« 이전계속 »
schools of seven hundred, of a hundred and I have repeatedly obtained a bright voluntary eighty, and of a hundred scholars, testifies attention from each of these classes for five, that in his experience “two hours in the ten, or fifteen minutes more, but I observed morning and one in the afternoon is about it was always at the expense of the succeed
ing lesson ; or, on fine days, when the foreas long as a bright voluntary attention can noon's work was enthusiastically performed, be secured.” Particular children could sus it was at the expense of the afternoon's tain attention longer, but they would be work. I find the girls generally attend betscarcely five per cent of the whole number ter and longer than the boys, to lessons on taught. With efficient teaching of an inter- grammar and composition ; the boys better esting subject he has found thạt no one and longer than the girls, to geography, lesson could with advantage be pressed history, arithmetic, and lessons on science." beyond half an hour. “The benefits," he Mr. Bolton, head-master of a Half-Time says, “of enforced attention are small. Factory School at Bradford, where nearly With young children, of the average age five hundred children are now being taught, attending British schools, if you get a quar- and who has had seven years' experience of ter of an hour's attention, and having pro- the half-time system, after seven years' exlonged the lesson to half an hour, then perience of full-time teaching, says that he recapitulate, you will find that the last finds the half-time scholars “more advanced. quarter of an hour's teaching had nearly They come fresh from work to school, and driven out what the first quarter of an hour they go fresh from school to work. I beput in.” Mr. Imeson, who has been for lieve that the alteration is in both ways eight-and-twenty years a teacher, and has beneficial.” To which Mr. Walkers, one of taught children of all classes, is of the same the firm in whose factory the same children opinion. Study, or the attempt at it, for are employed, adds his testimony that, seven hours a day, destroys, he says, the “ where I had to complain one hundred willing mind. Mr. Isaac Pugh, who has times thirty years ago, I now have scarcely taught during thirty years of work about to complain once.” He is asked, “ Do you three thousand boys, says that with boys of find your commercial interest in the imthe higher classes, attention has been kept provement?” and answers, “ Most decidedly, on the stretch for two hours in the morning, notwithstanding that we spend a very large and afterwards from the same class he might sum on the school every year.” As the get an hour's positive attention in the after- half-day's work brightens attention to the noon, but even that could not be done day schooling, so the half-day's schooling, in its after day. Mr. Cawthorne, after twelve turn, brightens attention to the work. years' experience, agrees with Mr. Pugh ; Mr. Long, who is teaching in one large but considering his low estimate to refer to school both sorts of pupils, says that in his the silent working system, thinks that with experience of six years, “ the half-time or a different system half an hour's additional factory boys, give us a more fixed attention attention might be got in the morning, and than the others; they seem to be more as much more in the afternoon. But it is anxious to get on, and I believe that in not all equally good. Even with varied general attainments they are quite equal to relief lessons, he says : “In the morning we the full-time scholars." Mr. Curtis, after find the last half-hour very wearying ; in nineteen years of teaching in a large school the afternoon, we find the first half-hour at Rochdale where some hundreds are bright, the next half-hour less bright, and taught, rather more than half the number the last half-hour worse than useless.” Mr. being half-timers, says: “the progress of Donaldson, of Glasgow, who has for eight the half-timers is greater in proportion years taught in large schools, gives a table. than that of the full-timers,” and that they
are, from having begun early to work, pre“My experience as to the length of time ferred by gentlemen who give employment. children closely and voluntarily attend to a Mr. Davenport, a machine-maker, emlesson, is :
ploying five or six hundred workpeople, Children of from 5 to 7 years of age, about 15 min. gives indeed, as an employer, very emphatic
testimony on this head. He says: “In my
experience as an employer, the short-time 794
7 to 10 10 to 12
12 to 16 or 18 THIRD SERIES. LIVING AGE.
scholars are decidedly preferable to the full-1 select the prize students, and the general time scholars, or those who have been ex- character of the drawing was better, and in clusively occupied in book instruction. I every case the drawing was executed with find the boys who have had the half-time greater promptitude. When I examined the industrial training, who have been engaged Rochdale school, these peculiarities were by us as clerks or otherwise, better and startlingly evident, and I could not resist more apt to business than those who have making a marked public statement to this had only the usual school-teaching of per- effect. The discipline of each school was sons of the middle class, and who came to excellent, the regularity of action and the us with premiums. In fact, we have declined quickness of perception such as I was in no to take any more of that class, though they wise prepared for; and at the time I could offer premiums. They give too much trou- not have resisted-even if I had wished to reble, and require too much attention." sist-thc eonviction that this mainly arose
Another teacher, after ten years' large ex- from the feeling possessing the whole of the perience, says, not only that the half-time children that time was valuable and opporscholars get on as fast as the others, but adds tunity passing. Every one worked for him his belief that it is the impression of par- or her self, and thus was generated, as it apents that their children get on as well in their peared to me, a strong feeling of self-relibook instruction in half as in full time; ance, and, unconsciously to the learner, a and when he has had to select pupil teachers respect for labor and a belief in the value of he has found that nearly all, or full three- individual effort." fourths, have been taken from half-timers. To this, we shall all come some of these Mr. Turner, at Forden, teaching a hundred days. We shall have schools for pupils of and sixty children, of whom seventy come all classes in which no more than the natuonly for half the day, says that he finds the ral power of attention will be occupied, and half-time scholars “fully equal in attainments where that will be strengthened instead of to the full-time scholars. I am not,” he adds, sickened and debilitated by excessive strain. “ prepared to account for it, but the fact is The headwork will be balanced with the decidedly so.”
gymnastic discipline and the drill, that give We might go on accumulating evidence ease and precision to the movements of the like this, and add the experience of Mr. body, with a wholesome vigor to the mind. Hammersley, head-master of the Manchester But already the time is come when the truth School of Arts, a gentleman who has been now established should be applied to the for twenty years an Art teacher. Before vis- education of the children of the poor. One iting Rochdale, he says: “I had examined great difficulty is removed when the boy's many schools in Manchester and its neigh- help in the home is left to the parent, and it borhood, and I had, in every case, with one is only for half the day that he is claimed by exception, found that the short-time schools the schoolmaster, to be brightened even for gave me the most satisfactory results. I was home service while he is trained for an acable in these schools to eliminate a large tive, thoughtful, everywhere earnest, mannumber of successful works out of which to hood.
SIR WILLIAM CUBITT, F.R.S., the eminent , branches of mechanics, and when the Great Exengineer, died on the 13th Oct., aged seventy- hibition of 1851 was projected the supervision of seven, after an illness which had prevented him the construction of that novel building was enfor some years from following his professional trusted to him, and on the successful terminacareer. He was a very early member of the In- tion of that work he received the honor of knightstitution of Civil Engineers, of which he was hood. The last great works upon which he was one of the presidents. He was an eminently engaged were the two large floating landing practical man, and had entrusted to him many stages in the Mersey at Liverpool, and the new important and difficult works, which were exe- iron bridge across the Medway at Rochester, all cuted very successfully; In early life he made remarkable works, and worthy terminations of some eminently useful inventions in several la very active and useful professional career.
From The Examiner. his bow and arrows in the other, and in this Life amongst the Indians. A Book for position was endeavoring to look at the sun, Youth. By George Catlin. Sampson Low. from its rising in the morning, until it set 1861.
at night; moving himself around the circle, This is a book which rather describes it-inch by inch, as the sun moved. His friends self than admits of detailed description, its were gathered around him, singing, and re
citing the heroic deeds of his life, and his contents being chiefly anecdotical. In that many virtues, and beating their drums and respect,—and, indeed, in all others,—it ad- throwing down for him many presents, to mirably answers the purpose for which it encourage him and increase "his strength ; was intended, and we are fully persuaded whilst his enemies and the sceptical were that the volume will hold a distinguished laughing at him and doing all they couid to place in every “ Boy's Library.” Most of embarrass and defeat him. If he succeeds
under all these difficulties, in looking at the us, who are grown up, remember the famous collection of pictures representing the North Great Spirit holds him up, and therefore he
sun all day, without fainting and falling, 'the American Indians and their mode of life, is great medicine, and he has nothing else to with all their real articles of manufacture, do to make him, for the rest of his life, a which was exhibited for several years at the medicine man; and compliments and presEgyptian Hall in Piccadilly. It is of those ents are bestowed upon him in the greatest Indians, of their manner of warfare and
do- profusion. But if his strength fails him, and
he falls, no matter how near to his complete mestic habits, of their weapons and their wigwams, and of the incidents which befall in him, and his disgrace not only attaches to
success, shouts and hisses are showered upon their hunting-grounds, that Mr. Catlin now him for the moment, for having dared to set speaks ; adding to the information thus con- himself up as medicine, but the scars left on veyed the experience which he has since his breasts are pointed to as a standing disgathered in various countries nearer the equa- grace in his tribe, as long as he lives." tor. His narrative runs on in a very agree- The way in which the Shiennes capture able and familiar strain, exceedingly well wild horses is thus described :adapted to the capacities of those whom he especially addresses, but it is not youth only horse enables him, on an animal of less speed,
“ The judgment of man in guiding his that is likely to be benefited by Mr. Catlin's
to get alongside of a wild horse, though he pages
“ Children of a larger growth,” who seldom is able to overtake the fleetest of have forgotten what they once knew, may them. But here is something more surprisalso have their recollections very usefully ing yet—the Shiennes, who capture more and pleasantly awakened. In illustration of wild horses than any other tribe, catch a our remarks, we turn to the volume and se- great proportion of their horses without the lect a few out of an endless series of attrac- aid of a horse to ride ; they overtake the wild
horses on their own legs ; which is done in tive stories. The probation which one class of “medi- horses while on the back of his own horse,
this way: plunging into a band of wild cine-men "undergo would test the endurance the Indian separates some affrighted animal of many of the candidates for admission to from the group, and forcing it off to the right the College of Physicians, though an Orien- or to the left, he dismounts from his own tal Yognee might think little of the ordeal. horse, and hobbling its feet, or leaving it in Here is the account:
the hands of a friend, he starts upon his
own legs, his body chiefly naked--a lasso “ The custom which is often practised coiled on his left arm, a whip fastened to the amongst them, and which he was trying, wrist of his right hand, and a little parched they call. Looking at the Sun.' Here was a corn in his pouch, which he chews as he man, naked, with the exception of his breech- runs; and at a long and tilting pace which cloth ; with splints about the size of a man's he is able to keep all day, he follows the affinger run through the flesh on each breast, frighted animal, which puts off at full speed. to which cords were attached, and their other Throwing himself between the troupe and ends tied to the top of a pole set firmly in the animal he is after, and forcing it to run the ground, and which was bending towards in a different direction, the poor creature's him, by nearly the whole weight of his body alarm causes it to over-fatigue itself in its hanging under it as he was leaning back, first efforts, and to fall a prey to feebler efwith his feet slightly resting on the ground. forts, but more judiciously expended. In He held his medicine bag in one hand and the beginning of the chase, the horse discovers his pursuer coming towards him, when The recent affair of “Bull's Run," has he puts off at the greatest possible speed, familiarized the public with something very and at the distance of a mile perhaps, he like the panic here described :stops and looks back for his pursuer, who is coming at his regular pace, close on to him ! Stampado'-did you ever hear of : Away goes again the affrighted steed, more stampado, my little readers ? No; well, alarmed than ever, and at its highest speed, then, we'll have it. Stampado is a Spanish and makes another halt, and another, and word, meaning "a trampling,' or what is another ; each time shorter and shorter, as much the same and perhaps more intelligihe becomes more and more exhausted ; while ble-a tremendous scrambling and scamperhis cool and cunning pursuer is getting nearer ing, when a party of some hundreds of bold to him. It is a curious fact, and known to and furious Indian warriors, mounted on all the Indians, that the wild horse, the deer, their darting war-horses, with brandishing the elk, and other animals, never run in a lances and war-clubs in hand, in the stillstraight line: they always make a curve in ness and darkness of midnight, when wearied their running, and generally—but not al- soldiers and their horses are fast asleep, dash ways—to the left. The Indian seeing the at full speed, like the flash of lightning with direction in which the horse is leaning,' the thunder following, into and through an knows just about the point where the ani- encampment, mingling the frightful warmal will stop, and steers in a straight line to whoop with the unearthly sound of their it, where they arrive near the same instant, parchment robes shaken in the hands to the horse having run a mile, and his pursuer frighten the horses, not unlike, in their ratbut half or three-quarters of the distance. tling sounds, to theatre thunder. The inThe alarmed animal is off again ; and by a stant flash of a few guns begins the frightful day's work of such curves, and such alarms, melée, and in the confused escampette, the before sundown at night the animal's affrighted horses, en masse, dash against and strength is all gone; he is covered with over each other and their owners, and are foam, and as his curves are shortened at last off like a whirlwind upon the prairies at the to a few rods, his steady pursuer, whose pace highest speed, with their enemies behind has not slackened, gets near enough to throw them: leaving the scientific warriors with the lasso over the animal's neck."
broken arms, with broken legs, and broken Mr. Catlin indulges in the following the- guns, upon their hands and knees, gazing ory respecting the origin of the Mandan through the dark in vain for some moving tribe :
object to draw a bead' upon.” “ The most striking singularities in the
Mr. Waterton's famous adventure is nearly personal appearance of these people were paralleled by the following deed of daring those of complexion, and color of their hair in the Rio Trombutas, one of the Northern and eyes. I have before said that black hair, tributaries of the river Amazon:black eyes, and cinnamon color were the national characteristics of all American sav
“ When we had gone ashore one day, on ages ; but to my great surprise I found a broad sand beach lying between the riveramongst the Mandans, many families whose shore and the timber, and part of us having complexions were nearly white, their eyes a gọt out upon the beach, we were startled by light blue, and their hair of a bright, silvery a loud hissing, and we discovered a huge algray, from childhood to old age ! This sin- ligator coming at a full pace towards us, gular appearance I can account for only by from the edge of the timber towards the the supposition that there must have been water. We were about springing into the some civilized colony in some way engrafted boat, but our daring little half-breed, better on them, but of which neither history nor acquainted with these beasts than we were, tradition seem as yet to furnish any positive ran without any weapon towards it, meeting proof. From having found several distinct it face to face. When they had got within Welsh words in use amongst them; their ten or twelve feet of each other, the brute skin canoes round like a tub, and precisely pulled up and lay stock still, with its ugly like the Welsh coracle, and their mode of mouth wide open, the upper jaw almost fallconstructing their wigwams like that in use, ing over on to its back, and commenced the at the present day, in the mountainous parts most frightful hissing! The little half-breed of Wales, I am strongly inclined to believe kept his position, and called out for a block that this singularity has been caused by some of wood, and one of the men, by running a colony of Welsh people who have landed on little way up the beach, brought a log of the American coast, and after having wan- drift-wood the size of a man's thigh, and six dered into the interior, have been taken into or eight feet long. The half-breed took this this hospitable tribe."
in both hands, and balancing it in a horizontal position, advanced up and threw it, and all gazing at us. To give the inquisibroadside, into and across the creature's tive multitude a fair illustration, I fired mouth ; when, as quick as lightning, and another shot and another! and such a with a terrible crash, down came upon it the scampering I never saw before! In half a upper jaw, with all its range of long and minute erery animal, and every trace and sharp teeth deeply driven into it. The little shadow of them, were out of sight; nor did half-breed then stepped by the side of the they come near us again.” animal and got astride of its back, and we all gathered round, turned the stupid crea
With an account of the blow-guns of the ture over and over, and kicked and dragged Connibosma tribe on the shores of the Yuit, but nothing would make it quit its deadly cayali,--and of the deadly Waw-ra-li poison, grasp upon the log of wood, and nothing into which they dip their arrows, we close ever could while it lived, for the Indians all told us it would live some eight or ten hours,
our selection. but not longer."
“The sole weapons of these people, and
in fact of most of the neighboring tribes, A concert of monkeys in the same region are bows and arrows, and lances, and blowmust have been a notable amusement at guns, all of which are constructed with great which to assist.
ingenuity and used with the most deadly
effect. My revolver rifle, therefore, was a “We stopped our boat one day for our ac- great curiosity amongst these, as with the customed midday rest in the cool shade of other numerous tribes I had passed. I fired one of these stately forests, where there was a cylinder of charges at a target to show a beautifully variegated group of hills, with them the effect, and had the whole tribe as tufts of timber and gaudy prairies sloping spectators. After finishing my illustration, down to the river on the opposite shore. a very handsome and diffident young man Our men had fallen asleep, as usual, in the stepped up to me with a slender rod in his boat, and I said to my friend Smyth, who, hand of some nine or ten feet in length, with myself, was seated on top of the bank, and smilingly said that he still believed his • How awfully silent and doleful it seems !- gun was equal to mine ; it was a beautiful not the sound of a bird or a cricket can blow-gun,' and slung, not on his back, but be heard ! suppose we have some music.' under his arm, a short quiver containing • Agreed,' said Smyth; and raising the old about a hundred poisoned arrows. The Minié, he fired it off over the water. Sam young man got the interpreter to interpret followed with three cracks, as fast as they for him, as he explained the powers of his could be. got off! The party in the boat weapon, and which until this moment I had were all, of course, upon their feet in an in- thought that I perfectly understood. He stant, and we sat smiling at them. Then the showed me that he had a hundred arrows concert began—a hundred monkeys could be in his quiver; and of course so many shots heard chattering and howling, treble, tenor, ready to make; and showed me by his moand bass, with Hats and sharps, with semi- tions with it that he could throw twenty of tones and baritones and falsettos, whilst five them in a minute, and that without the least hundred at least were scratching, leaping, noise, and without even being discovered by and vaulting about amongst the branches, his enemy whose ranks he would be thinand gathering over our heads, in full view, ning, or without frightening the animals or to take a peep at us. We sat in an open birds who were falling by them, and the acplace, that they might have a full view of curacy of his aim, and the certainty of death us, and we rose up to show ourselves at full to whatever living being they touched ! length, that their curiosity might be fully This tube was about the size of an ordinary gratified. With my opera-glass, which I man's thumb, and the orifice large enough to took from my pocket, I brought all these admit the end of the little finger. It was little inquisitive, bright-eyed faces near made of two small palms, one within the enough to shake hands, and had the most other, in order to protect it from warping. curious view of them. I never before knew This species of palm is only procured in the cleanliness, the grace, and beauty of these certain parts of that country, of the proper wonderful creatures until I saw them in that dimensions and straightness to form those way, in their native element and unrestrained wonderful weapons. Opening his quiver, movements. Where on earth those creatures the young man showed and explained to me gathered from in so short a time, in such his deadly arrows, some eight or pine inches numbers, it was impossible to conceive ; and in length. Some of them were made of very they were still coming. Like pigeons, they hard wood, according to the orignal mode of sat in rows upon the limbs, and even were construction ; but the greater and most valin some places piled on each other's backs, uable portion of them were made of knit