« 이전계속 »
and look either like beehives, sugar-houses, Que le diable empeste les Philantropes!-they or pig-styes. The country, however, is be- will overturn every thing with their absurd yond belief fertile, bearing three and four theories.” The same gentleman is equally crops a year, and being always in fruit or
about the policy of English statesflower. The date-trees are beautiful. Wild
“Forbearance and submission have birds are in millions; pelicans and the graubal white dwarf crane are the most seen, been too long l'ordre du jour. The invasion and make an agreeable contrast. The cli- of Spain was undertaken in direct opposition mate is delicious; the air quite balmy; and to our wishes. The Russians attacked and every hour as I go south I more completely overwhelmed the Turks in spite of us. And cheat the winter. The Nile water, when fil- now the French, without saying "by your tered, is excellent; and there are bottles leave,' take possession of a vast country, here, which are made of porous earth, called gurgoulets, and that almost ice it by evap
which gives them the sceptre of the Medioration."
terranean (Algiers to wit)! Next will come
the Americans, who have long cast a wistful Here is a bit of Lord Alvanley's experi- eye to that question, as likewise the Rusence of female society in Egypt :
sians, and then we shall open our eyes and “As I was sitting alone after dinner yes
discover that our policy has been bad. It is terday, having given my dragomen leave to really heart-breaking to reflect how the Britgo out, and no one speaking Arabic being ish name has sunk in public estimation all at home, the door opened, and in walked two over Europe, and how British influence has very handsome women, Arabs-tall, and dwindled." Et cetera. There is a good deal with the peculiarly beautiful shaped forms and figures for which they are famous. They that if Mr. Harcourt King aimed at being
more of the same sort of stuff, which shows sat down, and, after wine, coffee, and a pipe that I offered them, they began talking to the political mouthpiece of the Dandies, his me in Arabic. As I had soon exhausted my political knowledge had not, like Dandyism, little stock of that language, we came to a been studied as “a Science.” But such was dead-lock; nor could I by any means elicit not the case. Mr. Raikes himself was the who had sent them. They were, however, man whose political information was worth very amiable and very quiet; for, as it was the night, I could not send them away, and communicating, as the Duke of Wellington was, therefore, obliged to pass the evening abundantly testified. From 1837 to 1846, with them, and leave them to sleep on the Mr. Raikes lived chiefly in Paris, and the divan when I went to bed. This they did current events of that period form the subwithout fuss or trouble. I locked them into 'jects of his letters and the Duke of Welthe drawing-room; in the morning opened lington's replies. We may quote from these the door, gave them backshish, and away without much necessity for comment, though they went, without my having the least no such themes as the Pritchard affair, and the tion who they were."
Spanish marriages, are now nothing more Letters containing this sort of gossip, with than “auld warld stories.” The “Question traits of manners and notes of travel, fill up d'Orient,” which so nearly provoked a war about one-third of the correspondence,--the between England and France in 1840,—and rest is almost exclusively political. The may yet again be the cause of difference,—is Dandies generally were great alarmists, and not of so fleeting a nature. While the subject in political matters looked at every thing en was still in abeyance, the Duke of Wellingnoir. With them something terrible was al- ton wrote :ways going to happen, and above all things' “I understood that as far back as August they deprecated change. One of the gloom- last, a proposition had been made to renew iest of the set was Harcourt King, who finds the negotiations for the settlement of what is fault with the government of Charles the called the Question d'Orient’on a new basis, Tenth for not using more repressive meas- which should be put in terms satisfactory to ures. “The system of non-intervention,” France; and that the king of the French should he says, “has been carried too far, and it be asked to join in them. I never heard of the has been too much the fashion to yield to think that her interests
and views were not suf
result. I can understand that France might popular clamor. Mankind have been gov- ficiently attended to in the first negotiation, erned but by force, and I defy all the exist- and in that subsequently proposed. But Iconing wiseacres to find out any other means. fess that I have never been able to discover
cause for offence in any of these transactions ; respect each other, or even as two individuals. but whether there is cause for offence or not, The armed peace, as it is called, is nonsense." nations may quarrel and go to war upon ques- It is to the credit of Mr. Raikes that he tións solely of interest and claim compensation. But I never heard of a nation claiming
saw through the character of Louis Philippe, compensation from a third party; that is who, he says, slipped into his seat like a to say, that France, claiming compensation thief in the night; who then gave promises from England, Prussia, Austria, and Russia, which he has since constantly eluded; who, should claim it from the Porte."
solely intent upon increasing his own power, When the question was approaching a set- when his people asked for bread, has given tlement the duke said :
them a stone; and who, having himself be
gun by singing the Marseillaise, now orders “I believe I know as much of the Eastern his troops to cut down those who repeat the Question as any one individual not con
chorus. The king," he says, in another cerned in the negotiation of it. There have been many mistakes, and much mismanage- place, desires the preservation of peace as ment, on both sides, in the negotiation. The synonymous with the preservation of his original error between England and France throne. was to suppose that these two nations, both maritime, both commercial, both manufac- Versailles, Fontainebleau, etc.
“ He has incurred immense expenses at
T'he Civil turing, both having capital, both having and still seeking colonial dependencies, could be List is at this moment sixty millions in debt. what is termed intimate allies. The intimacy
Almost all his quarrels with, or separations must always have been the same as that be- from, his ministers, arise from this source. tween the cat and the mouse ; each watching He has compiled above fifty projects of prievery step of the other, each complaining of wate ways and means to fill his coffers. Apevery advantage enjoyed, and most particu- panages for children; exchanges of forest larly of every one taken by the other. The
lands for others belonging to the crown, truth of this Eastern Question is, that both which have a benefit in his favor; inspecnations were interested in the settlement of tions of public works, which give him a surTreaty of July, 1840. I am certain of one wits' end, and hence the daily
reports of his it very much upon the plan stipulated in the plus on the grants, etc. These demands and
expenditures have driven M. Humann to his thing: the Eastern Question never could have been settled till Mehemet Ali should resignation, and a break-up of the Cabinet. be turned out of Syria. But both parties,
He was not a bad guardian of the public that is to say each of the nations, looked to purse. The king said of him,. C'est un vrai the acquirement of some advantage in the he must have a bitter time of it. The royal
Cerbère assis sur la Caisse ;' and, indeed, negotiation and settlement of the question. England has been the successful party. This family and court party are now so confident is the result of which France has to com
of passing the bill, that they no longer think plain ; all the rest is matter of form, of which disguise at all necessary; and your grace the legislature and people of both countries will hardly believe that, the other day, when have a right, an equal right, to complain the son of the late Baron de Talleyrand, a My opinion is, that France and England at young man of ability, who has been appointed peace, respecting each other, and each the attaché to the embassy at Vienna, called on rights of the other, are strong enough to
Madame Adelaide previous to his departure preserve the general peace, and to prevent
to ask her commands, that her royal highthe oppression of the weak of this world by that we are enchanted to have carried the
ness said to him, “You will say at Vienna, the strong. But if it is endeavored to carry Fortifications. We know we have no right further the intercourse between these rivals
, to the post we hold, but are determined to for every thing interesting to the prosperity, maintain it, and have taken such measures the ambition, and the vanity of a nation, they must quarrel, and their quarrel must fate as that of the exiled family.””
as will preclude our undergoing the same deluge the world in blood."
And again, on the subject of the mutual Innumerable were the traps laid by Louis relations of France and England, the duke Philippe for the peers to obtain their votes on thus expresses himself: “We may do each this Fortification Bill. · Amongst other other, and the world, a great deal of injury lures,” says Mr. Raikes, “is that which gained by our quarrels; and thus we shall do bet- the adhesion of General C- Mademoiselle ter to remain on terms. I do not mean as Noblet, his mistress, had long been dismissed if we were lovers; but as two nations which from the theatre, but a royal order, given
for her re-admission and engagement on de main on Madrid, and endeavor to seize the very favorable terms, won the heart as well person of the young queen. This being acas the vote of her gallant protector."
complished, they are to declare her majesty, On the durability of the throne of July” and establish a new government. In the Mr. Raikes made in 1842, the following re- hence, as called by the nation, to aid her
mean time, Christine will be despatched from marks :
daughter with her maternal care and advice. “ This family has gained no hold in the Once arrived there, she is of course pledged country: where they are not positively dis- to promote and bring about her marriage liked, they are looked upon with perfect in- with the Duc d'Aumale. And, when a formal difference. They have not the prestige of proposal to that effect shall arrive from Spain, legitimacy to secure them a few followers of his majesty, Louis Philippe will hold up his divine right, and their mendicant marriages hands in astonishment, and declare that he have proved that they had lost their caste never had any share in the business! The abroad, which has not raised them in public most curious part of the story is, that Chrisestimation. The future prospect of an in- tine is very unwilling to play her part in the fant king and an inefficient regent afford lit- comedy. She has had no objection to lend tle idea of security for a country where party her name; she has advanced certain sums spirit rules in so many forms, and all the as scantily as she could ; but she is extremely great links of society are denaturalized and averse to going back to Spain, and embroildisjointed—a country where there is no aris- ing herself with these contending factions, tocracy to surround the throne, no combina- who would very soon demand an account of tion of talent and patriotism to support it. her previous stewardship, and make her disAdd to this, a treasury exhausted by past gorge a large portion of her ill-gotten wealth profusion, a violent demoralized press, and and plunder. It is known that she brought a dark spirit of egotism which pervades all with her out of that country twelve Madeira classes ; while the nation still writhes under bottles, carefully sealed, and passed as such the mortification which the foreign policy in her baggage, which were filled with every of Louis Philippe has entailed upon France. sort of precious stones taken from the crown The army is numerous and formidable ; but jewels and different palaces belonging to the a great part his force is engrossed by the royal family. Thus do matters stand at occupation of Algiers and the garrison of present; and the Duc d'Aumale has been Paris. This army is now composed not so called away from his little laurels in Algeria much of conscripts as of paid substitutes to wait the tide of events in Paris.” from the lowest classes-hired adventurers, We have left ourselves room for only a who take to the military life as a speculation, word on the Prince de Joinville's pamphlet, and are disappointed at finding how little the motive for the publication of which the chance it affords of promotion or emolument Duke of Wellington ascribes to an inordinate under this pacific system. They have no desire for popularity. What but that, he attachment to any family or government: asks, “could have induced a man in his stathey would readily prefer that which offered tion, a prince of the blood royal, the son of the best chance of reward and advancement the king, of high rank and pretensions in to themselves."
that profession of the service, to write and Mr. Raikes made mention of the proposed publish such a production—an invitation and Spanish marriages some years before their provocation to war, to be carried on in a occurrence, though the intended husband of civilized portions of mankind !” But, says
manner such as has been disclaimed by the the Infanta was not at that time the Duc de the duke in another letter, “I don't think Montpensier, but the Duc d'Aumale. Dur- that much attention has been given to the ing the insurrection in Spain (July, 1843), Prince de Joinville's pamphlet. It is conMr. Raikes tells the following curious story: sidered with ridicule rather than with irrita
“A person who is really well informed on tion." And, in proof of the latter assertion, these matters told me last night that the fol- his grace naïvely adds: “A paper entitled lowing is the plan of proceedings chalked Punch (!) has published a capital article out here, and sent to the Juntas. It cer- upon it in the way of ridicule, which was tainly bears a great feature of probability, published in the Observer of last Sunday. I after what we already know; and I think it will send it to you if I can get it. It appears may be right to submit it to your grace's at- to me that that article expresses the general tention. In the case, then, that Espartero feeling.” As, without doubt, it did; and it should be defeated, and his retreat back to is only to be regretted that the duke did not Madrid intercepted and cut off, it is planned subscribe to " the paper entitled Punch,” inthat the insurgent party should make a coup stead of taking in its wisdom through a filter. From The Saturday Review. ick III. Maximilian, who was never crowned EMPERORS AND EMPIRES. at Rome, devised the new title of Emperor What is an emperor? We hear so much Elect; Charles V. broke the local spell by of emperors and empires now-a-days, that an irregular coronation at Bologna; and his one cannot help asking in what emperors successors, down to Francis II. ventured to and empires differ from kings and king- call themselves emperors by virtue of what doms? At the beginning of the last century, had hitherto been held to be the merely Europe contained a sovereign who was dis- royal consecration at Aachen. So, in the tinguished from all others as “ the emperor.” East, the emperor was he who reigned at He was solemnly called Emperor of the Ro- Constantinople and was crowned in St. mans, and familiarly called Emperor of Ger- Sophia. Emperors, to be sure, reigned at many, but neither addition was needed. Nicæa, Trebizond, Cyprus, and ThessalonThere was but one emperor, and that title ica, but they were still in their own eyes alone distinguished him from everybody else. Roman emperors-pretenders to the throne In the course of the present century, Europe of the New Rome, and anxious to occupy and America have seen emperors of Austria, it on the first opportunity. Nor has this Brazil, Elba, Hayti, of the French, and of last class of emperors ceased even now. It All the Russias. And all of these, except is hard to see on what other ground the imthe last, are creations of the present cen- perial title is borne by the sovereign of All tury. A man need not be very old to re- the Russias. member an elected Roman emperor, bal- Thus, down to the beginning of the last anced by no rival except him of Muscovy. century, emperor had a definite meaning. All the rest-France, Hayti, Austria, etc. The emperor was the prince who, at least by are mere upstarts of yesterday. What do a legal fiction, represented the majesty of the any of them mean by their new-fangled titles? ancient Cæsars. “Imperator " was distinct
“Emperor,” “imperator,” we need not ive title enough. If it must be preceded or say, simply means "commander.” As the followed by any thing, “Romanorum " was Roman State gradually changed from a re- the only possible addition. The Emperor public to a monarchy, “ imperator” was one of All the Russias first broke through this of the titles which the embryo sovereign as- rule. Then came the whole mob of Empersumed as more modest and less offensive ors of the French, Emperors of Hayti, Austhan that of king. Cæsar Augustus was tria, Elba, and the rest of them—to say imperator in his military, Princeps in his nothing of the barbarian potentates to civil character ; but the worst tyrants of the whom it has always been usual to give the old Roman monarchy did not venture to as- imperial title by a sort of analogy. It is sume the hated title of Rex. As the Roman clear that all these potentates are not emState became more definitely monarchic, and perors in the ancient sense. What we want as barbarian kings began to play an impor- to know is, what any one of them means by tant part in its affairs, the title of imperator, calling himself an emperor ? originally that of a republican magistrate, It is perfectly plain that when Louis Nabegan to be looked on as something superior poleon Bonaparte and Francis Joseph of to Rex, and became the peculiar possession Lorraine each calls himself an emperor, they of the Lord of Rome, old or new. As the do not use the word in exactly the same empire became Christian, a sacred character sense. One is the impersonation of novelty began to be thrown over the sovereign, and and revolution. He is a whole democracy the imperial title was confined to princes rolled up into a single body, and capable of consecrated in St. Peter's or in St. Sophia being covered by a single cocked hat. The by the Western or by the Eastern Patriarch. other at least gives himself out as the emDown to the fifteenth century, no man in bodiment of every thing ancient and venerthe West called himself emperor who had able. His Imperial, Royal, Archducal, and not received the papal consecration at Rome. Apostolic Majesty is the very pink of perWithout it he might be King of Germany, fection in the way of legitimacy and divine even King of the Romans, but not "Ro- right. To carry all his crowns with any sort manorum Imperator semper Augustus." of grace, he has need of as many heads as The last duly crowned emperor was Freder- an Indian idol. France, as far as we can
make out, is called an empire because its The British Empire is something which ingovernment is new, revolutionary, grounded, cludes the Kingdom of Great Britain and as we are told, on the popular will. Aus- Ireland, and a vast deal more besides. The tria, as far as we can make out, is called an Imperial Parliament is something distinempire because its government professes to guished both from the existing colonial parbe ancient and legitimate — grounded on liaments and assemblies and from the parrights so venerable that nobody can trace ticular parliaments of England, Scotland, their beginning. France is called an empire and Ireland which existed before the union rather than a kingdom because all local di- of the kingdoms. Again, at the other end visions have been obliterated; because its of Europe, we sometimes, but not often, people are supposed to be more strictly one speak of the sultan as emperor of the Turks, than
any other in Europe ; because its terri- but we always speak of the “ Ottoman Emtory is, in fact, simply a province attached pire,” and, when an adjective is wanted, we to one overweening city. Austria is called always call any thing pertaining to the sulan empire because local differences are tan "imperial,” never “royal.” This may stronger there than anywhere else, because be partly in the vague way in which we freely the mpire is a bundle of various peoples, apply the title to barbaric potentates in Monations, and languages—a collection of king-rocco, China, and elsewhere-partly, because doms, duchies, counties, which its sovereign the Ottoman Empire, like the Austrian, is can only hope to govern either by sheer an assemblage of various and discordant force or else after something of a Federal nations--partly, because the Grand Turk, as fashion. Louis Napoleon is emperor, so he de facto master of the New Rome, comes tells us, because the French people willed to nearer to an emperor in the old sense than make him so. Francis Joseph is emperor, so any other prince in Europe till the Old Rome he tells us, because nobody ever made him, once more welcomes an Italian sovereign. but because bis forefathers came of them- In the East, the Ottoman sultans have alselves. As for the rest, the emperor of Rus- ways been looked on as the successors of the sia, we imagine, calls himself so as being, Byzantine emperors. Even before the fall in some way or other, the representative of of Constantinople, Timour made war upon the old Eastern emperors—perhaps as hav- Bajazet under the strange title of “Cæsar ing at least succeeded to their place as the of Rome;" and, unless they have changed chief potentate in communion with the East- their language very lately, the Persians to ern Church. The empire of Elba existed this day, know the Ottomans of Byzantium for a few months that the First Napoleon by no other name than that of Romans. might not lose his title along with his power. Sultan Abd-al-Aziz is certainly de facto emThe empire of Hayti, we imagine, arose be- peror of the East; and if he could only be cause the empire of France arose ; and it is persuaded to be baptized and crowned in therefore only fair that the empire of France St. Sophia, probably his Orthodox subjects should fall out of sympathy with the empire would accept him as such de jure with more of Hayti. The empire of Brazil is, as far willingness than they would any importation as its title goes, the most puzzling of any; from Bavaria or Saxe-Coburg. but we believe that its present sovereign is Now this title of “emperor” and “emby far the most respectable of the imperial pire” in most cases is a mere title. We class.
know very well what Louis Napoleon BuonaThen, again, we commonly use the adjec- parte is, by whatever name he may choose to tive " imperial” in one or two cases where call himself. The utmost he can do is to we do not use the substantive "emperor.” cause us to make an addition or two to our Our own sovereign is, indeed, happily not Greek Lexicon. The Greek translation of called empress of Great Britain and Ireland, " emperor " in the old sense was Bagchucbut we speak of the British Empire and of in the new sense it is túpavvoc; but the disthe Imperial Parliament. So we often use tinction which Aristotle drew long ago bethe word “imperial” as distinguished from tween Baochtús and rúpavvoç remains just as “ colonial” or “provincial.” This is the true as when he drew it. But the asvery opposite to the French sense of the sumption of the title of “ emperor” by the word, and rather approaches to the Austrian. Archdukes of Austria is a practical eyil. It