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From The Saturday Review. circumstances we cannot alter, that are not
of our own making, that have nothing in
them which we ought, in strict reason, to be MR. DICKENS' story of Great Expecta- ashamed—have visited most of us. They tions illustrates a certain temper of mind belong to civilization as opposed to the more which is perhaps a characteristic of our age. primitive forms of society—to a state of exPip, from the time of his introduction to istence where different interests clash, where Estella, is the victim of false shame. Her social and domestic ties may, and do, intercontempt for the manners of the common fere with one another. Young people, on boy forced on her companionship curdled their first admission to this outer world, are the milk of human kindness in him. Natu- especially afflicted by false shame; so that rally affectionate, from that moment a shad- it may be regarded as one of the moral disow comes between him and his friend and eases of the mind's infancy. It is at the protector to whom he owed every thing, but bottom of a great deal of their shyness. who had taught him to call the knave They cannot feel at ease, because they mis“ Jack.” What Estella is likely to think trust something about themselves or their interferes with what he ought to think ; and belongings, and have that feeling of barrengratitude slowly, but inevitably, yields be- ness and exposure in the presence of unfafore the new influence. The picture is, on miliar eyes which attaches to sensitiveness the whole, a true one. So far as we can under untried circumstances. Every thing realize Pip's situation at all, we can under- then assumes a magnified, exaggerated charstand his temptations, and acknowledge that acter-the place they occupy on the one his was the very character, or no-character, hand, and the importance of the occasion on to fall under them. But, indeed, false the other. The present company is the shame has not always so much to say for world, the universe, a convention of men and itself as in this instance. Pip is taken from gods, all forming a deliberate and irreversithe forge and made a gentleman, a member ble judgment upon them, and deciding to of what is technically called society—so at their disadvantage on account of some oddleast Mr. Dickens intends us to understand ness, or awkwardness, or passing slip in it. Now, undoubtedly people do owe some- themselves or in the accessories about them. thing to the class for which they have been But, in most persons, time and experience trained and to which they belong; and if bring so much humility as teaches them Pip is a gentleman, the honestest, truest- their insignificance. It is not, we soon hearted blacksmith in the world, especially learn, very likely that at any given time a if addicted to Joe Gargery's system of ex- mixed assemblage is thinking very much pression, must be an awkward appendage. about us; and then the horror of a conspicIt is more asy to be shocked at Pip's in- uous position loses its main sting. This on gratitude than to know precisely what he the one hand—on the other, we are not as ought to have done with his brother-in-law. dependent on the award of society as we However, we see he is intended to represent were. Even a roomful comprises, to our one of the vices of society, and we recognize enlarged imagination, by no means the his fitness for the part in a general want of whole creation. There is something worth force and stamina, and a predominance of caring for outside those walls. And also we the imagination over the judgment. have come to form a sort of estimate of our
Though we call it hard names, it would selves. There is now a third party in the still be almost a discourtesy to assume our question, in the shape of self-respect. We readers to be ignorant of the sensation of realize that we are to ourselves of immeasfalse shame—by which we mean shame the urably more consequence than any one else fruit of vanity and imagination ; for never can be to us. Thus, either by reason or by to have known it is, in our imperfect state, the natural hardening and strengthening to be without the kindred quality of which process of the outer air, most people overit is the abuse-sensitivenessa want which come any conspicuous display of the weakwould argue bluntness of feeling and dul- ness. By the time youth is over, they have ness of perception. Occasional fits of false either accepted their position or set about shame of being unreasonably perturbed at in a business-like way to mend it.
But there are some people who never get no limit to such a dependence; it bows beover this disorder of the faculties—who are fore every standard, irrespective of all caalways its victims, who live in an habitual pacity or right to judge. Whoever can use state of subservience, who defer perpetually the weapon of contempt is formidable. Such to some opinion or supposed opinion which a man is a prey to the insolence of footmen ; they respect more than their own, and un- he trembles before the tribunal of the ser. der which they crouch, whether it be that of vants' hall, and dreads the criticism of his an individual, a clique, or the world. The butler, whose definition of a gentleman-of sanction of their own judgment is no guar- what is expected of a gentleman, of what a antee; it is powerless unsupported by socie- gentleman ought and ought not to do-he ty's good word. If a man after twenty, or practically accepts in preference to his own. at latest twenty-five, will harp in all compa- All this is essentially demoralizing. In fact, nies on his red hair, or be perpetually re- no benefits can secure a man of this sort, no minding people that he is little, or embar- ties can bind him under a particular form of rass them by allusions to his plebeian birth, trial; and this not at all from baseness of or be making absurd apologies for his rela- nature, but because he wants a man's gentions, or depreciate the dinner he has set erous self-reliance—that quality which the before his guests, we have not much hope of weak and the dependent learn to trust, and him. He fails in the quality which defies which gives to manliness a value for which and puts to flight false shame. He may be no intellectual excellence whatever is an wise, he may be witty, he may have the equivalent. All people are, of course, in a clearest head, the most fluent tongue, the considerable measure, guided in their ways readiest pen ; but he wants manliness. The of thinking by general consent—as, being fears, flusters, and perturbations of false members of a community, they must be ; shame are a sign of some inherent discrep- but there is, beyond this, a slavery in which ancy between his intellect and his moral na- its victim stands as it were unrepresented in ture which will always keep him immature. the world's parliament. Few errors bring Undue compliance with either the social or less reward with them. Nobody likes a domestic instinct produces the same effect. coward ; and a careless indifference, or even Whether a man sacrifices himself by a su- defiance, of popular usage is often taken for perstitious worship of public opinion or of a sign of superiority. Human nature is not private affection, the result is the same. He so hard and cynical as the theory of false may stultify himself as effectually by an ex- shame assumes it to be. And the world is cessive devotion to his mother and sisters as much more good-natured than men of this by a like devotion to Mrs. Grundy; but our temper give it credit for. It can discrimiconcern is with the latter devotee, who lives nate, and sympathize, and tolerate excepin fear of being singular, who suspects all tions from its ordinary standard. As no closely allied to him of some misfit or incon- phantoms are so monstrous as the fears of a gruity. He is pretty certain to accomplish mind which abandons itself to the apprehis own forebodings ; for such men are sure hensions of false shame, so no predicament to do odd things, as people must who think or dilemma of actual existence has the pangs constantly whether every thing they do is and stings which a busy fancy conjures up according to rule, not what is convenient to in anticipation—just as most disagreeable do. All our natural actions are done with things are not, when the time comes, as disout thought, and we can make breathing a agreeable as we expected. difficulty by thinking about it.
There is a hardened class of self-seekers A person under this thraldom, whatever who override all considerations to attain his disposition, will never be of the use he their end, to gratify a low ambition, and get might be to his friends, while he presents an on in the world—people whom Mr. Dickens easy mark to his enemies. No one is safe again portrays in his Mr. Bounderby-with from being thrown over by a friend who whom the genuine victim of false shame makes the world his bugbear ; for, whatever must not be confounded. His conscience the justice of his own perceptions, the opin- does not sleep, but his fancy predominates. ion which he dreads, and which influences He owes his uneasiness to his susceptible him, is an inferior one. There is actually I nature-to the rapidity of his flights, quick
to conjure up scenes, and prolific of imagi- 1 of fiction contemporary with and succeeding
A REMARKABLE circumstance has tended to so enormous that the light appears at times to interfere considerably with the brilliancy and be almost extinguished by burning insects; and steadiness of the magneto-electric light, with every morning the bodies of these unfortunates which some of the squares of Paris are now suicides are found heaped up by tens of thouilluminated. The attraction which any bright sands at the bottom of the laniern. For this light at night exercises upon insects is notorious, reason it has been found necessary to encase the and every evening—especially after a very warm lamp in glass, instead of having the carbon poles day-clouds of insecis collect around the in-exposed to the air. This is, however, attended tensely brilliant points of light, each being irre- with considerable loss of light, as even the most sistibly drawn toivards the bright poles of ignited transparent glass has been found to obstruct carbon, where they are of course instantly broil. upwards of ten per cent of the incident rays.ed to death. The numbers that crowd to it are London Review.
TO JOHN C. FREMONT.
A plain man's part, without the statesman's tact,
To strike at cause, as well as consequence.
Irrevocable, the mighty words, Be Free,
The land shakes with them, and the slave's dull
Turns from the rice-field stealthily to hear. Upon that day of glory;
Who would recall them now must first arrest Upcurled from musket and from gun
The winds that blow down from the free NorthThe war-cloud gray and hoary.
Ruffling the Gulf; or, like a scroll, roll back
The Mississippi to his upper springs.
Such words fulfil their prophecy, and lack
But the full time to harden into things.
J. G. W.
The strength of their despairing.
THE ARMY OF THE KNITTERS.
Far away in your camps by the storied Poto
mac, Their leader's troubled soul looked forth
Where your lances are lifted for Liberty's From eyes of troubled brightness ;
weal, Sad soul! the burden of the North
As the north wind comes down from the hills of Had pressed out all its lightness.
Say, catch ye the clash of our echoing steel?
Our hands are untrained to the touch of the rifle,
They shrink from the blade that grows red in
But their womanly weapons leap keen from “Lead us, and we will stop, or die,
their sheathing, That battery's awful singing."
And the work that they find they will do with He spurred to where his heroes stood,
their might. Twice wounded—no wound knowing
Your host that stands marshalled in solemn batThe fire of battle in his blood
talions, And on his forehead glowing.
Beneath the dear flag of the stripes and the Oh, cursed for aye that traitor's hand,
stars, And cursed that aim so deadly,
Hath as loyal a counterpart here at our hearthWhich smote the bravest of the land,
As ever went forth to the brunt of the wars !
Uplift in your strength the bright swords of
your fathers ! Upon its mother's pillow.
Repeat for yourselves the brave work they
have done! So Lyon died ! and well may flowers We've the side-arms our mothers wore proudly His place of burial cover,
And the heart of the field and fireside is one !
We rouse to the rescue! We've mustered in
thousands ! Life, fortune, love-he naught denied
We may not march on in the face of the foe; To her and to her sighing.
Yet, while ye shall tramp to the sound of the
Foot to foot we'll keep pace wheresoever ye go !
By link upon link, in one purpose we're
bound! And on fame's glowing portal,
God mete us the meed of our common endeavor, She'll write thy grand, heroic rage,
And our differing deeds with one blessing be And grave ihy name immortal!
crowned! -Saturday Post, Philadelphia.
THE SOUTHERN WAGON.
A SECESSION SONG.
Our cause is just and holy, our men are brave
and true, Some idea of the spirit of the rebels and their To whip the Lincoln cut-throats, is all we have dorotion to King Cotton may be gleaned from
to do. the following secession song, which was obtained God bless our noble army, in him we all confide, by the Cheat Mountain correspondent of the Sojump into the wagon and we'll all take a ride. Cincinnati Commercial, who says :
CHORUS—Wait for the wagon, etc. " During the recent skirmishing in the rear of Col. Ammon's quarters, an Indianian, named George Mayhue, a private in Company K, Twenty-fourth Ohio, was captured by a party of rebels. He was soon rescued, however, by his comrades, and two of his captors killed. On
WOOED. the person of one, named Madison B. Pugh, a private in Capt. A. H. Jackson's company, Lewis County, Virginia, volunteers, was found In leafy girths, the garden-walls the following patriotic effusion, which we give Around the limes and plats were drawnverbatim :'
Round many a myrtled interspace,
And crisping breadth of summer lawn.
High on the wild-sculpt Tuscan urn, COME all ye sons of freedom, and join our The peacock drowsed ; and far below Southern band,
Ranged many a terrace statue-dusked, We're going to fight the enemy, and drive them And fringed with balustrades of snow. from our land;
“I love,” I said ; she silent turned Justice is our motto, and Providence our guide, Her thoughtful face afront the south, So jump into the wagon and we'll all take a While twenty shadows, passion-winged, ride.
Ran round the curvings of her mouth. Chorus—Wait for the wagon, the dissolution wagon,
I stole one hand across the seat, The South is our wagon, and we'll all take a And touched her dainty, shining arm, ride.
Leant to her neck, and whispered through Secession is our watchword, our rights we all The hot wind stirred the pleached grapes,
The tress that hid her small car's charm. demand,
And sifted half the fountain's froth; And to defend our firesides we pledge our heart “ And if I love, or dream I love, and hand;
Sweet cousin mino, need'st thou be wroth ?" Jeff Davis is our President, with Stephens by One moment trifling with her fan, his side,
She pressed the margin to her brows; Brave Beauregard, our general, will join us in “Love," she replied, “and peace and rest
the ride. CHORUS— Wait for the wagon, etc.
Dwell in your heart, and hearth, and house." Our wagon's plenty big enough, the running “Wouldst see the picture I adore ?" gear is good,
Through pensive lips she answered “Yes ;” 'Tis stuffed with cotton round the sides, and made Then, slowly breathing, turned to me of southern wood,
Her sweet face white with pain's excess. Carolina is the driver, with Georgia by her side, I drew the mirror from my breast, Virginia'll hold our flag up, and we'll all take a
And placed it in her passive hand; ride.
“Look, cousin, look at her I love, CHORUS— Wait for the wagon, etc.
The brightest blossom in the land.”
A faint blush bloomed aslant her brows, There's Tennessee and Texas are also in the
Her low voice trembled through and through, ring,
She drooped her head, “Ah, cousin mine, They wouldn't stay in a Government where cotton
God help her, for she loves you too." wasn't King, Alabama, too, and Florida have long ago applied,
Then rising up, close-linked we paced Mississippi’s in the wagon, anxious for the ride. Where the dun almonds dusked the swarth; CHORUS—Wait for the wagon, etc.
Nor heard the bells of Time, until
The great stars wheeled across the northMissouri, North Carolina, and Arkansas are Till half the palms lapsed black in shade, slow,
And half the poplar tops grew pale They must hurry or we'll leave them, and then And woke, amid the passion-flowers, where would they go ;
The mellow-throated nightingale. There's old Kentucky and Maryland, each wont Rich peace was ours ; from bird and plant, make up their mind,
To the faint splendor in the blue, So I reckon after all we'll have to take them up I fancy myriad voices sighed : behind.
God bless her, for she loves you too." Chorus—Wait for the wagon, etc.
- Chambers' Journal.