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they float southwards. But Humboldt and lose the advantage that comparison with others have sufficiently proved that they are familiar scenes would give us in realizing his fragments of enormous glaciers, which fill descriptions. But some of them read as if the valleys of Greenland, and advance in they might be applied, with slight altertheir slow course actually into the ocean :-ations, and some reduction of scale to the “ The continent, as one might call Green
rocky shores of North Devon and Cornwall. land, does not shed the bulk of its central A visit, however, to the native region of icewaters in fluid rivers, but discharges them bergs is not as easy and pleasant as a tour to the ocean in solid, crystalline, slowly pro- on the Cornish coast or in Norway, though gressing streams. They flow, or rather this has to be gathered, rather than directly march, with irresistible, "mighty force, and learned, from Mr. Noble's book. He dwells far-resounding footsteps, crossing the shore- only on the agreeable portions of the expeline - a perpetual procession of blocklike dition, and omits to chronicle the disapmasses, flat or diversified with hill and hollow on the top, advancing upon the sea
pointments from fogs and rain, the hard until too deeply immersed longer to resist living, and other discomforts necessarily inthe buoyant power and pressure of the sur-cidental to the voyage, only alluding to them rounding waters, when they break upwards, casually in one or two places. “The sparkand float suspended in the vast oceanic ling points,” he says, “ of the life of this abyss. The van of the glacial host, previ- novel voyage are for the reader's eye ; the ously marked off by fissures into ranks, chill and the weariness and the sea-sickness, rushes from the too close embrace of its new element, and wheels away, an iceberg- and the mass of things lumpish and brown the glistening planet of the sea, whose mazy, in the light of common day, are for that tortuous orbit none can calculate but Him tomb of the Capulets away back in the fields who maps the unseen currents of the main.” of one's own memory." This is the true
Whether all icebergs are formed in this principle on which to write a book of travels way-whether some are not caused by the -to omit all the merely personal details breaking up in spring of the icy surface of and repetitions which must find their way the ocean itself-cannot be certainly known,
into the traveller's diary, but are wearisome but the authority of those who have most
to the reader, and to record only those things studied the matter points to the former con
which are instructive or interesting. Of one clusion. The masses are usually so thick thing, however, merely personal, he speaks that we can hardly believe them to be the very often,-excusably enough, for it must result of one winter's frosts, and the extreme
have been too continually in his thoughts to hardness, heaviness, and fineness of grain that is, the unpleasant subject of sea-sick
be long absent from his manuscript and of the ice of which they are composed seem to show that long periods of time and im- ness. Both the author and the painter seem mense pressure are necessary to their forma- to have been such continual martyrs to this tion.
misery, that we only wonder how they had Besides the novelty of the icebergs, the courage to persevere in their undertaking ; volume before us will be, to most readers, and we owe them the more thanks for haja an introduction to a totally unknown land, ing, in the face of this as well as so many and one which, rude and barren as it is, other obstacles, brought home such valuable offers to the explorer the temptation of
and interesting spoils from the Northern
Seas. coast scenery almost unrivalled for savage grandeur. The author is very fond of drawing parallels between the new scenes he is
From The Examiner. describing on the shores of Labrador, etc., MR. NOBLE, who is an American clergyand well-known places in his own country; man, has the great advantage of treading and to the American reader, this, of course, new ground, or~should we rather say ?-of helps greatly towards conveying a lively ploughing new seas. He tells the story of and accurate picture. Unfortunately for us, an expedition upon which he set out in the he has never visited England, as one or two summer of 1859, “in company with a disludicrous mistakes about English geography tinguished landscape painter,” whose initial would sufficiently show; and therefore we lis CThe trip, as the title-page explains,
was along the north-eastern coast of British shadow-like along in strong contrast with America, and its object was the study of ice- the surrounding dark, marked the places bergs. The plan was as good as it was novel. where the monsters were gliding below. Perhaps we, in England, may never see the When their broad, blackish backs were above pictures on behalf of which it was under-ruffle of snowy surf, formed by the breaking
the waves, there was frequently a ring or taken ; but we are very glad to have Mr. of the swell, around the edges of the fish.” Noble's descriptions in words, illustrated as they are by half a dozen really beautiful lith
About icebergs there is much to be told. ographs.
They are of every possible size and shape,Where not too full of irrelevant gossip, almost of every color, sometimes blue by rethe book is very pleasantly written. We flection of the sky's hue, sometimes a amcould dispense with the author's notes of ad- ing red by reason of the sun's rays, somemiration concerning a Welsh young lady who times as green as the waters which beat was, for a little while, one of his fellow-trav- against them. Sometimes all the colors are ellers ; and we do not care to know that he visible at the same time on different parts of supped with the Bishop of St. John's, and a single berg; and they blend and interdiscovered him to be a friend and admirer change with the rapidity of a kaleidoscope. of Mr. Keble. But there is not much of Everybody takes delight, at times, in watchthis, and all that Mr. Noble writes about the ing the quick transformations of the clouds, strange things that he saw is very entertain- or in gazing at the fancy pictures formed by ing. He witnessed other things than ice- dying embers ; but what are these to the bergs. On one occasion,
pleasures of following the iceberg's varia
tions of shape ? Shifting its place in the sea, “At the foot of the precipice were four it shows at every minute some fresh change ; or five whales, from thirty to fifty feet in at one time having the semblance of a grand length apparently. We could have tossed a Corinthian temple, then quickly shifting the pebble upon them. At times abreast, and then in single file, round and round they likeness to a Gothic cathedral
, and before went, now rising with a puff followed by a another minute is passed taking the shape of wisp of vapor, then plunging into the deep a polar bear, or startling the observer by its again. There was something in their large sudden assumption of a human guise. These movements very imposing, and yet very are the variations resulting simply from graceless. There seemed to be no muscular change of view; others, and almost as rapid, effort, no exertion of any force from within, arise from actual modifications of shape. and no more flexibility in their motions than Travelling from its northern home towards peared to move very much as a wooden whale the warmer south, its gradual melting promight be supposed to move down a mighty duces wonderful results and often stupendous rapid, rolling and plunging and borne along catastrophes. Let Mr. Noble describe to us irresistibly by the current. As they rose, two scenes, which, allowing for some unconwe could see their mouths occasionally, and scious exaggeration, must have been singuthe lighter colors of the skin below. As they larly grand. The first is about changes of went under, their huge, black tails, great winged things not unlike the screw-wheel of
shape :a propeller, tipped up above the waves. Now “ We are bearing up under the big berg and then one would give the water a good as closely as we dare. To our delight, what round slap, the noise of which smote sharply we have been wishing and watching for is upon the ear, like the crack of a pistol in an actually taking place; loud explosions with alley. It was a novel sight to watch them heavy falls of ice, followed by the cataractin their play, or labor rather; for they were like roar, and the high, thin seas, wheeling feeding upon the capelin, pretty little fishes away beautifully crested with sparkling that swarm along these shores at this partic- foam. If it is possible, imagine the effect ular season. We could track them beneath upon the beholder: This precipice of ice, the surface about as well as upon it. In the with tremendous cracking, is falling towards sunshine, and in contrast with the fog, the us with a majestic and awful motion. Down sea was a very dark blue or deep purple. sinks the long water-line into the black Above the whales the water was green, a deep; down go the porcelain crags, and galdarker green as they descended, a lighter leries of glassy sculptures, a speechless and green as they came up. Large oval spots of awful baptism. Now it pauses and returns : changeable green water, moving silently and up rise sculptures and crags streaming with the shining, white brine ; up comes the great, the roses of Damascus. In this delicious encircling line, followed by things new and dye it stands embalmed-only for a minute, strange, crags, niches, balconies, and caves ; though; for now the softest dore-colors up, up it rises, higher and higher still, cross- steal into the changing glory, and turn it all ing the very breast of the grand ice, and all into light and shade on the whitest satin. bathed with rivulets of gleaming foam. Over The bright green waves are toiling to wash goes the summit, ridge, pinnacles and all, it whiter, as they roll up from the violet sea, standing off obliquely in the opposite air. and explode in foam along the broad alabasNow it pauses in its upward roll: back it ter. Power and Beauty, hand in hand, bathcomes again, cracking, cracking, cracking, ing the bosom of Purity. I need not pause 'groaning out harsh thunder' as it comes, to explain how all this is ; but so it is, and and threatening to burst, like a mighty bomb, many times more, in the passing away of into millions of glittering fragments. _The the sunshine and the daylight. It is wonspectacle is terrific and magnificent. Emo- derful! I had never dreamed of it, even tion is irrepressible, and peals of wild hur- while I have been reading of icebergs well ras burst forth from all."
described. As I sit and look at this broken The second is about changes of color at broken from the edge of a glacier, vast as it
work of the Divine fingers,-only a shred sunset:
is, I whisper these words of Revelation : “ The moments for which we håve been and hath washed their robes, and made waiting are now passing, and the berg is im- them white in the blood of the Lamb." It mersed in almost supernatural splendors. hangs before us, with the sea and the sky The white alpine peak rises out of a field of behind it, like some great robe made in delicate purple, fading out on one edge into heaven. Where the flowing folds break pale sky-blue. Every instant changes the into marble-like cliffs, on the extreme wings quality of the colors. They flit from tint to of the berg, an inward green seems to be tint, and dissolve into other hues perpetu- pricking through a fine straw tint, spangled ally, and with a rapidity impossible to de- with gold.” scribe or paint. I am tempted to look over We are tempted to quote a good deal my shoulder into the north, and see if the more from Mr. Noble's volume. Although merry dancers' are not coming, so marvellously do the colors come and go. The blue overwrought in style, it is a book to ice the and the purple pass up into peach-blow and imagination pleasantly during hot summer pink. Now it blushes in the last look of the days, and to be read with particular delight, sun-red blushes of beauty-tints of the rose- whenever winter comes, before a blazing fire ate birds of the south-the complexion of and within reach of the poker.
Parson BROWNLOW.-In the last number of this new Government. But I have committed the Knoxville Whig, issued Oct. 26, the patriot grave, and I really fear unpardonable offences. Brownlow publishes his farewell, stating that, as | I have refused to make war upon the Governhe is to be indicted before a Confederate jury, ment of the United States. I have refused to the publication of his paper will necessarily be publish to the world false and exaggerated acsuspended. He steadfastly refuses to give a counts of the several engagements had between bond to the rebels for good behavior, and says the contending armies ; I have refused to write he is ready to start for jail at a moment's warn- out and publish false versions of the origin of ing. He also says :
this war, and of the breaking up of the best gor.
ernment the world ever knew; and all this I “ Not only so, but there I am prepared to lie, will continue to do, if it cost me my life. Nay, in solitary confinement, until I waste away be when I agree to do such things, may a righteous cause of imprisonment, or die from old age. God palsy my right arm, and may the earth Stimulated by a consciousness of innocent up. open and close in upon me forever." rightness, I will submit to imprisonment for life, or die at the end of a rope, before I will make any humiliating concession to any power on earth. “I have committed no offence; I have not
EPIGRAM. shouldered arms against the Confederate Gov. BRITTANIA's breast with pity swells ernment, or the State, or encouraged others to For slaves, their wrongs are ne'er forgetten ; do so; I have discouraged rebellion, publicly Poor maid ! we fear her bosom's swell and privately; I have not assumed a hostile at- Is but the rise and fall of-Cotton. titude toward the civil or military authorities ofl
- Vanity Fair.
From The London Review.
proper treatment, may not be made available ELOCUTION.
for every purpose of public speaking (we do WHETHER the movement initiated by not say singing, though much might be Bishop Wigram will be followed up by oth- taught on that point). A certain amount of ers in his position, and whether it will have vocal sonorousness is given to every human all the effect which he desires in the partic-being, and what is now too little known is, ular sphere which comes within the scope of that that amount far more equally divided his personal observation or not, there is no between different individuals than is supdoubt that it furnished a hint which was posed. The power of sound awarded to each greatly needed in this quarter, as well as in voice is far more equal than the public bas the reading-desk and pulpit.
any notion of, but it is differently placed in It can hardly be denied that, while we cul- each,—there lies the real mystery, and, in tivate our other faculties with great care and fact, the only one. To discover where lies pains, our voices are absolutely uncared for the power of each voice, and to reveal it to in our modern education. Everything else its possessor, there is the master's art. It is is attended to; people are " trained” till no use to talk of a "few simple directions, there is very little of nature left about them, of "lessons in elocution." A " few simple but the instrument of speech is neglected. directions" will do nothing, nor will “lesGymnastics bend the body, riding, swim- sons in elocution” do much towards rememing, dancing force the limbs to assume a dying the evil. Elocution is partially taught, kind of vigorous grace, or at all events, to and there has been at King's College a teachbe perfectly under control, but, as to the er of elocution since 1846. Teaching elocuvoice, it may run wild, or become extinct, tion to untrained voices, is about as reasonor, no matter what may happen to it, worse able as it would be to attempt putting a wild luck to its possessor. Nobody knows and horse, fresh caught from the Pampas, through nobody cares what comes of it, and nobody the passages of la haute école. The secret of cares because nobody knows. In no country the whole matter resides in the voice itself, is speech so frequently required as in Eng- which is not under control. Bring the voioe land, yet those who have to speak are left to under control, and the elocution master is the mercy of Providence as to what regards comparatively little needed, and indeed only that organ by whose means they are to act needed for such persons as are deprived by upon the senses of their fellow-creatures, nature of a proper sum of intelligence, and and bear persuasive words in upon their of a due comprehension of the value of words. minds. A man becomes a lawyer, or a cler- There is no human voice (or, at least, the gyman, or a member of Parliament, and if exceptions to this rule are so rare that they he has a "good voice” he is a lucky fellow, need not be taken into account), which is but he enters upon his business without any not gifted with the degree of power requiknowledge of what are his vocal faculties, and site to make itself distinctly audible in the often dscovers at his public debut in his career largest cathedral or meeting hall known. that Nature has, as he chooses to imagine, de- If properly pitched, its merest whisper will prived him of what is called a "good voice.” be heard. But the natural pitch of a voice
Now the very terms employed in descant- is the one thing to ascertain. Loudness is ing upon this subject are absurd, and show not sonorousness, and a man may shout himhow deplorably great is the general igno- self hoarse, and be but faintly heard. Now, rance. People are only very exceptionally above all, let no one imagine that this is an born with a "good voice" for public pur- innovation, a new study; it one of the poses. Both for singing and for speaking very oldest of any. The ancients knew of in public the voice positively requires to be and practised it; the Italians, up to a cenexercised in a particular way-to be educated. tury ago, have written scores of treatises Unless in the rarest possible instances there upon it; and few among the great continenis no voice that would not be much the bet- tal celebrities, whether of stage, bar, tribune, ter for proper training, and whose best qual- or pulpit, but have even in our own times ities would not by that training be made du- subjected their voices to a laborious and sperable up to a late period of life, and let this cial training. Mirabeau and Talma are both be remembered,—there is no voice that, by brilliant examples; and the speaker whose
mere vocal capacities are almost unequalled which are necessary to make a public speak. in our day, M. Berryer, would, were he ques-er's mode of speaking agreeable. The same tioned, tell a long tale of what must be done principles will, of course, apply to the stage, to bring a voice perfectly under control. to the bar, to the lecture-room, to the pul. Throughout the entire military world, the pit; but everywhere it is the cause that must late Czar Nicholas was celebrated for his be studied, not the effect the voice, and the wonderful way of giving the word of com- voice only, is the cause. mand. Clear and distinct, it was carried to Perhaps the first error to be destroyed is distances impossible to others ; but this was that of the naturalness of public speech. the effect of study, and of having learnt the It is natural to man to express his thoughts, true pitch of his voice, and where lay its nat- by speech, and to exchange them with one ural sonorousness. Nothing is more utterly or more of his fellow-creatures; it is not useless than to run after tones which do not natural that a man should hold forth to a belong to you, yet it is precisely what nine- crowd, that is a product of civilization ; tenths of all singers and speakers are per- therefore, that has to do with art, and repetually doing. In their efforts to reach a quires study and proper training of the orlayer of sound which is absolutely and for- gan brought into play. Now, the voice, in ever unattainable to them, they strain and speaking, as in singing, is, as it were, double; stretch their own voices till they crack or run it has with it its own “ circle of resonance," rusty, or in some other manner fail. On as it is technically termed. Within that cirthe other hand, whoever will, under proper cle it may be developed to an all but incredguidance, seek to develop his own natural ible extent; out of it no human power can vocal powers, will, we maintain, arrive at the enable it to proceed one inch. Yet this is command of any audience in any enclosed the unnatural and impossible process to space.
which the human voice is mostly condemned For those who have cared to study the ca- now-a-days, when any trouble whatever is pacities of the human voice, nothing can be taken with it. more curious-alternately amusing and pain- Abroad, these studies are being here and ful-than the deplorable ignorance evinced there revived, and in Belgium and France by almos
nublic speaker in this coun- and Milan, there are men learned in that try. Let us for a moment revert to the art of "training the voice” which was in House of Commons. Where are the men such high honor formerly. With a pupil of whom one would most wish to listen to, did average intelligence, and one who gives bis their mode of utterance not grate on the attention to what he is about, it is by no ear? There is Mr. Disraeli, who labors means a long or tiresome undertaking to after variety of intonation, and whose intona- bring a voice under perfect control. Two tion is excruciatingly false, because he has, things are necessary: to find the pitch, or in fact, no control over his voice; there is natural sonorousness of the voice; and to Sir Robert Peel, who is favored by nature, educate the pupil's ear so that he shall recbut the monotony of whose brazen tones isognize it. That achieved, the rest is an afdisagreeable in the extreme,-his is a case fair of practice. The voice finds itself so of great natural capacity however, and it is well at ease there where Nature meant it probable that one month's proper training to be, that, after a short time, the slightest -or even less-would put Sir Robert Peel jolt out of its own groove is as painful to in the possession of a vocal excellence to itself and to its possessor as to the liswhich we are, in our day, unaccustomed. teners. Or take an instance of the opposite kind- As to " elocution,” we by no means disEarl Russell. Half his speeches are invari- dain it; but it comes later, when the instruably reported as having been guessed at- ment is formed by which their true meaning “Lord John was understood to say." We can be awarded to words. Till the instruconfidently assert that it only required a ment is there, all the teachers of elocution proper training of the voice to have made in the world are of no use. They and their * Lord John” perfectly audible always, and pupils may feel what is required, but it is not to have given him command over the amount in their power to achieve it ; for that whereby of sonorousness and of variety of intonation it is achieved (and achieved at once and with