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POETRY.— The Bells of Shandon, 67. Drawing Nearer, 67. Sweet Little Man, 96. Our First Martyr, 96.
SHORT ARTICLES.—The Emperor's Tobacco, 58. The Man of Sensibility, 66. Highland Epitaph, 66. Lost Party in the Alps, 92. John Knox's Deathbed, 95.
NEW BOOKS. Mr. Putnam continues his REBELLION RECORD, --which will preserve for posterity some of the features of the monster,-from whom God grant us a safe deliverance.
CORRESPONDENCE. L. E. P., Will you not favor us with your address ?
P.-Thanks! We felt that the sacrifice of space, then, was considerable. But it would not do to lose the article, or the others of that class. They increase the value of our vol
And the proportion they fill is a small one, after all. To all our Friends.—Please read the second page of cover, and help us to get over the evil days, and to begin 1862 with renewed courage.
PUBLISHED EVERY SATURDAY BY LIT TELL, SON, & CO., BOSTON.
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To the Secretary of the Treasury:
1862 First investment, Carrying out the subject of the letter of 17 July,
Interest one year, 1861, I now submit to you in full a plan for 1803 Second investment, A NATIONAL CURRENCY AND SINKING
Interest one year,
Interest one year, make all the national expenditure by Mint DRAFTS at sight upon the same; such drafts 1865 Fourth investment, to be payable also in New York and Bos
Interest one year, ton; and to be for the sums usually repre
1866 Fifth investment, sented by bank notes, not under five dollars.
Principal, Persons who receive these drafts will pay
Interest one year, them away to others, or deposit them in
1867 Sixth investment, banks for safe-keeping. The banks will not
Principal, ordinarily draw the coin, for they can usu
Interest one year, ally pay demands upon them by these drafts.
1868 Seventh investment, Coin will only be needed for exportation, or
Principal, for convenience of change. For the latter
Interest one year, purpose it would be desirable to pay in 1869 Eighth investment, quarter eagles, or in silver ; for exportation, Principal, in large coin, or in stamped bars of bullion.
Interest one year, Bearing in mind that the Bank of Eng- 1870 Ninth investment, land has now a circulation equal to 100 mil
Principal, lions of dollars, and that this is considerably
Interest one year, below its average amount, we may suppose
1871 Tenth investment, that by next year it will be found that such Principal,
Interest one year, an amount of MINT DRAFTS has remained
1872 Eleventh investment, in permanent circulation, that it would be
Principal, safe to invest ten millions of dollars of the
Interest one year, uncalled-for coin and bullion in the purchase
1873 Twelfth investment, from the people of United States Stocks; and
Principal, an equal amount annually thereafter. Let
Interest one year, the half-yearly interest on these Stocks be
1874 Thirteenth investment, also so invested.
Principal, Our increasing population, capital, and Interest one year, trade would probably make it practicable to 1875 Fourteenth investment, continue this annual investment for twenty Principal, years, say till 1881, by which time we shall
Interest one year, have absorbed 400 millions of United States 1876 Fifteenth investment, Stock, and shall have a national paper circu
Principal, lation, payable on demand at the most con- Interest one year, venient points, of 200 millions of dollars. 1877 Sixteenth investment, Our currency, with a full proportion of gold Principal,
Interest one year, and silver, will then be better than it ever
1878 Seventeenth investment, has been.
Principal, That such an amount of MINT DRAFTS
Interest one year, would be needed, we may reasonably suppose, when we consider that our population 1879 Eighteenth investment,
Principal, will then be sixty millions, and that our business will have increased in still greater 1880 Nineteenth investment,
Interest one year, proportion.
Principal, . In calculating the following table, fractions Interest one year, are rejected to the amount of about ten 1881 Twentieth investment, millions.
Living Age Office, Boston, 20 Sept., 1861.
700,000 10,000,000 20,700,000
1,449,000 10,000,000 32,000,000
2,000,000 10,000,000 44,000,000
3,000,000 10,000,000 57,000,000
4,000,000 10,000,000 71,000,000
5,000,000 10,000,000 - 86,000,000
6,000,000 10,000,000 102,000,000
7,000,000 10,000,000 119,000,000
8,000,000 10,000,000 137,000,000
9,000,000 10,000,000 156,000,000 11,000,000 10,000,000 177,000,000 12,000,000 10,000,000 199,000,000 14,000,000 10,000,000 223,000,000 15,000,000 10,000,000 248,000,000 17,000,000 10,000,000 275,000,000 19,000,000
10,000,000 304,000,000 21,000,000 10,000,000 335,000,000 23,000,000
10,000,000 368,000,000 26,000,000
From The Athenæum. | instructions—the examination of the witCORTES AND HIS WIFE.
nesses, etc., and a criminal process brought, Summary of the Acts of Don Fernando at the instance of his wife's mother and
Cortes-[Archivo Mexicano : Documentos brother, against Cortes for the murder of his para la Historia de Mexico. Sumario de wife. la Residencia tomada a D. Fernando Cor
The charges involved in these documents tes, Gobernador y Capitan General de la N. E. y a otros Gobernadores y Oficiales de were all known to Prescott, and summarily la Misma. Palæografiado del original por and ex cathedrà disposed of in a couple of el Lic. Ignacio Lopez Rayon]. (Mexico, pages, as follows :Tipographia de Vicente García Torres.)
“ A remarkable document still exists, FASCINATED ourselves by the brilliant ca
called the Pesquisa Secreta, or Secret Inreer and attractive qualities of Cortes, we quiry, which contains a record of the proshould have expected that the modern Mexi- ceedings against Cortes. It was prepared cansthe descendants of his ancient com- by the Secretary of the Audience, and signed rades and compatriots—would have cher- by the several members. The document is ished his memory and been proud of his very long, embracing nearly a hundred folio fame as their national hero. Strange to say; witness are given, and the whole forms a
pages. The name and testimony of every this is not the case. In 1823 the mob would
mass of loathsome details, such as might bethave broken open his tomb, in order to scat- ter suit a prosecution in a petty municipal ter his ashes to the winds, had they not been court than that of a great oficer of the anticipated by some friends who secretly re- Crown. The charges are eight in number, moved the relics. In the present day, we involving, among other crimes
, that of a decannot travel in Mexico without finding that liberate design to cast off his allegiance to the feeling towards Cortes is very different the crown ; that of the murder of two of the from that which is entertained by those who persede him ; of the murder of his own wife,
commissioners who had been sent out to suhave formed their judgment of him solely Catalina Xuarez ; of extortion and of licenfrom a perusal of Prescott's pages. The tious practices; of offences, in short, which, Mexican's admiration of his showy qualities from their private nature, would seem to is seasoned by a liberal admixture of depre- have little to do with his conduct as a pubciation ; and dark stories of guilt and cruelty, lic man. The testimony is vague, and often handed down by tradition, are readily pro- contradictory ; the witnesses, for the most
part, obscure individuals; and the few perduced in support of their opinion.
sons of consideration among them appear to How comes such a feeling to prevail ? have been taken from the ranks of his deWhere there is smoke there must be some cided.enemies. When it is considered that fire; and it may either be that this is the the inquiry was conducted in the absence of smoke issuing from the accusations made Cortes, before a court the members of which against Cortes in his lifetime, and dismissed were personally unfriendly to him, and that by Prescott as unworthy of credit ; or that charges, and had no opportunity, conse
he was furnished with no specification of the Prescott has erred in so treating them, and quently, of disproving them, it is impossible that the opinion entertained by the Mexi- at this distance of time to attach any imporcans is the true one that many of these ac- tance to this paper as a legal document. cusations were true, and that history must When it is added that no action was taken accept them as flaws on the character of this on it by the government to whom it was great man. The author, or rather compiler, sent, we may be disposed to regard it simply of the work which we have noted at the head It has been drawn by the curious antiquary
as a monument of the malice of his enemies. of this article takes the latter view; and in from the obscurity to which it had been so his published extracts from the Mexican long consigned in the Indian archives at Searchives we have, doubtless, the long-for- ville ; but it can be of no further use to the gotten source whence many of these stories historian than to show that a great name in and much of this feeling have arisen.
the sixteenth century exposed its possessor The documents here published exist in the to calumnies as malignant as it has at any archives of the city of Mexico, and were de- time since.” ciphered and copied by Rayon, a lawyer Now, we hold that no historian has a right there. They consist of the instructions from to form a verdict for the reader in this way the king to Luys Ponce de Leon-his secret without producing the evidence upon which he has arrived at it. It is no matter that the with Catalina Xuarez. He thus secured the author has formed a right verdict. Let him good offices of her family." There is some give his opinion, plead in support of it, and inconsistency here, for it seems difficult to sum up as he pleases, but, at least, let him, understand what value could be attached to also, tell the reader what is the evidence these good offices, when we are told by Preswhich he has rejected, and why. If he does cott, in the next page, that “his days glided not do so, his verdict will not, and should smoothly away in the society of his beautinot, pass unchallenged. It is so here. Had ful wife, who, however ineligible as a connecMr. Prescott presented to the reader even a tion from the inferiority of her condition, apsummary of the evidence for the charges pears to have fulfilled all the relations of a which he repudiates, and discussed the evi- faithful and affectionate partner. Indeed, dence for or against them with greater de he was often heard to say, at this time, 'that liberation, the work which we are now notic- he lived as happily with her as if she had ing would probably never have seen the been the daughter of a duchess.' Fortune," light. It is, we think, if taken without ex- says Prescott, "gave him the means in afterplanation or examination, calculated to dam- / life of verifying the truth of his assertion.” age the character of Cortes most materially; He should have said making comparison be for there is an amount of vraisemblance and tween her and the daughter of a duchess; consistency in the evidence given which for whether he verified the assertion (not leaves an impression of its truthfulness; and verified the truth of the assertion) or not, yet, admitting its perfect truthfulness and there is no sufficient evidence to show. A bona fides, it seems to us to contain intrin- testamentary expression of confidence and sic evidence of Cortes' innocence.
love in his second wife can hardly be reIt will answer the reader's purpose if we garded as such; and the issue is now raised take the most flagrant, and apparently the further, whether it was fortune that gave him best supported case,-viz., that of the mur- the means of doing so, or a more direct inder of his wife,-and give a summary of the terference of his own. evidence brought forward in support of it. After living with her for some time in
For the better understanding of some of pastoral retirement in Cuba, he sailed on the allusions, we may shortly recall to the the course of adventures which terminated recollection of the reader the chief circum- in the conquest of Mexico; and it was not stances connected with Cortes' marriage until he was firmly seated there as conqueror with Doña Catalina. Prescott tells us that and governor that Catalina joined him. The
remainder of the story is thus told by Pres“among the families who had taken up their
cott :residence in Cuba was one of the name of Xuarez, from Granada, in old Spain. It “ His own wife, Doña Catalina Xuarez, consisted of a brother and four sisters re- was among those who came over from the markable for their beauty. With one of Islands to New Spain. According to Berthem, named Catalina, the susceptible heart nal Diaz, her coming gave him no particular of the young soldier became enamored. How satisfaction. It is possible, since his marfar the intimacy was carried on is not quite riage with her seems to have been entered certain ; but it appears he gave his promise into with reluctance, and her lowly condi. to marry her, a promise which when the time tion and connections stood somewhat in the came, and reason, it may be, had got the way of his future advancement. Yet they better of passion, he showed no alacrity in lived happily together for several years, ackeeping. He resisted, indeed, all remon- cording to the testimony of Las Casas, and strances to this effect from the lady's family, whatever he may have felt, he had the genbacked by the governor, and somewhat erosity or the prudence not to betray his sharpened, no doubt, in the latter by the par- feelings to the world. On landing, Doña ticular interest he took in one of the fair sis- Catalina was escorted by Sandoval to the ters, who is said not to have repaid it with capital, where she was kindly received by ingratitude."
her husband, and all the respect paid to her This must have been about the year 1511. rank. But the climate of the table-land was
to which she was entitled by her clevated By and by, however, " for some reason not not suited to her constitution, and she died explained, perhaps from policy, he now re- three months after her arrival,--of asthma, linquished his objections to the marriage according to Bernal Diaz, but her deatb seems to have been too sudden to be attrib- | The evidence for the defence (if there ever uted to that disease. Her death happened was any) is wanting. so opportunely for his rising fortunes, that
Independently of their interest from the a charge of murder by her husband has historic personages concerned in them, the found more credit with the vulgar than the other accusations brought against him. documents are in themselves curious from the Cortes, from whatever reason, perhaps from glimpses which they give us of the familiar, the conviction that the charge was too mon- every-day life of the times to which they restrous to obtain credit, never condescended late. The close similarity of the law proto vindicate his innocence. But, in addition ceedings to those of the present day is not to the arguments mentioned in the text for discrediting the accusation generally, we actual style of procedure by jurisconsults,
very flattering to the progress made in their should consider that this particular charge attracted so little attention in Castile, where however much the principles of jurisprudence he had abundance of enemies, that he found may have advanced. The verbiage and repno difficulty, on his return there, seven years etitions of the writer, paid by the page, are afterwards, in forming an alliance with one shown to have been handed down to us unof the noblest houses in the kingdom ; that corrected for at least three hundred years. no writer of that day except Bernal Diaz We find here examination of witnesses upon (who treats it as a base calumny), not even interrogatories,—the whole procedure being Las Casas, the stern accuser of the conquerors, intimates a suspicion of his guilt; and as nearly as can be that of a modern proof that, lastly, no allusion whatever is made to of the same kind. The witnesses are duly it in the suit instituted some years after her sworn to tell the truth. Their depositions death, by the relatives of Doña Catalina, for conclude almost in the words of a deposition the recovery of property from Cortes, pre- of the present day. For instance, the closing tended to have been derived through her words of a modern English deposition would marriage with him ; a suit conducted with acrimony, and protracted for several years.
be, “ All which he depones to be truth, as he I have not seen the documents connected shall answer to God; and in respect that he with this suit, which are still preserved in cannot write, makes his mark.” Here is the the archives of the house of Cortes, but the Spanish of 1529: “Swears to the truth of fact has been communicated to me by a dis- the preceding deposition; and not being tinguished Mexican who has carefully exam- able to write, makes a mark” (una rubrica), ined them, and I cannot but regard it as of -and the mark, or rubrica, is not, as is supitself conclusive, that the family, at least, of Doña Catalina did not attach credit to the posed by some, a symbol or device specialaccusation."
ized by its user, but the same villanous at
tempt at a cross, which our own uneducated But there is a very good reason why no classes still make. notice of the charge of murdering his wife
The process thus proceeds :is taken by her relatives, in the process here
“ Criminal Process.-Maria de Marcayda referred to. It is simply this, that at the against D. Hernando Cortes.--- In the grcat time it was going on she was still alive ; city of Temistilan, Mexico, of this New Spain, and, were it not so, the existence of a proc- on the 4th of February, 1529, before the iless actually brought by them against him lustrious and magnificent Señor Nuño de for this very charge would sufficiently prove Guzman and the licentiates Juan Ortiz de that no inference favorable to his innocence Matienso and Diego Delgadello, President could be drawn from their silence.
and Judges of the Royal Audience and Chan
The fact, however, appears beyond doubt, from this New Spain, and in presence of me,
cery, residing, by order of his majesty, in the criminal process (in which on its side Geronimo de Medina, Secretary of the said sufficient allusion is made to the lawsuit), Audience, appeared Maria de Marcayda and that the law process had been going on for Juan Suares, her son, in her name, and preyears during the life of Doña Catalina. sented a complaint and accusation in writing The criminal process takes the form of a
against D. Hernando Cortes, the tenor of complaint by the mother and brother of Doña which is as follows: Most Potent Signors, Catalina ; an answer by Cortes; interroga- her son, appear before your majesty, and
-we, Maria de Marcayda and Juan Suares, tories proponed by the complainers ; and the complain of Don Hernando Cortes, Governor evidence adduced by them. There it stops. and Captain-General that was of this New