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ting-needles, with which they are now sup- etrated with one of these points, would live plied by the civilized traders. These are but about two minutes ; a monkey or peccary sharpened at the end and feathered with cot- would live about ten minutes ; and a tiger, ton, which just fills the orifice of the tube, a cow, or a man, not over fifteen minutes. and steadies the arrow's flight. The arrows Incredible almost as these statements were, are pushed in at the end held to the mouth, I nevertheless am induced to believe, from and blown through with such force and such what I afterwards learned from other abunprecision that they will strike a man's body dant information, that they were very near at sixty yards, or the body of a squirrel or a the truth. One thing is certain, that death small bird on the top of the highest tree. ensues almost instantaneously when the cirThe ends of these arrows, for an inch or culation of the blood conveys the poison to more, are dipped into a liquid poison, which the heart, and it therefore results that the seems to be known to most of the tribes in time, instead of being reducible to any exthose regions, and which appears to be fatal act measure, depends upon the blood-vesto all that it touches. This liquid poison sels into which the poison is injected. If dries in a few moments on the point of the the arrow enters the jugular vein, for inarrow, and there is carried for years with stance, the animal, no matter what size, out the least deterioration. He explained would have but a moment to live! to me that a ck, or parrot, or

rkey, pen

METEOROLOGY-M. Liandier and the Baron 1. On the magnified image of the star, diffuse de Portal, who have been constant observers of illuminations, due to scintillation, are first seen, the scintillations of the stars for some years, and then vibrations and waves, more or less brilliant, the former of whom has recently presented a shaded or colored, which appear to spread in all memoir to the Academy of Sciences at Paris on directions. the subject, have made a discovery which prom- 2. If these vibrations be carefully studied, ises to be of great value as a weather prognos- they will be found to traverse the disc in a contic, in addition to the barometer.

stant direction, and to be more agitated on learTaking a telescope, and turning it on a first ing than on entering it. magnitude star well above the horizon, and 3. These vibrations prove that currents of air throwing the instrument out of focus, an ampli- are in motion, in the direction they indicate, in fied image of the star will be obtained ; this im- the bigher regions of the atmosphere. age should be about three-quarters of an inch in 4. In the interval of some minutes, hours, or (apparent) diameter, and if the object glass be days, according to the unsettled or settled made of pure material and properly adjusted, state of the weather, these waves will pass from the image will be perfectly round, and composed the N.E. to the S.E., and oscillate back again; of concentric rings, the light of which, owing to or else turn through the S.W. and N. to regain the scintillation of the star, will be continually their original direction; or again oscillating varying. On this image, as a background, the backwards from the N. regain it through the E. appearances which constitute the indications re- or W. ferred to are to be observed. First, appear shadows more or less dark, which dance round

Thus the prognostics to be derived from the the borders of the disc, and finally pass on and study of what passes in the higher regions of cross it. This appearance is caused by clouds the atmosphere are the same as those obtained in the vesicular state, and from the rate and di- from similar observations on the surface. All rection of their passage over the image of the the waves which enter by the N.E. indicate curstar, the velocity and direction of the currents rents in this direction, and consequently fine of air in the higher regions of the atmosphere, weather ; when they enter by the S. E. it is a less more or less charged with moisture, may be favorable omen ; and when by the S.W., rain is learned.

almost certain. But this is not all : from time to time a black

By this method of observation, therefore, the point will traverse the image ; this has, hitherto, barometric, thermometric, and hygometric relabeen regarded by telescopic observers, as a sign tions of the upper regions of the air may be of fatigued eyesight; but this explanation can studied as at the surface, where the same currents no longer be received, and M. de Portal attrib- will most probably arrive twenty-four or fortyutes it to the formation of drops of rain in the eight hours later, having been foretold by the atmosphere previous to their fall.

barometer in the interim. - London Weekly ReThe facts already arrived at may be thus

view. summed up :

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From The Examiner. Quarterly Magazine, established in 1823, CHARLES KNIGHT.

being the first publication that marked Mr. The English Cyclopædia of Arts and Sci- Knight's establishment in London. Asso

Conducted by Charles Knight. ciated from the first with the Society for the
Vol VIII. Bradbury and Evans. Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, it was Mr.
A Popular History of England. By Charles Charles Knight who projected and submitted

Knight. With upwards of One Thousand to that society the design of its “British
Illustrations on steel and wood. Part 55. Almanac and Companion ;” to this day the
Bradbury and Evans.

best almanac published in England, and the We cannot speak of contemporary litera- most effective antagonist to the ignorance ture within the first month of untaxed paper and fraud of the astrological almanac-makwithout cordial and emphatic recognition of ers, who in those days had the ear of the the long and steadily sustained labors of Mr. common people and whose impudent trading Charles Knight. He, more than any man upon superstition is not yet entirely out of of our day, has been a victim of the tax on date. In 1830, when misguided mobs were knowledge now happily repealed, and it is burning the machinery that found its way he who has done more than any man to turn into use, Mr. Knight's little volume on the the current of cheap literature into whole- Results of Machinery was planned to diffuse some channels, thereby making the repeal better knowledge, and was very widely read. of the paper duty a boon of almost unmixed It was soon followed by his popular work on good to the million. Mr. Knight completed" Capital and Labor" and the “Rights of a few weeks ago, and within the rules of the Industry." Gratefully we should look back, tax, the two-and-twenty volumes of that ex- from this day when good and cheap journals cellent English Cyclopædia, into which the vie one with another in diffusing innocent “ Penny Cyclopædia " has now been recast. amusement and welcome instruction, to the Its present form was imposed on him by the days of thirty years ago, when there was no paper duty, which made it entirely hopeless All the Year Round, no Chambers's Journal, to project a new edition of the “ Penny Cy- no rivalry of publishers to overwhelm a willclopædia” itself. The revised issue was ing public with their cheap and wholesome planned therefore in four divisions. Each is literary fare, and when the forced beginning a complete work, having distinct claims on of what now appears to be so natural was a large special class of readers, while the four made against much discouragement by Mr. together now constitute a general Cyclopæ- Charles Knight in the establishment and dia singularly accurate and full, of which the management of his famous Penny Magazine. two-and-twenty volumes – eight given to With woodcuts not only attractive and inArts and Sciences, six to Biography, four to forming, but at that time wonders among Geography, and four to Natural History, cheap literature for their good art in drawcost only twelve pounds. Now that its re- ing and wood-cutting, with sound thought prints may be on untaxed paper, this admi- also and wit and knowledge in it, for which rable work and others that preceded or are able writers had been fairly paid, Mr. concurrent with it will, we trust, bring their Knight's magazine was sold for a penny unlate worldly reward to one who, having been der the heavy discouragement of a paper for forty years a most unwearied laborer for duty then no less than threepence on the the instruction of the public, toils yet with pound. It was reduced to three half-pence the determined vigor of youth when his years in 1837. The paper duty at last killed the are threescore and ten.

Penny Magazine. After a long struggle Mr. With the “ Plain Englishman,” a cheap Knight has himself said, in a little pamphlet and wholesome miscellany, revised and pub- to which we shall presently refer, that in 1846 lished forty years since in antagonism to the he was obliged to retire from the Penny Magfrivolous and scurrilous flying sheets that azine, although it had a sale of five-andwere then cheap and popular, Mr. Charles twenty thousand copies. He could not comKnight began a career in which he has per- pete with the cheap issues of trash, ill writsevered with a manly determination to this ten and ill printed on bad paper, when to hour. That miscellany was planned and pub- the cost of a thousand a year for good literlished, we believe, at Windsor; Knight's !ature there was added the tax of six hun


dred a year upon the paper of that Penny being two reams, or thirty-five pounds of Magazine alone.

paper. The edition consumed 50,000 reams, But Mr. Knight's work, always to the one having a total weight of £1,750,000. Of good end, was incessant. Under the title of this weight of paper £700,000 paid duty "A Store of Knowledge for All Readers,” before 1857 at 3d. per pound; the rest paid -his care throughout was rather for ALL the reduced duty of three half-pence just readers than for the few,-he published in abolished. The tax, therefore, upon that 1841 a collection of treatises in various de- single work was, so far, £15,312. But the partments of knowledge by several authors. tax fell also to the extent of another £437 It was in the same year that he began the on reprints and balancings of stock. The issue of those papers illustrative of “Lon- tax on the wrappers to the monthly parts don," which, collected into six large volumes, amounted to £500, and on the milled boards adorned with pictures, form a standard rep- used in binding there was a paper tax that ertory of pleasant information that connects involved loss of another £300. Here was historical and literary knowledge with the a demand by the Excise of £16,500 for a Englishman's daily walks about the streets work planned so generously in the public of his own capital.

interests that on free paper it could only He was then working, also, with a fine en- have paid its expenses. Mr. Knight was thusiasm, at the great English poet ; had actually fined to that extent for his enterbegun to scatter his fresh copies of Shak- prise; and to much more than that extent. speare through the land in a pictorial edi. He calculated--and we trust now that the tion, and had made a praiseworthy attempt duty is removed, within a year or two if no to connect home interests with the poet him- protective policy be compassed by the paperself by a carefully studied imagination of his makers, to see his calculation verified—that actual life. While working thus he began the reaction of the tax on trade and prices in 1843 to spend, as a publisher, energy and increased the first cost of producing the capital upon a new form of cheap literature material by a fourth. The sale of the “ Cy-the “ shilling volumes,” which for one clopædia” began at 55,000 and averaged hundred and twenty-six successive weeks 20,000 under the low duty. Had the duty gave every week a new and cheap volume to not been lowered the enterprise must have the public by some writer of sound ability. been abandoned when in mid-career. As it Several of the works contributed to that se- was, the interest of the paper duty paid on a ries have earned a standard character, and large back stock with a falling demand inMr. Knight's own contribution to the series volved loss of another £3,000. Under the of a life of Caxton-he also supplied a Vol- higher duty it needed a sale of 36,000, under ume of Varieties—was not a publication that the lower duty of 30,000, to give the “ Penny will be readily forgotten.

Cyclopædia" commercial success. As the While this was being done the "Penny sale really was, had there been no tax on Cyclopædia ” was in course of issue. Com- the paper the work would have paid its exmenced in the first week of 1833, it was not penses, leaving no profit, but no luss to its completed, with its supplement, till 1846. conductor. Mr. Knight, therefore, paid to Although nominally issued under the super-Government, out of his own means, the intendence of the Society for the Diffusion tremendous fine of between twenty and thirof Useful Knowledge, upon Mr. Charles ty thousand pounds for an enterprise that Knight alone fell all its pecuniary responsi- should have brought him wealth as well as bility. In 1850, when about to commence honor. that modified re-issue which was a few Of an abridgment of this Cyclopædia, as weeks ago brought to its close, Mr. Knight the " Popular Cyclopædia” in twelve volshowed, in a little pamphlet to which we umes, fifteen thousand were sold. Deterhave already referred, how heavily the paper mined to bring knowledge to the public door, tax had weighed upon his enterprise. He Mr. Knight fixed upon this “ Encyclopædia” especially referred to the "Penny Cyclope- a price that, as the same pamphlet tells us, dia” in that pamphlet called “ The Struggles would, under the paper duty, give him a reof a Book.” A Copy of the Cyclopædia and turn for his outlay of 1 1-2 per cent if a supplement contained, he said, 15,764 pages, thousand copies were sold annually. In


twenty years, Mr. Knight then urged as an / whatever else we might cite would show the argument against that tax on knowledge, he same mind working, with an energy that had spent eighty thousand pounds on copy- few men have equalled, in the same direcright and editorial labor, and fifty thousand tion. For the last ten years Mr. Knight pounds in paper duty.

has been working at the revised issue of bis How little Mr. Charles Knight was to be Cyclopædia, which has grown somewhat deterred from a right course by such obstruc- beyond its first intention into a worthy suction the rest of his labors show. He was cessor, instead of a weaker reproduction, of still working at the national poet, issuing the work that the tax killed. But during his “Library Edition of Shakspeare;" re- the same period, or during the last five years printing Shakspeare again in his cheap of it, Mr. Knight has been laboring also at “ Cabinet Edition,” and again in one cheap the magnum opus of his literary life. His volume as the “Stratford Edition.” Thus ambition has been to advance liberal thought he has been of all men the most active in and right knowledge in England by a Hisdisseminating throughout England the text tory of England, so written as to engage of the truest poetry our language furnishes. popular attention, giving the succession of we pass with a word over his “ Pictorial erents in the detail necessary to their full Half Hours of London Topography;" his perception, and with his own high interpre“ Half Hours of English History ;" and his tation of their relative importance. He is “Half Hours with the Best Authors.” the last man who would see in English HisTheir fiue


is manifest. When tory the kings and queens instead of the Mr. Dickens first established Household people. With the attraction of a graceful, Words, Mr. Charles Knight was by his varied, and often picturesque style; with a side, and contributed to its earlier volumes, profusion of good woodcuts that speak to the some delightful essays, very noticeable for eye itself, and always carry information of their high literary merit, which were re- some kind ; with generous sympathies giving printed in the two volumes entitled “Once a soul to every chapter, and with the singleupon a Time.” But still we have overlooked minded earnestness that has grudged no labor upon labor. Two massive volumes, labor of preparation for his task - Mr. Charles profusely illustrated with four thousand Knight continued during four years or more, woodcuts, gave in their text a large popular to issue monthly, without break or sign of treatise upon natural history under the title weariness, substantial parts of an original of the “Pictorial Museum of Animated History of England, which now occupies Nature.” It was followed by a “Pictorial seven handsome volumes. There remains Gallery of Arts,” planned on the same scale, only an eighth volume, shortly to form an and turning also to the best account many independent issue, to complete a work that of the woodcuts accumulated during years many able men have been proud and of eager toil for instruction of the public. happy to regard as the one achievement of

We have not run through all the roll of active literary life. Mr. Knight's services to literature, but

A GOOD EDITOR.-A good editor, a compe. | Times to Moore, "find any number of men of tent newspaper conductor, is like a general or genius to write for me, but very seldom one man poet-born, not made. Exercise and experience of common sense." Nearly all successful edigives facility, but the qualification is innate, or it tors have been men of this description. Campbell, is never manifested. On the London daily pa- Carlyle, Bulwer, and D’Israeli failed ; Barnes, pers, all the great historians, novelists, poets, Sterling, Phillips succeeded ; and DeLane and essayists, and writers, have been tried, and Low succeeded. A good editor seldom writes nearly all have failed. We might say all; for for his paper; he reads, judges, selects, dictates, after a display of brilliancy, brief and grand, directs, alters, and combines; and to do this well, they died out literally. Their resources were he has but little time for composition. To write exhausted. “I can," said the late editor of the for a paper is one thing—to edit a paper another. From The Spectator. The form in which the richer Cotton States MR. OLMSTED ON THE SLAVE STATES. * receive their accumulating wealth is, new

This book is a compendious recast of importations of slaves. The breeding states, Mr. Olmsted's invaluable volumes on the on the other hand, while they estimate their Slave States-volumes full of acute, pithy, wealth by the value which they might realand significant delineations which bear in ize if they sold all their slaves to the richer every line the stamp of an honest and unex-cotton-planters, practically do apply much aggerating, but close and clear-sighted of this costly slave labor to occupations like study of those States. To those who have tobacco-planting, ordinary farm labor, and read Mr. Olmsted's volumes as they ap

household service, which bring back no propeared, there will be little that is new in portionate returns. In fact, therefore, so far this recast ; but works so faithful and dis- as they keep the slaves at work on their own cerning deserve a form as convenient as their estates instead of selling them to the cottonsubstance is weighty; and to have the three planters, they are losing the interest on their former volumes well condensed, and con- money-value. A slave who, if sold to the nected with a single and copious index, is a South, would command twelve hundred dolboon for which no genuine student of the lars, and so gain the owner, if invested in Southern institutions will be unthankful. . All Northern commerce, one hundred and twenty we can propose to ourselves is to draw atten- dollars annually, is retained at work which tion to the most important results fully es- perhaps does not yield four or three per cent tablished by Mr. Olmsted, giving, wherever on that value, or from thirty-six to fortyit is possible, brief individual illustrations eight dollars annually; so that the Northern from his book, in order to bring the signifi- Slave States, so far as they are cultivated at cance of his inferences more broadly before all, practically fritter away their resources our readers.

on the effort to retain for unremunerative First, then, the Sou ern States, the home-work a kind of labor which they estivalue of capital and labor is determined al- mate by its value in a foreign market. Now, most exclusively by reference to a standard when we consider that of the 500,000,000 which is only appropriate in a very small acres of the Slave States, not more than one portion of the territory, and even there only per cent, or 5,000,000 acres, are devoted to to a very small fraction of the land, capital, this remunerative cotton culture at all, and and labor of that portion--we mean the that of this one per cent certainly not a value of those cotton-lands which are culti- quarter is cultivated with that energy and vated at the best profit. It is a familiar capital, and with that yield of profit which truth with economists that in all professions practically determines the cost of slaves, we where very high prizes are to be obtained, may estimate with some degree of accuracy the general rate of profit is far below the av

how gigantic a mischief the whole system erage of other professions. This principle is. The Slave States are, in fact, a gigantic governs the cost of labor in the Slave lottery, in which only the very few draw States. The value of all slaves is measured prizes, yet in which, buoyed up by speculawith relation to the value of a good field tive hope, all pay much more than the proper hand on a cotton plantation of far more than cost of their individual chance of a prize. the average—though less than the maximum The cotton culture can only be profitably -rate of profit. This is so, even in the pursued with large gangs of laborers, expeBorder Slave States, where no cotton is rienced overseers, and on rich lands. Rich grown. For even there the possibility of lands, indeed, are plenty, but capitalists rich realizing the value of a slave-estate by sell- enough to purchase large gangs of laborers, ing all the strong hands “ down South,” is and skilful enough to provide proper superone with reference to which the proprietors intendence, are few. Yet all pay for their uniformly estimate their available wealth. slaves at a rate which is so high as to be only * Journeys and Explorations in the Cotton King, Border States this costly labor, so far as it

really profitable to these few; and in the dom: a Traveller's Observations on Cotton and Slavery in the American Slare States. Based upon is employed at all, is employed on work on three former volumes of Journeys and Investiga- which it is in fact thrown away. The result tions by the same Author. By Frederic Law Olmsted. 'Two vols. Sampson Low.

is, that only those planters are really rich in

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