« 이전계속 »
a basaltic causeway."
."-At the same meeting Burder of Clifton on the morning of Sunday, an account was given of the recent outburst of June 30, in the constellation of Auriga, from a volcano near Edd, on the African coast of which it receded in the course of two nights the Red Sea; and a notice of that terrible to the muzzle of the Great Bear. It had earthquake at Mendoza, where eighty-five passed the perihelion on the 10th of June at shocks occurred in ten days, and more than the distance of seventy-six million miles from ten thousand persons perished. The effect the sun, and in its recession, on the 28th, it was felt in the Upsallata Pass of the Cordil- had come within thirteen million miles of the leras, for at that elevation travellers met a earth. The nucleus is described as having shower of ashes, and found the way obstruct- had three luminous envelopes. One observer ed by rocks and newly opened chasms. And has announced the probability, that on the at Buenos Ayres, nine hundred and sixty- 30th we were within the luminosity of the nine miles from Mendoza, it was observed comet. At one time, the tail extended over that the pendulums which were swinging seventy-six degrees of the northern sky. A north and south were accelerated, while those French astronomer believes that this is the swinging east and west were not affected. celebrated Comet of Charles V., which ap
The astronomer-royal's Report to the peared in March, 1556, and caused the retireBoard of Visitors shows that astronomy suf- ment of that monarch, and the return of fers as well as corn and fruit in unfavorable which has for the last few years been looked weather. A plan had been formed for a se- for; but Mr. Hind, whose opinion in such a ries of observations of Mars, with a view to matter is entitled to the highest respect, af. the accurate determination of his parallax ; firms it for certain not to be that comet. but “the weather was unusually bad” in It has been ascertained, from many years' 1860, and the observations could not be observation, that the wind makes a number made. However, as the Report testifies, of revolutions all round the compass in the good work in abundance was accomplished ; course of a year, turning usually in the di“the quasi-permanent existence of a belt in- rection of the hands of a watch-that is, from clined to the ordinary belts” was noted on N. to E.S.W., and round to N. ; but last Jupiter ; Saturn presented at times “the year the directions were retrograde, or in the square-shouldered figure which Sir. W. Her- contrary direction-N.W.S.E. and N. Two schel long ago attributed to him ;” time-sig- entire revolutions were made in this direcnals have been, and are sent to many parts tion, and the phenomenon having attracted of England; the post-office clocks are regu- attention, the observations of past years were lated from the clock at Greenwich; the time- examined, and the remarkable fact was asball at Deal has been regularly dropped by certained, that there appears to be a sevensignal from the Observatory; and Mr. Airy yearly cycle in the course of the wind. In constantly bears in mind the desirability of 1853, the wind made rather less than two roexhibiting daily time-signals at Portsmouth tations in the retrograde direction ; in all and Plymouth, and hourly time-signals at the other years, the opposite direction has Start Point. These would manifestly be of prevailed. But taking any period of seven great use in nautical astronomy. The Ord- years, we find it commencing with a small nance Survey, in which the junction between number of revolutions, then increasing to a England and Belgium is to be repeated, has maximum, twenty-one times, twenty-three or been commenced under direction of Sir Henry twenty-four times round the compass, then James, and after that is complete, steps will sinking to a minimum, and rising once more be taken to determine the galvanic latitude in the following period. On this remarkable of Valentia or Lowestoft.
fact Mr. Airy observes, supposing always The astronomical world was gratified on that the septennial cycle be confirmed: "I the last day of June with the sudden appear- should suggest as possible cause, no cycle ance of a comet, generally allowed to be of actions of external bodies, but a periodi. larger than that of 1858, and which, it is be- cal throb of temperature from the interior of lieved, would have made a finer show than the earth. It seems likely that a very small any in the present century but for the twi- change of superficial temperature might suflight lingering in the midnight summer sky. ficiently influence the currents of air to pro"This bright stranger was observed by Mr. Iduce the effect which has been observed.”
W. M. F.
THE INVISIBLE ARMIES.
Almighty God! to thee we raise
To thee our souls rehearse,
Our song of triumph and of praise,
With thy vast universe !
Firm is the centre of thy power, Or wrest it from the foc,
Vast and controlling, every hour, That here, upon this mortal field,
And heaven, and earth, and hell shall be Do all your forces stand revealed :
Moved by thine own infinity! The eternal scenes outstretching time
Of sacred story all,
THE COMET, 1861.
“Terroresque in cælo, et signa magna.”. O’er the rich Orient's domain,
S. Luc. xxi.
Whence art thou ? sudden Comet of the sun ? Who sitteth in the heaven,
In what far depths of God thine orient place ? 'Tis not of earth and time alone
Whence hath thy world of light such radiance That nations thus are riven;
won, Behold! the armies of the skies,
To gleam and curve along the cone of space ?* The embattled legions—see them rise, Arrayed, and officered, and led, By angel chieftains from the dead !
Why comest thou ? weird wanderer of the air ! The solemn vision deepening, lo!
What is thine oracle for shuddering eyes? What mighty numbers swell,
Wilt thou some myth of crownless kings declare, Rising from their dark pits of woe,
Scathed by thy fatal banner of the skies? The serried ranks of hell ! Great God! it is the conflict dire
III. Which raged of old on plains of fire ! Or dost thou glide, a seething orb of doom, Jesus, the mighty Victor, knew,
Bristling with penal fires, and thick with souls, Both worlds were open to his view. The severed ghosts, that throng thy peopled And when again, on Canaan's land,
womb, The rebel armies stood,
Whom Azrael, warder of the dead, controls ? Behold! the angel in commandHow soldierly his word !
IV. “I'm captain of the hosts”—he said,
Throne of some lost archangel ! dost thou glare With sword drawn in his hand, -and led, After long battle, on that conquering height? Unseen by Joshua before,
Vaunt, of a victory, that is still, despair, To victory all the tribes of war !
A trophied horror on the arch of night? And so when Syria's guilty king
'Gainst Israel led the foe, And evil omens 'gan to spring
But lo! another dream : thou starry god! From out that threatening woe,
Art thou the mystic seedsman of the sky ? “Fear not,” said Israel's prophet bold, To shed new worlds along thy radiant road Our numbers cannot now be told,
That flow in floods of billowy air on high. And lo! the mount of vision came, With hosts and chariots of flame ! And shall not fair Columbia too
Roll on! yet not almighty : in thy wrath Land of the brave and free,
Thou bendest like a vassal to his king: Her ancient heroes wake anew,
Thou darest not o'erstep thy graven path, To life-to liberty ?
Nor yet one wanton smile of brightness fling. Ho ! all ye martyred sons of flame, Statesmen and warriors of fame, Filled be the air afresh with fire Which your immortal minds inspire.
Slave of a mighty master! be thy brow
A parable of night, in radiance poured : And when, in conflict with the foe, Amid thy haughtiest courses what art thou ? The nations reel and rock,
A lamp, to lead some pathway of the Lord ! Trembling as if beneath the blow
-Notes and Queries. Of some tremendous shock, Remember, 'tis the Lord that fights;
* The Cone of Space.-Space is that measured He rules the deeps, he crowns the heights, part of God's presence, which is occupied by the Sends the " destroying angel ” forth, planets and the sun. The boundary of space is Or heaven's strong legions bids to earth. the outline of a cone.
From The Examiner.
Lemberg, with forty-six years to her twentyThe last Travels of Ida Pfeiffer ; inclusive two, and apparently rich. Loth to fulfil her
of a Visit to Madagascar. With a Bio- pledge, she told him of her love for the graphical Memoir of the Author. Trans- tutor, hoping thus to disgust him. He, lated by H. W. Dulcken, Ph.D. Rout- however, said that he liked her all the betledge and Co.
ter for having such an affectionate disposiMORE interesting than the main part of tion. In a few weeks they were married. this book is the short memoir with which it In a few weeks more the doctor, being deopens. From babyhood to death, Madame prived of his employment through no fault Ida Pfeiffer's career was an odd one. of his, lost all his own and all his wife's
She was born at Vienna in 1797,—the sin- money. Ten years of extreme poverty folgle girl among five brothers. In boyish lowed. Madame Pfeiffer had to give drawways she was therefore at home: indeed, in ing and music lessons that her children' later life, she boasted that she was bolder might get even dry bread, and she now and, and more forward than her elder brothers. then begged some small help from her! She dressed always in their clothes, scorned brothers. Then her mother died, and bedolls and needlework, and delighted in drums queathed her a little more money. Loving and swords and all out-of-door pranks. Her her children more than her husband, she left father-on other points a stern discipli- him to live at Lemberg, and betook herself narian-approved of these ungirlish tastes, to Vienna, where good schooling was much and promised in jest, which was earnest to cheaper than elsewhere. her, that she should be sent to a military So time rolled on. Once the mother went school, and should be brought up as an offi- to Trieste, and saw the sea for the first time. cer. But he died when she was nine, and It roused in her her old longings after a her mother tried to put her into petticoats. traveller's life; and in due course, the boys Since the attempt made the child ill out of being started in life, and she a voluntary sheer anger, the doctor who was called in widow of forty-five, the longing was still to prescribed a pair of trousers as the only be satisfied. With strict economy she reckremedy. Four years later she had sense oned that her little income would supply her enough to consent to change her clothes, needs, and in 1842 she started secretly, and although, as she averred, at the cost of many quite alone, on a visit to Palestine. The tears and much unhappiness : “How awk- journey furnished matter for a book; the ward and clumsy I was at first ! how ridicu- book brought her money, and the money was lous I must have looked in my long skirts, enough to take her, in 1845, to Iceland and jumping and racing about, and behaving back. It was an odd craze for an elderly generally like a wild, restless boy!" lady to leave an aged husband and a couple
But next year a T-came to be tutor in of youthful sons, and wander about the world the family, and Ida straightway fell in love with no other object than the gratification of with him. For his sake she grew coy, and mere passion for travel. But this was Malearned sewing and cookery. When she dame Pfeiffer's mania, and it grew stronger was seventeen, the appearance of a wealthy with her years. In 1846 she began a thirty suitor drove — to a proposal of mar- months' tour round the world, visiting many riage, which she very gladly accepted. Not strange regions, some of them never before so the mother, who desired her daughter to trodden by white men, and certainly never be wedded to some husband with a fortune by lone European woman. The first of this at any rate equal to her own. The poor was her “ Woman's Journey round the tutor was accordingly banished, but Ida re- World.” A second journey, taken on a diffused to accept any one of the lovers, who ferent route, occupied the time from 1851 were, it would seem, as many and as diverse to 1854 ; and this also was duly chronicled as bewildered Portia herself. Each rejec- in a well-known book. The last expedition tion being followed by a severe motherly was that of which record is to be found in scolding, at last the girl's spirit was broken. the book before us. She promised that she would marry the next Of this little need be said. It comprises elderly suitor who offered himself. The for- an account of the authoress' experience of tunate man was Dr. Pfeiffer, a lawyer of English, Fru..ch, and Dutch life, and a more
full and stirring narrative of her journey to cruel Queen Ranavola. At first the white Madagascar. It is like her other books, full Christians were doomed to die for giving aid of gossip which is always entertaining, gen- to the black converts. As an act of clemerally instructive. With a woman's aptness ency, this sentence was remitted, and they to write down all the strong expressions of were banished the island. Such studied like or dislike which each scene or circum- hardship, however, was enforced by the esstance aroused in turn, her statements are cort which took them to the shore, that Maoften overcolored, but the intention is always dame Pfeiffer was seized with a fever which honest and simple-minded.
never entirely left her. After a long illness The visit to Madagascar was very disas- at the Mauritius, she planned a voyage to trous. Unfortunately, instead of travelling Australia ; but the fever returned, and she alone, she went in company with a Mr. Lam- was driven, in all haste, to find her way
back bert, who meddled in the politics of the isl- to Germany and die. She died three years and, and thereby incurred the wrath of the lago, her age then being sixty-one.
ATKINSON, THE TRAVELLER.-A noticeable | duced on Siberia and on the Amoor, have made man has passed away in our Siberian illustrator the whole world familiar with his name, and with and explorer, Thomas W. Atkinson. His death his extraordinary assemblage of qualities and took place at Lower Walmer, Kent, on Tuesday, accomplishments. These books were not only last week. For about a year, the great traveller great books, but great deeds. Like Livingsbad beer. ailing ; never having quite recovered tone's “ Travels," the “ Amoor” is not so from the waste of his long and arduous journeys much a successful piece of writing as a series of in the wild country of the Amoor; but no im- accomplished facts, and it represents, with the mediate danger had been feared by his physi.usual amount of midnight oil, preliminary years cian. Little or no suffering had accompanied of hard riding, scant fare, nervous watching, his decline, and his most intimate friends had desert fever, hunger, thirst, and cold,—the priscarcely dreamt that his life was in peril. Hevation of a tent, and the fag of a savage life. tried the country air; he rode; he walked ; hic Out of that miscry and adventure has come to handled his familiar gun. In the early summer us a most precious treasury of knowledge. By he had a fall which shook and injured him. pen and pencil Atkinson opened to Western But he bore up well, and wentdown to Walmer, Europe, and even to the Russians of St. Petersas every one goes down in August to the sea. burg and Moscow, the vast regions of the At length he passed away as into a tranquil Amoor. Before his day, those regions were a slecp. Atkinson was born in Yorkshire, on the mystery and a blank; they are now as well 6th of March, 1799, and he was consequently in known to us as the country of the Orange River, his sixty-second year when he died. He was in and better than the shores of Carpentaria. If it the truest and best sense a self-made man. Left be a noble thing to add to the stock of human an orphan when a child, he began life for him- knowledge, Atkinson had gained a high degree self at the early age of cight; from which time of glory.-Athenæum, 24 Aug. he gained his own living, while training himself into a good scholar and a well-mannered gentleman. Those who met him in his later years in the drawing-room or the country-house, were struck by the undefinable grace and bearing The following note on the character of Bp.
CHARACTER OF BISHOP JEREMY TAYLOR. which are sometimes thought to be the monop. Taylor is written in an old copy of the Holy oly of ancient race. He educated himself as an architect, and a church built by him in Man Living, in handwriting of a date at about the chester testified to his skill as a builder ; but liis end of the seventeenth century :
“ The author of this excellent book had the instrument was the pencil, and liis vocation that of a traveller. Owing to an accidental remark goodl-humor of a gentleman, the eloquence of an of Alexander Humboldt, he turned his eyes to orator, the fancy of a poet, the acuteness of a the picturesque land of Oriental Russia. His the wisdom of a counsellor, the sagacity of a
schoolman, the profoundness of a philosopher, pictures, which have been much exhibited at evening parties, and have been reduced for his prophct, the reason of an angel, and the piety of books, are exceedingly clever, and he wrote with a saint.”—Notes and Queries. as much power and freshness as he drew. In person, he was the type of an artistic traveller, ilin, lithic, and sinewy, with a wrist liko rock, and an cyc like a poet's; manner singularly Tennyson is expected to write the poem for gentle, and an air which mingled entreaty with the opening of the great World's Fair at Lon. command. The two great works which lic pro- don, during the coming year.
From The Saturday Reriew. they take no exercise except a little swimGERMAN AMUSEMENTS.
ming. However that may be, the fact reTRAVELLER after traveller has described mains. The Germans can go on with their how easily the Germans amuse themselyes, amusements, and find a continual relish in and has painted, with contempt or admira- them. No wonder that this provokes the tion, the happy air of the leisurely groups investigation of foreigners. Surely, a people that pass the long hours of a summer day that can get so much amusement must be in beer-gardens or dancing-halls. If the happy, and have much to teach the rest of amusements of the Germans are amuse- the world in the art of living. That the ments at all, it must be confessed that they Germans are very happy is not impossible. are good of their kind. With the exception They really, we are inclined to think, have a of their execrable cigars, they have every large share of placid content, and strike a thing they want of a very excellent sort. happy balance between a morbid appetite for When they listen to music, they listen to the excitement and complete stagnation. But best bands science and art can turn out, when we begin to fancy they may read a leswhen they dance, they generally secure large son to their neighbors, we must look a little rooms and a slippery floor-when they go further into the matter; and we shall then to the theatre, they see good acting. They find that the German mind is divided on sit in well-ordered and often magnificent the head of amusements from the French houses, and rest their limbs on seats that and English by a chasm which cannot be are as comfortable as they are cheap. Many bridged over. of these amusements are intensely slow to At first we do not understand what is English people. Let any one try, and hon- meant by people having no wish for exciteestly state his feelings after he has passed ment. We see the bad side of excitement, the third hour of the third evening at a beer- and know all the sin and misery to which it garden, and he will acknowledge that he leads. When we hear of amusement withfeels a peculiar and utter sensation of weari- out excitement, we think that this would be ness which is unknown except on the Conti- the very thing for us.
We feel like a person nent. But no one can doubt that the Ger- who, after a season of venison and turtle, mans are thoroughly happy. This is shown craves for plain food and mountain fare. By not only by their air of gentle content, but plain food, however, he means good meat by the extraordinary importance which they and bread, and good cooking. If he comes attach in common conversation to what we to real mountain fare—to sour black bread should think the most insignificant occur- and curdled milk-he cannot touch it. · It
Such an event as a brewery giving is not that he wishes to be dainty, but the its grand yearly festival, or new cellars be- difference between such fare and that which ing inaugurated by a treat to the workmen, he has been accustomed to is overpowering is discussed with the strangest outpourings So it is with amusements. We can fancy of triumph, pleasure, and pride. Long prac- simple amusements; we do not wish for any tice, too, or hereditary taste enables the Ger- thing feverish, or fast, or exaggerated; we mans to take more of these pleasures than are willing to content ourselves with innoEnglish people can do. We speak of a Ger- cent and unpretending pleasures. But the man spending seven or eight hours a day in German extreme—the utter absence of exsmoking and drinking as a curious trait of citement which that happy nation can endure character, as an odd national custom, as a -is beyond us. Perhaps theatricals furnish habit of an animal different to ourselves; the best example. The pieces that will go but why on earth does net all this beer and down in Germany are inconceivable. How smoking make Germans bilious ? A Ger- any human beings should think it pleasanter man considers that, on busy days, he must to behold them than to be in bed, surpasses limit himself to about twelve or fourteen our comprehension. We are not speaking cigars, while on holidays he takes from of obscure theatres, or small towns, or untwenty to twenty-five. Brewers alone could successful pieces. At Munich, where there calculate how much beer would be in pro- is one of the largest and best theatres in portion. We should like to know why this Germany, a piece has lately been played, does not make Germans ill, particularly as called Die Grille. It has been much ad