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Virginia and the Border States who have a where he is received at all, his reception is good deal of property either in rich cotton- the same; he is accepted sullenly, as a necestates “down South,” or in Northern securi-essary evil; he finds no trace of literature, ties, and who are content to spend their in- music, or art in the house ; he is fed well, comes so acquired on their Virginian estates, lodged uncomfortably, and, in the Southjust as an English gentleman farmer spends West, generally in beds full of vermin; he instead of gains on his hobby of farming. is lighted to bed by the planter himself, who
" This exceptional condition, then, it is acts as candle-stick to the dip-candle which obvious on the face of things, is maintained he carries, without any holder, in his hand; at an enormous expense, not only of money, finds his horse very indifferently attended to, but of nerve, time, temper, if not of human- and is charged five shillings when he leaves ity, or the world's judgment of humanity. the next morning. Here is his evidence as There is much inherited wealth, a cotton to the Cotton States ; plantation or two in Mississippi, and a few slips of paper in a broker's office in Wall “ Nine times out of ten, at least, I slept Street, that account for the comfort of this in a room with others, in a bed which stank, Virginia farmer, as with something of the supplied with but one sheet, if with any; Í pride which apes humility, he likes to style washed with utensils common to the whole himself. And after all, he has no road on household ; I found no garden, no flowers, no which he can drive his fine horses ; his phy- fruit, no tea, no cream, no sugar, no bread sician supposes the use of chloric ether as an (for corn pone let me assert in parenthesis, anæsthetic agent, to be a novel and interest- though possibly, as tastes differ, a very good ing subject of after-dinner eloquence ; he has thing of its kind for ostriches is not bread; no church within twenty miles, but one of neither does even flour, salt, fat, and water, logs, attendance on which is sure to bring on stirred together and warmed, constitute attack of neuralgia with his wife, and where bread); no curtains, no lifting windows only an ignorant ranter of a different faith (three times out of four absolutely no winfrom his own preaches at irregular intervals; dows), no couch—if one reclined in the famthere is no school which he is willing that ily room it was on the bare floor--for there his children should attend; his daily papers were no carpets or mats. For all that the come weekly, and he sees no book except house swarmed with vermin. There was no such as he has especially ordered from Nor- hay, no straw, no oats (but mouldy corn ton or Stevens. This being the exception, and leaves of maize), no discretion, no care, how is it with the community as a whole po honesty, at the- - ; there was no stable, As a whole, the community make shift to but a log-pen; and besides this, there was live, some part tolerably, the most part no other out-house but a smoke-house, a wretchedly enough, with arrangements such corn-house, and a range of nigger houses. as one might expect to find in a country in “From the banks of the Mississippi to the stress of war. Nothing which can be post- banks of James, I did not (that I remember) poned or overlooked, without immediate se- see, except perhaps in one or two towns, a rious inconvenience, gets attended to. One thermometer, nor a book of Shakspeare, nor soon neglects to inquire why this is not done a pianoforte, or a sheet of music; nor the or that; the answer is so certain to be that light of a carcel or other good centre-table there is no proper person to be got to do it or reading-lamp, nor an engraving or copy without more trouble-or expense-than it of any kind, of a work of art of the slightest is thought to be worth.”
merit.” The social condition in which Mr. Olmsted In addition to this he is generally struck found almost all the planters of the South- by the moral degradation which free interwest, and most of those of Virginia and the course with the slave cabins ensures for the Carolinas, is given with great and telling growing boys or girls of the planter, so much detail. Sometimes it was the result of real so that he finds all respectable parents are poverty, sometimes only of the vulgar mean- obliged to send them at an early age to the ness of the class of planters who have risen North to be educated, to avoid the brutalizout of the condition of agents or managers. ing and impure influences to which they are But both in the Border States and in the otherwise exposed. Cotton States, Mr. Olmsted's traditional im- The reasons why slave labor is so costly as pressions of the refinement and hospitality to be remunerative only under the special of the patriarchal state received rude and cotton monopoly, are also illustrated in mirepeated shocks. In almost every house nute and graphic details. In the first place, slave labor is not only very ignorant and whites to undertake such work, and then, shiftless, but the least danger of its becom- when pressed further with the inquiry, ing otherwise is met with eagerly repressive “ Why not send North and get some of our measures. Mr. Olmsted quotes several ob- laborers ?” by the direct admission, “ Well, servations on the part of the slave-owners the truth is, I have been used to driving nigto the effect that it did not do for the slaves gers, and I don't think I could drive white to be equal to “ taking care of themselves," men. I should not know how to manage and in one place he adds: “I begin to sus- them." The plea is, no doubt, perfectly pect that the great trouble and anxiety of sound. The habit of employing slave labor Southern gentlemen is, how, without quite incapacitates the master for the kind of sudestroying the capabilities of the negro for perintendence which alone would tell upon any work at all, to prevent him from learn- freemen--the authority without arbitrariness, ing to take care of himself.” Another source the firmness without menace, the cheerful of failure in slave labor is the strong motive kindness without familiarity, which they have for idleness, and therefore for exaggerating unlearnt in “ driving" slaves. or feigning illness. An amusing illustration We have dwelt chiefly on the fruits of the of this is given :
system to the white population of the Slave
States, and shown that it pauperizes, as well Frequently the invalid slaves neglect or
as vulgarizes and brutalizes them. We refuse to use the remedies prescribed for their recovery. They conceal pills, for in- might easily extend this demonstration to a stance, under their tongue, and declare that length far beyond the limits of any newspathey have swallowed them, when, from their per article, but, in conclusion, let us extract producing no effect, it will be afterwards evi- Mr. Olmsted's deliberate and reluctant condent that they have not. This general cus-clusion as to the influence exerted on the tom I heard ascribed to habit, acquired when slaves themselves by their contact with the they were not very ill, and were loth to be white race. He had, he says, always believed made quite well enough to have to go to and argued that it was to some considerable work again. Amusing incidents, illustrating this difficulty, I have heard narrated, show- extent, a discipline of value :ing that the slave rather enjoys getting a
“ The benefit of the African which is supsevere wound that lays him up : he has his hand crushed by the fall of a piece of tim- posed to be incidental
. to American slavery, ber, and after the pain is alleviated, is heard which he is forced into intercourse with a to exclaim, Bless der Lord — der haan b’long to masser—don't reckon dis chile got ple. Before I visited the South, I had be
superior race and made subject to its examno more corn to hoe dis yaar, nohow.''
lieved that the advantages accruing from But the worst cases of indolence and de- slavery, in this way, far outweighed the ocmoralization of this sort are those in which casional cruelties, and other evils incidental the slave belongs to one man and is hired by tal and moral condition of the negroes, even
to the system. I found, however, the menanother. Here, the power over him being in Virginia, and in those towns and districts divided, and his owner not suffering the loss containing the largest proportion of whites, of any indisposition or idleness on the part much lower than I had anticipated ; and as of the slave, the cases of such feigned illness soon as I had an opportunity to examine one are innumerable.
of the extensive plantations of the interior, It seems at first sight strange that slave although one inherited by its owner, and the labor being so costly and inefficient, there
home of a large and virtuous white family, I should not, in the Border States at least, be the blacks from association with their white
was satisfied that the advantages arising to a strong disposition to employ free labor as masters were very inconsiderable, scarcely largely as possible in order to supersede it. appreciable, for the great majority of the field But one of the great vices of the system is hands. Even the overseer had barely acthat while it makes the poorer whites unwill- quaintance enough with the slaves, individuing to do anything for which a slave is usu
ally, to call them by name; the owner could ally employed, it also makes the master most his own chattels, or whether it was another
not determine if he were addressing one of reluctant to employ such aid. The masters man's property, he said, when by chance he answered Mr. Olmsted's inquiries on this came upon a negro off the work. Much less head first by stating the reluctance of the I did the slaves have an opportunity to cultivate their minds by intercourse with other Nor is this a mere opinion. The detailed white people. Whatever of civilization, and evidence of the book supports it in full, as of the forms, customs, and shibboleths of indeed it does almost every opinion which Christianity, they were acquiring by exam. Mr. Olmsted advances on this painful subple, and through police restraints, might, it occurred to me, after all, but poorly com- ject. We know of no book in which signifipensate the effect of the systematic with cant but complex social facts are so fairly, drawal from them of all the usual influences minutely, and intelligently photographed which tend to nourish the moral nature and in which there is so great intrinsic evidence develop the intellectual faculties, in savages of impartiality-in which all the evidence as well as in civilized free men. This doubt, given is at once so minute and so essential, as my Northern friends well know, for I had and the inferences deduced so practical, habitually assumed the opposite,
in all pre- broad, and impressive. vious discussions of the slavery question, was unexpected and painful to me.
SITTING by the sea-shore a few days since, we | tle exercise of ingenuity, every lighthouse on the could not help noticing the vast reservoir of me- coast could be illuminated with sunlike brilchanical power existing in the ocean. We do liancy, and with absolutely no expenditure of not refer to the noisy dash of the waves as they fuel ; the very same mechanical power of the break upon the beach, but to the infinitely ocean, which in its brute force would dash the mightier, although silent and progressive, energy helpless vessel to pieces against the rocks, being exerted in the gradual rise and fall of the tides. bound and coerced like the genii in Eastern tales, Compared with the stupendous power capable and transformed by man's intellect into a lumi. of being, utilized for man's benefit, and present nous beacon to warn the mariner against the apin the rise or fall of millions upon millions of proach of danger.—London Weekly Review. . tons of water through a space of ten or twenty
feet four times a day, all the steam, water, or
THE FALL OF THE APPLE. — The ManWe will try to form some idea of this power. chester folks are buying up all the apples, so Let us suppose that by the action of the tides that we are threatened with a cider famine.' It the difference of level of the surface of the ocean at a certain spot is twenty-one feet between high and low water : omitting for the present all con- “That the Manchester calico-dyers and print. sideration of the power of the subjacent liquid, ers have discovered that apple juices supply a what is the mechanical value of a space of 100 | desideratum long wanted in making fast colors yards square of this water? 100 yards square for their printed cottons." by 21 feet deep equals 70,000 cubic yards of water, which is lifted to a height of 21 feet, or to This is not the first time in the history of the 1,470,000 cubic yards lifted to a height of one world that the apple has been the fruit of misfoot. Now, since one cubic yard of water weighs chief or discord, or that a question of momenabout 1,683 pounds, 1,470,000 cubic yards weigh tous gravity has turned upon its fall. How2,474,010,000 pounds, which is lifted in six ever, we are very sorry, for apple juices are hours. This is equivalent to lifting a weight of good for something more than what is drily 412,335,000 foot pounds in one hour; and since stated in the above paragraph; for do they not one horse-power is considered equivalent to rais- in warm weather supply, also, a “de-cideriny 1,800,000 foot pounds per hour, we have atum” in quenching a pedestrian's thirst ? Since locked up in every 100 yards square of sea sur- they are to be used for the future only for printface, a power equal to a 230 horse-power steam- ing, we suppose we shall find their taste and engine, acting, be it remembered, day and night quality principally displayed in Gros-de-Napto the end of time, requiring no supervision, and ples --Punch. costing nothing after the first outlay but the wear and tear of machinery.
By means of appropriate machinery connected with this tidal movement, any kind of work
MR. MURRAY has in the press, among other could be readily performed. Water could be novelties for the coming season, " The Story of hoisted or air compressed to any desired extent, Lord Bacon's Life,” in which all the known so as to accumulate power for future use, or for materials for an estimate of the Great Philosotransport to distant stations. Light of surpass- pher will be brought together, and an answer ing splendor could be generated by means of will be made by way of narrative—to the mismagneto-electric machines; and with a very lit- representations of the critics of his career.
From The Athenæum. of hieroğlyphic writing there seems to hate Egyptian Hieroglyphics ; being an Attempt been greater simplicity; and Mr. Sharpe obto explain their Nature, Origin, and Mean- serves, that the great kings who ruled in ing. With a Vocabulary. By Samuel Thebes when Egypt was in its purest state Sharpe. Moxon & Co.
used only three or four characters within the This work, by the accomplished historian first oval, and, perhaps, six within the secof Egypt, gives a further proof of the depth ond; whilst for the Ptolemies, in the age of of his researches, and of the extent of the decadence, as many as thirty characters were materials within his grasp. Uninviting as crowded within the oval ring :sheets of hieroglyphics are found to be by the general mass of readers, this little vol- lished which were certainly sculptured before
“ Although several inscriptions are pubume will do much, by its clearness and sim- the time of Moses, yet all of them contain plicity, to remove all objections, and to cre- many words spelt with letters ; none of them ate an interest where none existed before. are sufficiently ancient to show the original Mr. Sharpe's Vocabulary consists of upwards introduction of letters among the symbols. of two thousand groups of hieroglyphic signs, But, as none of them contain any peculiarietc., forming phrases, and arranged, not ac
ties which would lead us to suppose that they cording to any alphabetical system or classi
were among the first specimens of carved fication of the objects represented, but ac- research may throw light upon this interest
hieroglyphics, it seems probable that future cording to the resemblance of their mean- ing subject, by making us acquainted with ings, so as to form a regular succession of inscriptions of a more primitive form. It is ideas. The book is, therefore, hardly avail- not impossible that we may find inscriptions able as a dictionary, but it becomes espe- in which we may perceive the absence of letcially valuable as showing the consistency ters felt as a want, and the mode in which with which the ancient Egyptians employed that want was first supplied. In the later certain figures for particular ideas, and re-written by means of letters certainly in:
inscriptions, however, the number of words tained them through their various modifica- creased, as also the number of letters used tions. The names of the gods are placed to form a word; and, indeed, the number of first, then the temples, priests, service, etc.; letters, and the complexity of the words, may then kings, kingdoms, countries, time, as- at all times be admitted as strong evidence tronomy, calendar, and so on. In each in- in proof of the modernness of an inscrip
tion." stance a special authority is cited, so as to refer the reader at once either to the Ro- In proceeding to the evidence borne by setta Stone, Tablet of Abydos, or to some the Greeks and Romans upon the significaparticular and published inscription, by tion of Egyptian bieroglyphics, Mr. Sharpe which he may satisfy himself or pursue the gives us the following quotation :subject still further. Nothing can be fairer. The introduction, which occupies a consid- sis on Homer's Iliad,' has saved for us a
“ Tzetzes the grammarian, in his • Exegeerable portion of the book, contains a full fragment from the lost work of Chæremon but concise history of our acquaintance with on hieroglyphics. It is too valuable to be hieroglyphics, of the value of the various omitted. Some of his explanations confirm statements transmitted to us by the Greek those given in the Vocabulary. . . . The and Latin authors, ana, finally, gives us a words of Tzetzes are as follows:... For lucid account of the peculiarities of the old joy, they paint a woman playing on a drum, Egyptian system of writing.
and for misfortune, an eye weeping; for not
having, two empty hands outstretched; for Even in the outset Mr. Sharpe's observa- rising, a snake coming out of a hole ; for tions on the alphabet, although very simple, setting, the same going in ; for return to life, have a peculiar interest. We learn that, in a frog; for the soul, a hawk; the same for almost all cases, the reader of Egyptian let- the sun, and for God; for a child-bearing ters, in following the order of the words, woman and mother, and time, and heaven, a meets the faces of the animals and the points self-born, and male, a beetle ; for the earth,
vulture ; for a king, a bee ; for birth, and and openings of the other letters. In the
bull. The foreparts of a lion signify acHebrew, Greek, Arabic, and even in our cording to them all government and guard; own printed alphabet, the reader follows the a lion's tail, necessity; a stag, the year, and backs of the letters. In the earlier stages a palm-branch the same; a boy signifies in
crease; an old man, decay ; a bow, sharp, have derived the name phenix, povič a palmforce; and there are a thousand other such.""
tree, for their fabled bird. The work entitled " The Hieroglyphics of
Nor should the following be omitted :Horapollo Nilous," professedly translated Chap. 32. When they would represent from the Coptic into Greek, by one Philip, delight, they write the number sixteen. is next commented upon at considerable Note. We have a coin of Hadrian, with the length:
figures Sixteen over a reclining figure of a
river god, to denote that sixteen cubits was “Out of the one hundred and eighty-nine the height of rise in the Nile at all times groups which Horapollo undertakes to ex-wished for. We have other coins on which plain, it would be difficult to point out forty the river god is surrounded by sixteen little in which he has a knowledge of the true naked children or Cupids ; and it would almeaning; and in most of these he is re- most seem that the Alexandrian artist had, markably mistaken in the reasons which he in this case, had in his mind the similarity assigns for the meaning. He is not aware in sound, in the Latin language, between that the characters represent sounds, but Cupids and cubits.” supposes them all to be figurative or alle
There is, also, a very interesting table of gorical. We are told by Suidas that Horapollo was a grammarian of the reign of Thehieroglyphic letters
, showing, in the first inodosius, who, after teaching for some time stance, those which had been borrowed by in the schools of Alexandria, removed to the Hebrews, and, secondly, those adopted Constantinople; but we may fairly doubt by the Greeks. The Egyptian letter T, repwhether our author is the person he is speak- resented by a hand, called Teth, is clearly ing of.”
imitated in the Hebrew u, where the thumb Mr. Sharpe, however, by his quotations brew Aleph, x, and the Greek A are also de
and bent fingers are still traceable. The Hefrom the author, and by the illustrations which he himself adduces from the well-rived from the Egyptian eagle. The Greek known and genuine monuments of Egypt, Delta, 4, is only a simplification of the shows that Horapollo was not altogether Egyptian symbol of the human shoulder misinformed; and we feel a regret that, in
with two arms raised to a point; and a review like the present, it would not be the Hebrew k, s, is derived from the huconsistent to follow him more minutely.
man arms raised vertically in the EgypThe following examples of his quotations tian, but modified, by being turned on and notes may suffice :
end, by the Hebrews. The Egyptian head
dress becomes the letter N both with the “ Chap 56. When they wish to signify a Hebrews and Greeks, and the letter S, in king that governs absolutely, and shows no like manner, grows in both languages from mercy to faults, they draw an eagle. Note. a peculiar form adopted in the hieroglyphics. The eagle and globe is the usual title of a It is entertaining enough to follow out these king. The eagle is an A, the globe is Ra, making the word king; and, with article various changes and adoptions, but without prefixed, the well-known word Pharaoh.- the types and hieroglyphics themselves no Chap. 57. When they wish to signify a adequate idea can be given. On glancing great cyclical renovation, they draw the bird down the columns of these symbolic figures, phænix."
given in the plates, and finding how thorMr. Sharpe in his note upon this refers to oughly particular forms and objects are thus a coin of the Emperor Antonius with the classified and kept together, we feel that the word AINN, an age or period, written over
author has really adopted the best possible an ibis. This marks the conclusion of a system both for reference and for general great year, on which occasion the ibis or
reading ; and we must, in conclusion, exj phænix was said to return to earth. In our admiration at the very clear and charachieroglyphics, a palm-branch is the word teristic manner in which the illustrations "year ; ” and from this the Greeks seem to have been drawn.