves.

ter their patriotism on their respective They were also clever. Alone of all State Houses instead of gradually transthe animals they invented language, and ferring it to the national Capitol. It was for our delectation and instruction they the active co-operation of the different left us histories of their wars, their fol states in solving common problems-a lies, and their dreams. To be sure, they co-operation hard to achieve and never loved a fight, but they were also star perfect—which overcame the first ingazers. Among the very oldest written tense separatism, at last made union a words the archæologists have dug up are reality and gave strength for the conthe records of their study of the stars. quest of the continent.

The love of knowledge-an insatiable Undoubtedly there were irreconcilcuriosity-is among the most precious ables among the monkeys, when they treasures of our heritage. And modern faced their great decision, who refused to science is very explicit in teaching that come down from the treetops. Such of very little progress can be hoped for their descendants as still survive never from merely denouncing naughty in come any nearer to civilization than the stincts. Negations and interdictions primate house at the zoo. Our ancestors accomplish little, for docility is not a came down. And the people who inhabit strong trait in our race. Monastic vows this planet a few hundred generations have not proved so helpful to man in his hence will be the descendants of those of struggle with rebellious passions as good us who are not afraid of innovations, who hard work. William James understood prove ourselves most adaptable to the how recalcitrant we are to “thou-shalt new needs of this new day. nots” when he wrote his essay on “A Science and history, as well as comMoral Substitute for War.” The way mon sense, are pro-league. It matters to control the instincts is not to tell very little who gets the credit for the them to be good, but to give them a idea or what name we give to the coman-sized job.

operative organization of nations; but The modern psychologists, while giv- if we are going to stop distrusting and ing us more and very important informa- hating one another-fighting as often as tion about the combative instincts we we catch our breaths and with conhave inherited, also teach us how to deal stantly increasing fury-it will be bewith them. Their testimony, instead of cause we have begun working together being discouraging, corroborates the les- and through constant association in a sons of history. The victories of mutual common purpose are building up a comaid, of peace, have not been won by ignor mon loyalty. ing the old instincts, but by their redirection toward some new purpose. Life may, Whatever new discoveries the explorof course, invent some novel expedient, ers of science may make, whatever new but in the past this progress has always and bewildering names they may give come through the absorption of local to old instincts and familiar methods of and limited patriotism in some larger controlling them, it is evident, from the and more inspiring loyalty.

bare fact that we are alive to-day to Our Atlantic seaboard would have re disparage the dead, that our forefathers

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were dominated by a master instinct an opinion we may have of those shaggy, the instinct of life. They surmounted so dirty, choleric ancestors of ours, we may many difficulties, survived so many dan take heart from the knowledge that they gers, pressed so consistently up the steep faced and outfaced worse. They always grade. Whenever some venerable habit found the wit to survive. They knew of mind, some inherited instinct, how to change their natures. If we fail inconvenient tail got in the way of life, in our present crisis, go down to extincthey sloughed it off.

tion because we cannot control our inSo, when we face the difficulties and stincts, we shall prove ourselves undangers of our own day, however low worthy of them.

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WHAT PATRICIA HEARD FROM TOKIO

NEW LETTERS FROM JAPAN BY THE AUTHOR OF “THE LADY OF THE DECORATION"

PART II

BY FRANCES LITTLE

PATSY, It has happened! So have fused state of mind which made him

ΤΟΚΙΟ. . knocked dizzy. Maybe it was the con

fused state of mind which made him I consent not to pursue.

Instead he you. By it I mean Otani San has left. handed a roll of bills to Kate, asking her

The first I knew of it was Kate coming to find Qtani San and give her a message. into my room with cheeks flushed and If she would return, the better part of his very bright eyes. She'd just had a visit fortune and the child were hers to do from the broker-man. He rushed over with as she would. But Kitty, who knows here when he found pinned to a plush something about everything, says the pillow a note saying:

man has an attack of genuine love!

Who can say? Love is a reckless bombI have a duty to perform. It may take

thrower. me ten years, maybe twenty. I shall not return. Giru San knows why.

Do you think I am making too much

of this? Not a bit of it. It's a sign of the I can't remember the poetical phras- times. A few years ago the thing simply ing, but this is plainer than poetry and could not have happened. And even quicker in the telling.

now there are those who contend that, Kate frankly gave all the information though the way

though the way be open for escape, the she had. It wasn't much. Otani had said desire for a luxurious life is stronger than she was going some time. Her little desire for the straight and thorny path daughter should have a chance which of hard work and poverty. Time and had never come to her. “But I did not Katherine will tell this story. know her determination was fixed or While Kate was gone on her search for dated. I see it is. If I can find her I shall a runaway lady, your fat, newsy letter do everything I can to help her stick to came. Still at it, I see! Keeping your it," declared Kitty; and I can see her little-big world astir with enthusiasm, back stiffen as she said it.

polishing up jaded people and weary I am truly sorry to have missed that hearts with your clear vision and kindly interview, for when it is a battle of stand deeds! ards between a sure saint and a deter Of course you didn't say so, but I have mined sinner fireworks are bound to an enthusiasm or so myself. The two follow.

biggest ones in my treasure-box are you The man fought for self and all his un as a miracle-worker in turning handicaps questioned privileges. My missionary into victory for yourself and others, and friend fought for right, and woe be to Katherine Jilson's fearlessness in tackany unrighteous soul that clashed with ling the devil in any disguise. her weapons. I'd pick Kitty as a sure Every time she does it you can fairly thing any time. Don't reprove me,

see the crumpled horns and drooping tail Patrick! I'm excited. And I am telling of the personage in question, and you one Christian soldier about another of the want to race to life's score-board, whersame kind. If they aren't sure, who is? ever that may be, and hang up a double

Mr. Broker-man wasn't defeated; only number for Kit.

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