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expressly discusses in Valvedre the worth of drawn away from a morbid contemplation this kind of transformation, and decides that of themselves. But people of leisure, the it is only a passion in another form, and af- sort of people for whom Valvedre is written, fords no real relief to a mind that is not may have nothing in the circumstances of overtaken by terror, but longs for a relief their outer life to call them away from unfrom the cravings of a spurious appetite for profitable meditation. Science, however, excitement. Whether she is right or wrong must be acknowledged to offer very much is another matter ; but it is more important of what they want. The world of which it to notice what she accepts, and not what she tells is a world that exists in equal beauty rejects. This notion of science being the and with equal certainty whatever may be antidote of passion is one not at all familiar the feelings or the cares of man. Science to English people. Rare instances in pri- offers a region where facts only prevail, and vate life may, indeed, be found where a phi- where what is once apprehended is never losophy of the sort has been acted on ; but lost. In the religious repentance which, in nine people out of ten who would read Val- an English book, would replace the scientific vedre carefully would be obliged to own that repentance of George Sand, one of the great the point of the book was one that was new comforts of the wounded, and desolate, and to them, and seemed very paradoxical. Of despairing heart is that it clings to a Being course good young people who have been outside itself. In however much humbler brought up to work hard at science may be and more impure a degree, something of the saved by it from many errors, but so they same feeling strengthens and calms the mind would have been if their work had been that, weary of the world, begins to occupy mathematics or Sanskrit. All subjects of itself with nature with nature, that is, not hard study bring the benefits which hard as seen through the spectacles of man's fcelstudy confers; and no study, whether sci- ings, but as it is apart from man, governed entific or not, will keep people right who by its own laws and full of its own wonders. have nothing else to trust to. But this is It is true that there is nothing in science quite beside the mark at which George Sand analogous to the active response vouchsafed is aiming. The real drift of Valvedre is, that in religious repentance. It is only somepersons who are tired of passion without thing external and apart—it is not something having been brutalized by it, or who have external and apart that returns an answerrecoiled from the abyss on the edge of which ing support. But the mere fact that it has they have been standing, may find a new life an existence independent of the shifting fecland security in science; and it is worth while ings of a tired and depressed mind gives it to think what it is that she means, and how an inestimable value to the sufferer. It far what she means is true.
opens to him a door of escape behind which The chief reason, we imagine, why science he can leave his burden of glocmy fancies has such a charm for minds like that of and vague misgivings. George Sand, is that it presents something Science has also the great charm of offerfixed, external, and impersonal. Those who ing a complete cure for vacuity of thought. have felt, and thought, and suffered much, It gives plenty of work-of work that may who have listened to the whisperings of be made unceasing, that may easily be made fancy, who have loved with a natural and to fill up every hour of the day, and may emthen with a factitious enthusiasm, who have ploy the body as much as the mind. How sought in art an aid to sensibility, and have passionately people long for work-hard, but tormented themselves with the mysteries of not too hard, exciting, but not too exciting human existence, get sadly tired, after a when the time of weariness and despondtime, of the vanity of their pursuits. But ency has come with the shade of advancing where are they to go as a refuge ? The sub-years, may be learned from the eagerness jects of thought most congenial and familiar with which many women in middle age throw to them only lead them over the same old themselves into the life of conventual estabpath, and back into the barren wishes of lishments, or take to ministering among the their own unsatisfied wishes. Men engaged poor. It is true that other employments bein active life, and women on whom family sides the pursuit of science afford plenty of cares press with a daily load, are easily work. Hour after hour soon slips away in writing a book or painting a picture, but the not entirely abandon t without a sense of work of science is much more varied, and loss and desolation, and who are yet smitten especially of science as George Sand loves with a longing to connect themselves with to picture it. Her scientific hero is a man the ordinary world and to check the taste who passes whole weeks in surveying the for whatever is morbid and extravagant. If unexplored portions of the Alps, who is mak- a rhapsodist wishes to indulge his genius, he ing the most interesting experiments in light, cannot rhapsodize more easily on any subelectricity, glaciers and so on, who has a ject than on the wonders of creation. A retinue of followers, and a faithful friend poetical writer has also the advantage, in with a marvellous knowledge of botany. studying science, of portraying a feeling This is the romance of scientific life. To which he is sure is genuine, noble, and sponhave a fortune and to despise it, except so taneous. The wonders of creation overfar as it enables its possessor to do science power and fascinate the mind that fairly on a magnificent scale, is not given to every opens itself to the impression they create. one. But, in a less degree, the enjoyments A man of science, who expresses with any of the philosopher of Valvedre are within the thing like adequacy the emotions which the reach of all students. Those who take up marvels disclosed to him naturally awaken, science as a mental diversion rather than is as sure that he is describing what in all in the hope of making a valuable contribu- ages must be felt by all men of feeling as tion to the stock of scientific knowledge, the most consummate master of the play and have one advantage over those who go to sweep of passion can possibly be. It is work in a more serious way. They need not easier to be right in delineating the poetical confine themselves so closely to the study of side of science than in analyzing the springs details. They can select those portions of of human action; and although no scientific the particular science they take up which description is more true than Othello is true require locomotion and permit them to en- as an account of human action under certain joy at will the busy idleness of an out-of-circumstances, yet excellence in scientific door philosopher. M. Michelet would prob- description requires infinitely less power ably have had to spend years over the than is exhibited in Othello. While, theremicroscope if he had aspired to reveal to the fore, poetical science is not more true than scientific world any new phenomena of in- the highest truth of the drama, it is much sect life. But a smattering of knowledge, more within the compass of common minds. and a great amount of pleasant wandering And at the same time that science is full of in pleasant places, enabled him to do all he poetry to a poetical mind, it has yet a strong wanted, and to find in insects a new subject tendency to confine the student within the for poetical description. His books are per- limits of common
Extravagant, haps scarcely scientific enough to answer to vague, and inaccurate language is glaringly the ideal of science which George Sand has out of keeping with the sober realities and formed. But they are near enough to sup- inexhaustible accuracy of nature. There is ply a good illustration of what she means, an element of the business-like in an occupaand no one can doubt that the labor spent tion so bound up with method and order as by their author in preparing to write them scientific investigation, and the neutral tints must have been a labor of love.
of business and common sense have an atThere is also in science a mixture of poetry mosphere of repose that allures those who, and common sense which may be readily con- like the authoress of Valvedre, have long ceived to be very inviting to persons who been accustomed to glaring colors. have long lived in a poetical world, and can
From The Spectator, 7 Sept. a great physical as well as constitutional ENGLAND AND THE SOUTHERN STATES. struggle with Austria—a struggle which
We fear there is no little reason to ap- might, for any thing we know, not have to prehend that the leading members of the be fought over again this year had England English Government have already under then recognized the Hungarian victory, as their consideration the propriety of recog- she ought to have done, and forbidden the nizing, early in the autumn, the independ- unwarrantable intervention of Russia—are ence of the Southern States; and that un
we prepared that this same Government, less some decisive victory and rapid success which "knew nothing of Hungary” except of the North intervenes, or English opinion as a constituent part of Austria, shall now declares very strongly against it, this step anticipate the issue of this struggle between may be soon taken. The second reinforce- the American rebels and their rightful Govment of Canada, which has taken place since ernment, after a contest of little more than Parliament separated, and the language and half a year, during which there has been no sympathies of the Government journals, are time to organize the really enormous resome indications of this danger. At all sources of the Free States? If we do this, events, there is no doubt that it is a ques- we shall break our strongest tie with the tion much canvassed in influential quarters, Free North. An eminent American author and that the strong desire of the Govern- has well expressed the disappointment of the ment to secure Lancashire against a cotton Free States in the attitude taken by England crisis, together with an impression which is in a letter to Lord Shaftesbury :widely prevalent in political circles that it “ It is not to be disguised that one unforwould be a great advantage to England to tunate result of our American crisis has see the power of the United States broken been a weakening of national confidence in up into fragments, tends to persuade them England, and a feeling of great sensitiveto adopt it. It is, therefore, exceedingly
ness and soreness in our relations with the important that this country should speak they regard themselves as suddenly aban
;: to be out its mind on the subject at once. doned in the very crisis of a battle by the
We have no difficulty, for our own part, moral forces of those brethren on whom in speaking out ours ; though we fear that they had relied as undoubtingly as on thembut one of the great Liberal organs—we selves, and the possibility of whose failure need hardly say that we allude to the Daily had never entered into their most distant News, the only paper which has done justice calculations. . . . It is not principally by to the North throughout this long and pain- tion that this class among us feel aggrieved.
the Government course of the English naful crisis—will support the same view with It is not with that that they principally conany warmth. But from the English people cern themselves. By false representawe expect something different. There is, tions and false issues, our friends in Engwe feel persuaded, a large silent class, who land have been blinded to the real significare as much about the slavery cause as
cance of the sublime movement which the their fathers did thirty years ago, and who American nation has just commenced.” are not prepared to see England throw her How will this feeling be increased by any influence hastily into the opposite scale with-official recognition of the South while yet out a protest and a struggle. Whatever our the contest is in the mind of the Northern opinion may be as to the chances of the war, States at least—quite undecided and still we must remember what a premature recog- hopeful ? It may be all very well for Engnition of the Southern Confederation would, lish politicians, who get almost all their imin fact amount to. It would exert a double pressions through the cotton interest in the set of influences; it would be a great moral United States, to say that the struggle has discouragement to the North, and it would no connection with slavery. The Northern be not only a great encouragement, but a people know that it has. They know, as new lease of strength, to the South. Are Mrs. Stowe asserts, that the election of last we prepared that the same Government, year hinged entirely on the question of slavwhich in the coldest terms declined to ac- ery-extension ; that the organization of the knowledge Hungarian independence in 1849, Republican party was founded on the rewhen Hungary was absolutely victorious in solve to pen up slavery within its existing
limits; and that it was the triumph of this single year develop the cotton resources of policy which determined the Slave States to India and the other subsidiary free cotton rebel. This is so notorious that no one can countries, and we should be freed forever dispute it for a moment. The taunt that from the nightmare with which all thoughtMr. Lincoln is not prepared to fight the bat- ful politicians have been oppressed during tle on the issue of emancipation is true. the last generation. They have felt, and felt But it is quite as true that he is being com- most justly, that to depend for the maintepelled to take this line by his supporters, as nance of millions on a cotton supply which well as by the force of circumstances; and it is the fruit of frightful guilt, is at once a disis certain that the Northern States would grace and a peril--a disgrace, because, as we consent to no terms which did not settle the now see, it restrains the natural drift of our question of slavery-extension at once and political sympathies; a peril, because the forever. Practically, therefore, if we antici- system is so radically corrupt that it may pate their defeat, if we paralyze them by collapse at any moment with a crash. All giving our verdict in favor of the new South- this they have felt; and if now that the ern power, and sending an ambassador to time is come when Providence forces us to Montgomery, we shall have gone out of our look elsewhere,—to turn to a country where way to foil the Free States in their first we should confer boundless prosperity by pitched battle against slavery. We did not our purchases instead of boundless misery, recognize even the kingdom of Italy while -if at such a moment we hug our chains Francis II. held the field against his oppo- and cannot tear ourselves at any persuasion nents. We paraded our diplomatic incapac- from our beloved long-staple cotton, then ity to comprehend that Hungary had broken we deserve to be subjected to the same huloose from Austria ; and if here, in a coun- miliation and peril under which we have so try where no political right has ever been long groaned for another cycle of Egyptian denied to the rebel states, where the only servitude. This, too, we say, would be a grievance is that, after a long supremacy, great national calamity. Let us remember they have been outvoted and defeated in distinctly what it means. It means the retheir love for the most debasing element in lapse of our national conscience into, first, modern civilization, if here we make haste a toleration,—then, probably a positive apto hail the rising power, New England will proval of slavery. Once let us draw close be justified in saying that Old England's our relations with an independent South by anti-slavery sympathies are mere hollow the ties of a mutually selfish gratitude, sentimental pretences, since she can rest once let us feel committed to the advocacy satisfied to stuff her ears with cotton against of that noble and patriotic cause, of which the cries of the slaves, and to compensate a repudiator is the Washington and slavery her gentle regret over the new impulse is the "corner-stone,” and we may be sure given to slavery by her lively gratification that slavery sentiment will fast gain head in over the paralyzing shock suffered by De- England. The generous sympathies of Mr. mocracy. This rupture with the Free Gregory, the member for Galway, will soon States at the very juncture when we can be shared by numbers of our leading men, learn most from them and give them heart- and it may not be long before the same ier sympathy than at any time since their country which paid twenty millions sterling independence, would, to our minds, be a to wipe out the blot of slavery upon our colgreat national calamity.
onies will be glad to lend as much to a thrivAgain, we shall certainly draw much ing slave commonwealth for the purpose of closer our alliance with the “chivalric” making good its frontier against the enSouth if we are among the first, perhaps croachments of a free republic. the first, to recognize her independence. Nor will it stop here. No sooner shall Is this what the people of England really we have assisted the South to attain its inwish? The crisis seems to be one expressly dependence, than new questions of the first intended to relieve England of the humiliat- importance will come up as to slavery-extening obligations under which she lies to an sion and the slave trade. Mexico and an institution wholly abhorrent to all our high- Anglo-Saxon slave commonwealth can never est political tendencies. Let us but for albe peaceable neighbors. The South already intend to absorb Mexico. For twenty years Administration will have deliberately inback their policy has tended in this direction. flicted a greater injury on the cause of freeThe Knights of the Golden Circle are dom than any single generation of Liberals pledged to the attempt. The genius of the can hope to retrieve. slavery cotton-system requires constant enlargement of area, and Mexico is not the state to resist any consistent and well-organized pressure. We shall have soon to face
From The London Review. the efforts of the South to absorb Mexico as
ENGLISH LAW AND JUSTICE IN INDIA. part of the slave commonwealth, and the
A STORY reaches us from Calcutta that same peril which makes us bend before it would be very difficult to believe, if the facts now will bid us bend before it then. We were not placed before us in the unimpeachshall be involved in the meshes of the slav- able form of a report of proceedings in a ery net, and be more sensitive than ever to Court of Justice. As the details unwind the danger of slave insurrections, the men- themselves before us, we read and wonder, aces of Northern abolitionists, in short, the inclined to hope that the printers must have moral necessity of supporting the South made a mistake in laying the scene in a against its Northern foe.
country governed by English law. But no; And what will be our reward P-that we the prosecutor, the defendant, the witnesses, shall have a less formidable rival in Disu- the jury, the judge, are all subjects of Queen nited than we could ever have in the United Victoria ; and the case is reported with such States. This is one of those political mo- elaboration and minuteness as to prevent all tives which we can never hear confessed suspicion of its being a hoax. The facts of without wondering at the unblushing self- this very strange story are as follow:ishness of statesmen. It has, we know, a
The Rev. Mr. Long, a missionary of the real influence on English thought at the Established Church of England, has labored present moment. It is thought that we shall in his vocation in India for twenty years, find our advantage in the quarrels of our preaching Christianity among the Hindoos, rivals. Perhaps so; if it be our advantage and endeavoring, in order that he might be to fear them less, and to be more than ever the better able to understand the peculiar in the hands of one of them at least. The idiosyncracy of the native mind, to make South may become to us another Turkey, himself thoroughly acquainted with the popwith far more than the moral complications ular literature current in their own tongue of Turkish misgovernment. We may drift among the race which it was his mission to sooner than we think into a real or fancied Christianize. necessity for maintaining the integrity of Among other works in Hindostanee, which the South against the North. A weak and came under Mr. Long's notice, as a student unscrupulous ward contrives practically to of contemporary literature, was a play, enimpose a far more galling yoke than a pow-titled, “Nil Durpan ; or, the Mirror of Inerful and audacious rival.
digo Planting,” in which the dramatist satWe are now at the meeting of the ways. irized the life, manners, and oppressive If we are wise, we shall stand sedulously conduct, real or alleged, of the British inaloof from all diplomatic action till the digo-planters in India, and held them up to contest is over, and either one combatant is the ridicule or hatred of his countrymen. vanquished or the two have made their own The reverend gentleman, being struck with terms. But all our moral influence ought this work, not for its beauties or its merits, to be clearly given to the North, and if the but for the insight it afforded into the workconclusion of the struggle leaves any por- ings of the native mind, and for the light it tion of the Southern States independent, it threw upon their prejudices and their grievshould be our earnest endeavor to support ances, actual or imaginary, translated it the Northern States in the policy of sealing carefully, printed it, and transmitted copies up slavery within certain impassible limits, to the principal people concerned in the govand forever terminating the slave trade. If ernment of India, as well as to a few of the the moral influence of England is cast into leading philanthropists, men of letters, and the other scale, we shall say that a Liberal journalists of England. The sensitive in.