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between them and a bookseller's shop. It is touching to witness the indications Give another hundred a year of income, and vestiges of sweet and admirable things and the poor struggling parson who preaches which have been subjected to a weight which dull sermons will astonish you by the talent has entirely crushed them down : things he will exhibit when his mind is freed from which would have come out into beauty and the dismal depressing influence of ceaseless excellence if they had been allowed a chance. scheming to keep the wolf from the door. You may witness one of the saddest of all Let the poor little sick child grow strong the losses of nature in various old maids. and well, and with how much better heart What kind hearts are there running to will its father face the work of life! Let waste! What pure and gentle affections the clergyman, who preached, in a spiritless blossom to be blighted! I dare say you enough way, to a handful of uneducated have heard a young lady of more than forty rustics, be placed in a charge where weekly sing ; and you have seen her eyes fill with he has to address a large cultivated.congre- tears at the pathos of a very commonplace gation; and with the new stimulus, latent verse. Have you not thought that there powers may manifest themselves which no was the indication of a tender heart which one fancied he possessed, and he may prove might have made some good man happy; quite an eloquent and attractive preacher. and, in doing so, made herself happy too ? A dull, quiet man, whom you esteemed as a But it was not to be. Still, it is sad to blockhead, may suddenly be valued very dif- think that sometimes upon cats and dogs ferently when circumstances unexpectedly there should be wasted the affection of a call out the solid qualities he possesses, un- kindly human being! And you know, too, suspected before. A man devoid of bril- how often the fairest promise of human exliancy, may on occasion show that he pos- cellence is never suffered to come to fruit. sesses great good sense ; or that he has the You must look upon gravestones to find power of sticking to his task, in spite of the names of those who promised to be the discouragement. Let a man be placed where best and noblest specimens of the race. dogged perseverance will stand him in stead, They died in early youth ; perhaps in early and you may see what he can do when he childhood. Their pleasant faces, their sinhas but a chance. The especial weight which gular words and ways, remain, not often has held some men back-the thing which talked of, in the memories of subdued parkept them from doing great things and at- ents, or of brothers and sisters now grown taining great fame-has been just this : that old, but never forgetting how that one of they were not able to say or to write what the family that was as the flower of the flock they have thought and felt. And indeed, a was the first to fade. It has been a provergreat poet is nothing more than the one bial saying, you know, even from heathen man in a million who has the gift to express | ages, that those whom the gods love die that which has been in the mind and heart young. It is but an inferior order of human of multitudes. If even the most common-beings that makes the living succession to place of human beings could write all the carry on the human race. poetry he has felt, he would produce some
A. K. H. B. thing that would go straight to the hearts of many.
In a western suburb of London a few persons ment, including some gorgeous white satin in the have been admitted to witness a work of art in interior, in which lies a large quantity of the the coffin way. An artist-upholsterer having same material which is to serve for a "wrappingfurnished an opera-box much to the satisfaction sheet" when the time for opera-boxes has altoof the lady who gave the order, she further gether passed away. Meanwhile, it will do duty commissioned him to provide her with a "four- as an article of furniture ; and as serving to il. teenth-century coffin.” A very superb article lustrate a social trait of the present time, is not has been produced accordingly. The modern- unworthy of having record made of it here.antique is unexceptionable in form and adorn-' Athenæum.
From All the Year Round. is as the very life-blood of our minds and IN AND OUT OF SCHOOL.
souls. It is not a thing to be spilt idly, It is an old notion, and in the main a though the world is full of bores who are true one, that we do not often get original ready at every turn to bleed us of it with thought out of a man with an extensive their little pins and fleams of talk. To memory. Memory comes of attention, and nourish and strengthen it in childhood and one cannot easily have the strength of an youth, is to do for the mind what we do for equal memory without the weakness of an the body by securing to its life-blood purity equal disposition to attend to everything. and fulness. It is not only that during early I never am impressed with stories about years of life the secret of successful teaching Julius Cæsar and others, who were able to for good or for evil is the full securing of do half a dozen things at once--read a letter attention, but it is necessary that the youth on one subject, hear a letter on another, should pass into manhood blessed in his write a letter on a third, and dictate a letter mind with a sound habit of attention, if his on a fourth, while they beat time with their intellectual life is not to be through manfeet to one tune, whistled another in the hood weak, intervals of dictation, played a game of chess Of the truth of this old principle, which with the left hand, and took part by expres- has been dwelt upon for many a year by the sive grimace in a theologic controversy, all metaphysicians, practical evidence of the during the odd minutes when they were most striking kind has lately been brought being shaved and washed, and brushed and together in a body of facts that would seem oiled, and put into their clothes. Very to many people very nearly incredible, it well I know that whenever Julius Cæsar had they were not fully supported by each other, anything serious to attend to, he gave his and authenticated by the best of witnesses. entire mind to it, and, for the time being, For, it is set forth, not as mere probahad spare attention to bestow on nothing bility, but as a proved fact, that half a day else.
is better than a whole day of school-teachHere is the whole history and mystery of ing. If three hours instead of six be given the bad general memory of men who excel daily to the schoolmaster, and be so mangreatly in any one pursuit, by giving to it aged that the pupil is physically and menas far as the way of the world permits tally able to give bright undivided attention a whole and sole attention. With their to the whole of his work, he not only can busy minds attentive to their own work learn absolutely as much as the child who is while their bodies are inactive, and while compelled through a six-hour routine; it is they may look like the very idlers, they his further gain that what he knows he knows withdraw so much attention from the odds more literally “by heart,” knows with a reland ends of talk and incident by which ish; while he is sent out into the world with they are surrounded, that these never take a habit of close study, so assured that he a fair hold on the mind. The scholar's hardly knows what it is to apply his mind absence of mind is the absence of his mind with half attention to a duty. from that which is not his affair, and the The second half of the day, which now, presence of it with his own proper work in being spent in the schoolroom spoils the life. To that only, he is able to give undi- whole, if it be devoted to gymnastics, drill, vided and continuous attention. A diffuse athletic sport, or-in the case of those who and too universally ready memory is, there must work with their parents for the bread fore, no sign of intellectual strength; and they eat to labor in the house and field, even in children—as we commonly read that can and does serve to train a sound body the man of genius was taken for a dunce at while helping to a fuller ripeness of the school-slowness of general apprehension mind. We say, not theoretically that it may be the result of an earnestness that would do, but practically, and from the wide fastens with especial energy upon some experience of many, that it does this. Here, chosen objects of attention.
for example, is a heap of evidence. From the first moment of a baby's “ tak- Mr. William Stuckey, who is teaching ing notice,” to the fixed heavenward gaze eighty children at Richmond, and has worked from the death-bed, the power of attention for more than a quarter of a century in Latin granum, or the French grain, which more costly but perishable Tyrian purple : signifies a seed or corn. There is, however, hence the expression, "purple in grain,” as a species of oak, or ilex, common on all the used by Shakspeare, Midsummer Night's Mediterranean coasts, and especially in Dream, i. 2. After this, no further comSpain, which is frequented by an insect the mentary is needed for another expression of dried body of which furnishes a variety of the same poet in the Comedy of Errors, iii. 2. red dyes. This insect was called coccus, Here, to the observation of Antipholus and the prepared coccum was, on account of “ That's a fault that water will mend," its seedlike form, spoken of simply as gra- Dromio replies num, or grain. According to Pliny, Spain paid half of its tribute in this granum, or this drudgery are not so entirely useless as and perfect as independent vocables. Flüwe are apt to think. Although neither the gel estimated the number of words in his Rabbis nor the Brahmins thought of anything own dictionary at 94,464, of which 65,085 beyond the mere pleasure which they derived are simple, 29,379 compound. This was in from accumulating useless facts, these facts, 1843 ; and he then expressed a hope that in like many other facts and statistics, may, in his next edition the number of words would the hands of the student of language, lead to far exceed 100,000. This is the number the discovery of new and really important fixed upon by Mr. Marsh (p. 181) as the laws. Thus, in order to discover the exact minimum of the copia vocabulorum in Engproportions of the various elements which lish; but he adds that no dictionary contains enter into the formation of the English more than two-thirds, or at most threetongue, it is absolutely necessary to imitate fourths, of the words which make up the the Rabbis, and to count every word that English language (p. 121). This may be or occurs in the English dictionary. All other not. What we have to consider is whether, attempts at fixing the relation of the Anglo- if we take M. Thommerel's inventory as corSaxon to the Roman words in the English rect for the time when it was made, the new language could not but prove failures. additions in our more recent dictionaries are Hickes, no inconsiderable scholar in his likely to disturb the result of his calculations. time, argued that because there are but three Now, Mr. Marsh is of opinion that the words words of Latin origin in the Lord's Prayer, which are most neglected by lexicographers nine-tenths of the English language are of are those which belong to the arts and to the Saxon origin. Sharon Turner, who extended bumbler fields of life, and are chiefly Saxon. his observations over a larger field, came to But if we look to the additions that have the conclusion that four-fifths were of native been made to our dictionaries during the growth. Another writer supposing the whole last fifty years, the largest proportion by far number of English words to amount to 38,- consists of scientific and technical terms; 000, assigns 23,000 to a Saxon and 15,000 to and arly all of these ar of classical origin. a classical source. In fact, it was never There are very few genuine Saxon words that doubted that in English the Saxon element were overlooked by Johnson, and even the could claim a numerical majority until M. dialect of the lower classes supplies new Thommerel took a complete inventory of the meanings rather than new words. The very English language, by counting every word instance which Mr. Marsh mentions of the in the Dictionaries of Robertson and Web- neglect of common mechanical terms, “a tenster. The sum total of English words con- penny nail,” only adds a new meaning to the tained in these works was found to be 43,566, usual meanings of penny; it does not add a out of which 29,853 were traced back to new word. Tenpenny nails,” he informs classical, 13,330 to Teutonic, and the rest to us, are so-called because a thousand of them miscellaneous sources. After the confident weigh ten pounds, so that penny in this assertions of Hickes and Sharon Turner, that phrase would seem to be used in the sense nine-tenths or four-fifths of the English lan- of pound. But this new sense would not guage were of native Saxon growth, it was cause a new entry in our dictionaries; wherecertainly startling to find that more than as, we can hardly open a page of what pretwo-thirds of the English Dictionary have to tends to be a complete dictionary without be assigned to a foreign source, leaving not being met by the most uncouth and un-Engquite one-third for the national Saxon ele- lish terms, lately coined by persons well acment.
No, sir, 'tis in grain, Noah's flood could not do
it.' coccum, and hence the still living name of Granada. Although ancient writers distin
Here “'tis in grain," simply means, that it guish carefully between the coccum, the
is in the original dye, and therefore fast or cheaper dye, and the more costly shell-fish, unchangeable. Thus, what is ingrained in purple, the color of the coccus, must have our mind is, as it were, incorporated like a approached very nearly to that of the
Tyrian color with the natural substance, though we murex. Purpureus in Latin comprised more
little think of the cheap Spanish dye which shades of color than our modern purple,
formed the fundamental color, afterwards which is generally confined to the violet hue. tempered by the more precious purple of Milton clearly used grain in the sense of Tyre, when we now speak of ingrained prejpurple in the following lines :
udices. The same insect which the Romans
received from Spain was known to the « Over his lucid arms
Indians at the time of Ctesias. (Ctesias, A military vest of purple flowed Livelier than Melibean, or the grain
c, 21. ed. Bahr.) They likewise used it for Of Sarra, worn by kings and heroes old dyeing, and called it Krimi, the worm. The In time of truce; Iris had dipped the woof." Persians called it Kirm, a word borrowed by As Sarra is a name of Tyre, grain of Sarra the Jews, who called it Karmil, the English can only be intended for Tyrian purple, carmine. The Arabs changed it to Kirmiz, though in its original and etymological which us Kermes became the title by which sense granum, corn would not be applicable the dye produced by the coccus insect was, to the dye of the Tyrian shell-fish.
and is still, known in commerce. From In a third passage, grain is still more
this, again the English crimson. The Roclearly used by Milton, not in the sense of mans, though adopting the Greek name color in general, but of the special color of coccus, berry, which still lives in the Italian purple :
coccinilia, the French cochenille, were suffi
ciently aware of the real nature of the Kirmis “Six wings he wore, to shade
to apply to it a native title, vermiculum, His lineaments divine; the pair that clad Each shoulder broad came mantling o'er his (Hieronymi Epist. lxiv. 19), the little worm, breast,
the Italian vermiglio, the English vermilion. With regal ornament; the middle pair These names, crimson as well as vermilion, Girt like a starry zone his waist, and round Skirted his loins and thighs with downy gold
though signifying originally an animal dye And colors dipp'd in heaven; the third his feet alone, came to be used as names of colors, Shadowed from either heel with feathered mail
, so that people now speak of the KermesSky-tinctured grain."
mineral- a contradiction in terms, if taken “Sky-tinctured grain ” could never mean on in its etymological sense of worm-mineral, Milton's lips “sky-tinctured color.” It is but readily understood in the sense of a crimthe purple of the sky, and the same purple son mineral dye. In the same way, too, has color was intended by the poet in the dark- vermilion lost its etymological purport of est grain in which he robes his melancholy. worm-color, and is restricted in technical
There is another offshoot of this word. language to the sulphuret of mercury. Grain, as we have seen, was used for dyeing “Our natural tung," as Richard Mulcasin red or purple. It was a fast color, and ter said, “cummeth on us by hudle ;” and Pliny tells us that it was usual after dyeing it is always interesting to see it unhudled by wool in grain, to dye it afterwards in the an ingenious and careful scholar like Mr. LIVING AGE.
Marsh. But the very instance which we
SECOND NOTICE. have here selected from his Lectures shows MR. MARSH's Lectures treat of so many how impossible it would be to separate the subjects full of interest not only to the scholar study of English from that of its cognate but to the general reader, that it seems but languages. Goethe's remark, that "he who fair both to the author and to the public to is acquainted with no foreign tongue knows devote a second notice to his valuable work nothing of his own,” is true from whatever on the English language. Though it is not side we look at it. Mr. Marsh has com- a work which has added materially to the pletely misunderstood the bearing of this stock of knowledge brought together by the remark. He takes it in the only sense in laborious researches of English and Contiwhich Goethe could not have meant it, and nental scholars, its author has made excelit is extraordinary that in the several pages lent use of the labors of his predecessors, which he devotes to the refutation of this and his lectures are written in an easy and apophthegm, it should never have struck unpretending style, his arguments distinhim that the German words could by no guished by fairness and good sense. We possibility have conveyed the meaning which hardly know of any work that we could more he labors to demolish. There was no neces- honestly recommend to those who, without sity for reminding Goethe that Homer wishing to dive very deep into Anglo-Saxon, knew Greek, though he did not know any Icelandic, and Gothic, would be glad to learn other language, or that David was a great all that is known about the origin, the hispoet, though he probably never learnt his tory, and character of their own tongue ; grammar. “ The indiscriminate admira- and though some of the lectures are a little tion,” he writes, “with which this great rhetorical, and now and then some pages writer is regarded by his followers, leads filled with irrelevant matter, the book, as a them to consider his most trivial, and un- whole, is full of pleasant reading and useful guarded utterances as oracles.” Now Goe-learning. the's remark may be called trivial, but it There are some interesting remarks on certainly was not unguarded. It only ex- what we might call the statistics of the Engpresses in a telling way the old truth that lish language in Mr. Marsh's sixth lecture, all our knowledge is founded on comparison“ On the Sources, Composition, and Etymo-that we are cognizant of the individual by logical proportions of English.” Observameans of the general. His remark acquires, tions of this kind are mostly scattered about however, still greater truth as applied to a in treatises on special authors, and the mere subject like language, with which we are collecting them is therefore highly valuable. 80 familiar that our very familiarity is apt to It is curious how far devotion to some special breed, if not contempt, at least heedless-work will carry a student, and in particular ness; and Mr. Marsh ought at least to have an editor. The labors of the Rabbis are genremembered that the first scientific treat- erally quoted as the most striking examples of ment of language, even in its simplest form, this kind of useless scholarship, but they stand owed its impulse to the study of foreign by no means alone. If they counted the numlanguages. Surely, no one would quarrel ber of words, of syllables, and even of letters with a comparative anatomist who should which occur in the Old Testament, the same venture to assert that he who is not ac- thing was done by the Brahmins in India, quainted with the anatomy of other animals for their sacred books. As early as the third knows nothing of the anatomy of his own century B.C., they composed a complete inbody, or with a botanist who should main- dex of the Rig Veda, counting every word tain that an acquaintance with more than and every syllable; and at a later time, one plant was necessary for a knowledge of they drew up lists of all the words consisting botany. If the remark is more strikingly of one, two, three, four, five, six, seven or true with regard to language than to any more syllables, of all words ending in m, n, other subject, it is all the more inexcusable t, and the like. We may pity the man who for a student of language not to have per- thus spends his life as a calculating machine; ceived the drift of the poet's dictum. but the results which have been obtained by
quainted with everything but Greek and Mr. Marsh was either not acquainted with Latin. We should think, therefore, that if these statistical tables published by M. the inventory made by Thommerel were to be Thommerel, or he may have considered them taken again with reference to the latest edi. antiquated on account of the great increase tion of Flügel, the balance would be even of words in the more recent dictionaries of more in favor of the classical element, whilst the English language. Todd's edition of the Saxon element would dwindle down to Johnson is said to contain 58,000 words, and considerably less than one-third of the whole the later editions of Webster 70,000, count- language. How, then, are we to account ing, however, the participles of the present for statements like those of Dean Trench?