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bons had fallen, and Napoleon risen pro- thunder into the arena ; but the countenance portionately; so that the Cabinet, in resolv- of Napoleon is sad : he has no wife on his ing on a war policy, had to announce with right hand ; on his left hand he has no son. caution, and almost with an apology. There Both are away from him. Laying aside his can be no question, however, but that the imperial splendor, he distributes standards preponderating sentiment, in and out of to the legions which are to "fetch his wife Parliament, was in favor of the war. The and son." narrative is diffinse in the explanation it He is impatient to be in the field, to spring affords of the exact views with which the from his throne into his saddle. People most prominent statesmen in France re- around him think he is melancholy; he garded the resumption by Napoleon of the never smiles; perhaps he has had a vision Imperial authority, and of the feelings which of Waterloo ; possibly, he remembers what animated the various classes of the popula- they had been saying at Vienna about an tion. There was, we think, more excitement island in the Atlantic. And in this mood, than confidence in the sudden show of zeal after sundry strange night vigils, he went to on the part of the populace. The revised Malmaison, where Josephine had died in the Constitution was coldly received in all quar- spring of the last year; he stayed several ters of the realm. Because, says M. Thiers, hours, walking through the château and the France could no more believe a Napoleon gardens full of Josephine's flowers. “Poor when he talked of liberty than Europe could Josephine!” he said to Hortense at every when he talked of peace. The Royalists turn of the walk ; " I think I see her!” So were, of course, hostile ; the Revolutionists he ordered a portrait of Josephine ; kissed suspected the champion who had put his Hortense ; said to Madame Bertrand as he fect on their necks. And now, on the first entered the carriage, “ Let us hope, Madame of June, Napoleon meets the citizens of Bertrand, that we may not soon have to reParis. Shall he appear as emperor or gen- gret the Isle of Elba,”and went to Watereral? He wishes to appear as he would loo. A week later he did, most probably, when taking the oath. He stands forth, regret Elba, and much else. then, in robes of silk, in plume and imperial M. Thiers has two superb opportunimantle, in the coronation coach drawn by ties left; the battle in Brabant, and St. eight horses ; fifty thousand soldiers greet Helena. We doubt not but that he has him; a gorgeous amphitheatre receives the nearly completed the picture, radiant with cmperor, the army and the multitude; the the life of an unrivalled epoch. altar fronts the throne ; a hundred cannon
Wine Corks.-All wines which have been | The mould grows from the outside to the inside, long in bottle acquire a flavor which we ascribe and should it reach the inner side of the cask or to the cork. This is as great a mistake as if we cork it imparts a taste to the wine. On this ac. attributed the flavor of wine which has been count old wine-casks must from time to time be long cellared to the cask. The cause, in both must be put into the bottles, even when the old
cleansed outside and inside, and new corks cases, is fundamentally the same, though the ones are unliart. If the inside of the cork be accessory circumstances inay differ. The moist covered with resin or sealing-wax, the entrance cork, one side of which is in contact with the of air is cut off, and the formation of monld air, allows, cqually with the wood of the wine- hindered, though not prevented. Wines which cask, the development of mould plants. The have been long in bottle often acquire an un. taste and smell of wine is, under such circum- pleasant taste from this mouldiness; they are stances, identical with that of many other mouldy brought ont to do honor to a guest, and praise substances, and is what we call musty. The is expected which cannot honestly be given. It mould of cork differs of course from that of really seems strange that in this age, when so wood, and the taste is consequently not exactly many other means can be employed, cork should the same. The smell may be distinctly per- still be made use of to stop bottles.-Mulder's ceived in almost every warehouse in the country. Chemistry of Wine.
From Macmillan's Magazine. waited as long as there was hope of an ami. AMERICAN AFFAIRS.
cable arrangement; when that hope came Cromer, August 12, 1861. to nothing, at the word of the President the DEAR MR. EDITOR,— Your contributors whole North rose as one man. That rising are probably just now scattered, or scatter- was as grand, as noble a national act, as ing, over the whole of Europe, if not farther. any which we have seen, or are likely to see, Having myself been away from town since in our generation. It wrung an approval the 3d, I don't know much of what may even from that portion of the press and peohave been the talk there about the Ameri- ple of this country who were most exaspercan war, and the defeat of the Northern ated at the unlucky Morrill tariff, and at the army at Manassas Junction. You may have menacing attitude which the President's govfixed on some one to write on the subject, ernment chose to assume toward us. and in that case you can consign this letter Have they flinched from their work ? We to the waste-paper basket; but, if there is hear, indeed, of a regiment or two of volunno one told off for this duty, I hope you will teers enlisted for three months, who are let me volunteer, for I do think that the tone going home; but the nation has not shown of all our leading journals (so far as I have the slightest symptoms of turning back. On been able to see them in this delightfully the contrary, the President, Congress, and quiet little fishing village), has, with the sin- the nation, though they may show their resogle exception of the Spectator, been ungen- lution in ways which do not please userous and unfair, and has not represented which would not be ours, perhaps, under the better mind of England. At the same like circumstances—do show the most untime, under present circumstances, it is bet- flinching resolution to go through with what ter, perhaps, to put what I have to say in they have begun. When this is so no the form of a letter, for which I alone am re- lcnger, it will be time enough to sneer at sponsible.
them. In the first place, then, this defeat, this Then, as to the battle itself, and the panic at Manassas Junction, had it been ten panic; what is the fair view of it? By the times as disastrous as it has been, has not time this letter is printed, we may, perhaps, altered in the least, and cannot alter, the have full details ; at present one has nothing rights and wrongs of the great question at beyond the barest possible despatches, and issue. A truism this, no doubt; but for all a set of one-sided accounts, written under that, when one sees the way in which mere strong excitement, to go upon. From these, success is worshipped here, and the sudden however, we find that there was a deterspring which the South has made into popu- mined struggle of many hours before the larity in newspaper columns since the last Northern troops were beaten. Jefferson Damails, a truism which needs repeating! If vis' despatch begins, “ Manassas Junction, the North were right before, they are right Sunday night. Night has closed upon a now, though defeated. If the Confederates hard-fought field; our forces are victorious," were rebels before, they are rebels still, etc. There is no evidence whatever as yet though triumphant for the moment. that the troops which were in action did not
If the United States were to remain a na- behave gallantly, but much the other way. tion at all, they had not only the right, but Some regiments are reported as "cut to were bound by every feeling of national pieces.” I think that these are most likely honor to strain every nerve to bring the Se- New England or New York Regiments, comcessionists to reason. How did they set posed chiefly of Americans, and well organabout the work? They were utterly unpre-ized-men who knew what they were fightpared, without troops, without officers, with ing for, and how to fight. All accounts agree out military stores. Their troops had been in the statement that the troops which took carefully scattered in small detachments the lead in the panic were a rabble of all naover the Western and Southern States; the tions, Americans, Irish, Germans and othofficers were almost all Southerners, who re-ers, who had been hastily thrown together, signed their commissions and joined the and half drilled. They will fight well enough rebels; the stores had been accumulated in yet, when they have been made into reguthe Southern forts and arsenals. They lars; but volunteers, to fight well, must be
borne up by enthusiasm for a cause, which even fighting to keep “the territories” free here was wholly wanting. And, as to the -if, as we are often told in newspaper artipanic, we may just as well remember, what cles, slavery has nothing to say to the war has been so well put in the Spectator, that at all I must repeat that they are emphatthese troops, “ in their maddest excitement, ically right. did nothing which was not done by the But does anybody seriously believe this? Frenchmen who, within five days, drove the Will any serious person get up and say, in first infantry in Europe back from the hill his own name, or write in his own name, that of Valmy."
the meaning of the whole war--the point The advance premature, badly really at issue, from first to last-has not planned, and not well executed. This is been, and is not (to put it at the lowest), surely natural enough at the beginning of whether slavery shall be confined to its such a war. It seems that the Northern present limits in North America, or allowed press are largely responsible for the move- to extend as and where it can? That was the ment. And here, again, there are good issue; and perhaps it is so still. But those grounds for any thing but contempt and hard who entered on the war with this as the goal words. On the news of the defeat, all the of their hopes and efforts, who would gladly best of the Northern papers have acknowl- have accepted the limitation of slavery to its edged their error, and formally undertaken present limits a few months or weeks ago, to abstain from military criticism. Our own will, unless they are very different men from papers are so little in the habit of acknowl- what I believe them to be unless the teachedging themselves in the wrong, or of ab- ing of all history is vain—not be content staining from criticism, however ill-judged, now with this compromise. The great cause on any matter under the sun, that I confess of freedom will draw them, and the nation to being rather struck by this action of the after them, along paths which they would American journalists.
never have sought for themselves. While speaking of American journals I It is the battle of human freedom which may remark that the passages cited in the the North are fighting, and which should Times, and other papers, which have so dis- draw to them the sympathy of every Enggusted and angered many of us, are from lishman, and make him cast to the winds all the New York Herald, a notoriously South- Morrill tariffs and angry talk about Canada, ern paper, and one of the most scurrilous all bad manners and hard words. If the journals in the whole States. At the break- North is beaten, it will be a misfortune such ing out of the war the office of this paper as has not come on the world since Chriswas with difficulty preserved from destruc- tendom arose. An empire will be founded tion. Since that time it has not dared to in these Southern States on the simple base show its Southern sympathies, but has de- of slavery, having no other starting-point voted itself, in the obvious interests of its or principle whatever than their right to enclients, to the work of embroiling the North- slave men of their own flesh and blood. It ern States with us by its unscrupulous and is of no use to speculate upon what the acts lying virulence. I quite admit that the tone and policy of such a State will be. The of the government and people of the North world will see that soon enough, should it has been such as deeply to grieve and dis- arise. Meantime, the Northern States stand appoint every right-minded Englishman; alone between us and it, and the greatest but don't let us saddle them with the fran- misfortune which can happen to us and to tic slanders of the New York Herald. These mankind will be their defeat. must be put in all fairness to the credit of God grant that they may hold on, and be the South.
strong! God grant that they may rememHitherto I have been speaking without ber that the greatest triumphs have always immediate reference to the great cause in is- come, and must always come to men through sue. I believe that, apart from that cause, the greatest humiliations. God himself could the North are entitled to our good wishes. not set men free but through this rule. They are in the right, apart from all ques
I am yours very truly, tions of slavery. If they really mean to leave
THOMAS HUGHES. “ State rights" untouched—if they are not * Author of Tom Brown at Rugby.
From (Forney's) Press, Philadelphia, 12 Sept. United States laws against the African slave SLAVERY AND THE REBELLION.
trade they might obtain supplies for a few
hundred dollars per head. The dissolution It is a significant and singular fact that of the Union, which, until the last few years, out of the very prosperity of the slave inter- was rarely or never spoken of without horest in this country, indirectly, arose the re- ror, as one of the most frightful of calamibellion which now threatens to terribly in- ties, by the masses of the Cotton States, bejure, if not to destroy it. While the halls of gan to be considered by them an essential Congress were resounding year after year condition of their prosperity—not on account with clamors for better protection for slav- of the reasons they put forward, that slave ery, the “peculiar institution was so well property was insecure in the Union, but protected that slaves were constantly rising really because the policy of our Government in value much more rapidly than any other had rendered it so secure and profitable that species of property in our country. This in- slaves commanded a higher price than they crease was not spasmodic or irregular, but wished to pay. These pro-slavery philososteady and constant, and it was kept up un- phers, however, were as short-sighted in til the slaves of the United States sold for a their views of their selfish terests as they price far beyond that ever obtained for them were cruel and treasonable in their designs. in any other nation in which slavery had They forgot that the first effect of their blows been tolerated. All this continued to the against the Union would be the infliction of moment when the long-cherished secession a terrible blow, by themselves, upon their faheresies of the South culminated in open in- vorite institution—that in trying to destroy surrection against the Government; and it the Union for the purpose of getting rid of its afforded the very strongest proof that could laws against the revival of the slave trade, so have been given of the confidence of the cap- that they might buy slaves for a small sum, italists of the Slave States in the security of they would so diminish the value of slave laslavery while the Union was unbroken and bor, destroy the sale of its products, and ununassailed. But out of this high price of dermine the permanence and security of the slaves, which was an overwhelming and con- institution as to render it doubtful whether clusive answer to the flimsy pretences by slaves were worth having at any price, and in which the secession demagogues endeavored some states, questionable whether they could to justify their treason, arose the very feel- be held in bondage at all. The comparison ing which was one of the strongest levers may be a trite and not very complimentary used in precipitating the Cotton States into one, but they acted like the dog who in crossrevolution. We allude to the demand for ing the stream lost his meat by grasping at the revival of the slave trade which suddenly its shadow. And now, whatever damage has attained a surprising degree of popularity in been or may be done to their institution, that section. The planters grew tired of they must attribute to the influence of the paying $1,400 or $1,500 for field hands from rash counsels of their own trusted leaders. the Border States, and the poor whites be- Whatever glory or blame may be attached gan to consider that there was something to the infliction of the severe blows upon it, very unjust in compelling them either to pay that have already injured or will hereafter for slaves a sum which they could not com- injure it, is due to those great practical Abomand, or to dispense with their services al- litionists in disguise who figure as the saints together, when by an abrogation of the l of the pro-slavery calendar.
To chase the glowing hours with flying feet
But hark !--that heavy sound breaks in once Did ye not hear it? No! 'twas but the wind,
more, Or the car rattling o'er the stony street; As if the clouds its echo would repeat, On with the dance ! let joy be unconfined ; And nearer, clearer, deadlier than before ; No sleep, till morn, when youth and pleasure Arm ! arm ! it is--it is—the cannon's opening meet
AN ARAB NEWSPAPER.
Musheikha, President of the Senate (in As the Athenæum takes cognizance of lit- America),–Fabor or Sefine bukhariye, for erature and its progress in all parts of the steamer or steam-vessel,—and Resail teleworld, it appeared to me that an Arabic grafiye, telegraphic despatches. The mer. newspaper, published at Beirout, in Syria, chant may also learn that discount (iskat) would merit your attention. This journal at the Bank of England is at six per cent (of which by the kindness of the Royal (fi el maye), the Turkish loan at seventyAsiatic Society I have the number of the 7th three, and the state of the corn and silk of June now before me) is a weekly news- markets. An advertisement, also, in one of paper, which, in imitation of its European the May numbers, whieh, by the way, had a contemporaries, styles itself (siyasi, edebi, conspicuous position and importance given muttejeri) political, moral, and commercial, to it, which its European brethren would and is about the size of one of our local pa- much envy, stated that a certain Prof. Betpers. The amateur of Oriental languages ers had adapted the wonderful tale of Ruwill be much amused to see how such words binsun Kruzi (Robinson Crusoe) from the as subscription, advertisement, office, agents English language, and that the first part was are expressed respectively by ishtirak, ilan, just printed, price twenty-two grush. In mekteb (a most appropriate word, corre- the number of the 7th of June is seen, unsponding exactly to the one adopted by the der the head “Home Intelligence," an acmodern Greeks to express this idea ; viz., count of the withdrawal of the French troops ypapelov); and, lastly, agents by " those who from Syria ; and in one of the previous numwrite the names " (of subscribers) chez eux. bers a description of an asylum lately esAgain, he will be struck by finding the first tablished for the widows and orphans of the rude attempts at leading articles. In the sufferers in the massacres, and the pasha's number of last month, for example, there visit to it. The translation of the proclamawere articles on the Warlike Preparation in tion of the American President to the inEurope, the American War, the Warsaw habitants of New York is also to be found Massacres, etc., which, though weak com- in the number of the 30th of May. On the pared to the articles in our newspapers, in- whole, the publication is exceedingly creditdicate a great step in advance. The very able, and may become a great instrument of fact of their making this comparison, and civilization. The fact that it has been estheir reflection on it, and their taking notice tablished four years speaks much for the of the American affairs at all, is something possibility of introducing such Anglo-Orifor a nation whom many regard as complete ental productions. It must be confessed, barbarians. It is also somewhat curious to however, although not very creditable to us, find the names of Lord John Russell and that the French in this, as in all matters in Mr. Griffith figuring in Arabic,—the latter the East, seem to have got far before us, and asking the former why the Austrians have their influence, language, and manners to not withdrawn their troops on the frontiers have taken a deeper root than ours. There of Italy. Garibaldi (whom they call Jari- is every evidence of this paper being an baldi), the Emperor Napoleon (Emberatur imitation of a French one : they have Nabulion), and Victor Emmanuel (Fiktor adopted their word journal, although so Imanuel) may now see their names in Arabic chary of admitting any foreign word into and their acts recounted for the edification the language,—coin their new words after of the Mussulmans. In the same manner French models,-and, in the French fashthe doings of Cardinal Antonelli and the ion, have a tale at the end, continued from pope, the massacres in Warsaw, the state number to number. In this tale is to be of affairs in Naples, etc., are duly reported. noted an immense improvement the adopAmongst the words I have noticed imported, tion of paragraphs. What may we expect coined, or adopted to express modern ideas after this ? Perhaps a time may come when are : Jurnal, for newspaper,— Mejliss-ul- we may even have the Arabs punctuating! umum, for House of Commons-Reis-ul