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“Suppose,” he writes, “the English lan- prepositions, without which it is impossible guage to be divided into a hundred parts; of to form a single sentence are all of Saxon these, to make a rough distribution, sixty origin ; they occur over and over again in would be Saxon, thirty would be Latin-in- every line ; and, even if we imagined a sencluding, of course, the Latin which has come tence consisting entirely of Romance nouns to us through the French-five would be and verbs, the definite and indefinite articles Greek ; we should thus have assigned ninety- which are joined to most substantives, and five parts, leaving the other five, perhaps too the personal pronouns by which most verbs large a residue, to be divided among all the are preceded, would at once readjust the other languages from which we have adopted balance in favor of Saxon. These two methisolated words." We can only suppose that ods, therefore, of estimating the relative the Dean formed his estimate of the propor- strength of the component parts of English tions in English of Saxon and non-Saxon or any other language must be kept strictly elements on the same basis as Sharon Tur- distinct. For computing the etymological ner, and transferred the results thus obtained proportions of the entire vocabulary, nothto the vocabulary. Sharon Turner took a ing short of M. Thommerel's process will number of extracts from the most eminent be satisfactory. For calculating the relative, writers, each of them consisting, on an aver- preponderence of indigenous and foreign age, of about one hundred words. By assign- words in the language of common life or of ing each word to one of two classes, Saxon literature, we may have recourse to Sharon and non-Saxon, he found that

Turner's system, only that it must be exShakspeare uses 85 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 15 of tended over a much larger area. This is other words.

what Mr. Marsh has endeavored to do. The Milton uses 81 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 19 of other passages which he selected from the same

words. Cowley uses 89 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 11 of authors on which Sharon Turner made his other words.

calculations, and some others, extended as English Bible uses 97 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 3 a rule, to several thousand words; and

of other words. Thomson uses 85 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 15 of they are taken from different works of the other words.

same author, in order to guard, as much Addison uses 83 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 17 of as possible, against the inevitable influence

other words. Spenser uses 81 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 19 of choice of words. Mr. Marsh shows, for

which certain subjects must exercise on the other words. Locke uses 80 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 20 of other instance, that the extract from Swift, which words.

contains ninety words, ten or eleven of Pope uses 76 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 24 of other which are marked by Turner as non-Saxon,

words. Young uses 79 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 21 of other is a picked sentence: that in the John Buil words.

-as thoroughly English a performance as Swift uses 89 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 11 of other any of Swift's works--the foreign words are words.

at least in the proportion of fifteen per Robertson uses 68 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 32 of other words.

cent; in his History of the Four Last Years Hume uses 65 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 35 of other of Queen Anne, twenty-eight per cent; in words.

his Political Lying, more than thirty per Gibbon uses 58 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 42 of cent, and in some passages amounting to

other words. Johnson uses 75 per cent Anglo-Saxon, 25 of forty. Thus Ruskin, who in his theoretiother words.

cal discussions allows himself from twentyIt is clear from this that if Dean Trench had five to twenty per cent of Latin derivaconfined his remarks to the English language tives has succeeded in composing the first as written and spoken by our best authors six periods of the sixth Exercise in his Eleor statesmen, his average division of English ments of Draring, containing one hundred into sixty per cent of Anglo-Saxon and thirty and eight words, almost entirely of Saxon per cent of classical words would have been materials--the only two words not Saxon fairly correct; but, as applied to the diction- being "pale " and " practise.” ary, it is completely erroneous. A moment's We conclude our notice of Mr. Marsh's reflection will show us the cause of this dif- Lectures with a table containing the results ference. Our pronouns, our articles, our of his statistical observations as to the

Per et.

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83

proportion of Saxon and non-Saxon ele-
ments in some of the most prominent English Junius, Letters, xii. to xxiii.

Johnson, Preface to Dictionary, entire . 76

72 and American writers, both ancient and mod- Hume, History of England, general sketch ern. We sincerely hope that the present dis- of Commonwealth, forming conclusion of turbed state of New York will cause no inter- chap lx.

73 ruption to the literary activity of the author Gibbon, Decline and Fall

, Vol. I., chap. vii. 40

Webster, Second Speech on Foot's Resolution, of these Lectures. They certainly constitute

entire

75 one of the most acceptable contributions to Irving, Stout Gentleman

85 English scholarship which we have received Westminster Abbey

77

75 for many years from the other side of the Macaulay, Essay on Lord Bacon

75 Atlantic :

Canning, Essay on Milton
Cobbett, on Indian Corn, chap. xi.

80 Per ct: Prescott, Philip II., Book I. chap ix. 77 Robert of Gloucester, Narrative of Con

Bancroft, History, Vol. VII., Battle of Bunquest, pp. 354, 364, employs of Anglo

ker's Hill Saxon words

78 96

92 Piers Ploughman, Introduction, entire

Bryant, Death of the Flower:

88 Passus Decimus-Quartus,

Thanatopsis

84 Mrs. Browning, Cry of the Children entire

92 84

Crowned and Buried Piers Ploughman, Passus Decimus-Nonus

Lost Bower

77 and Vicesimus, entire

89 Robert Browning, Blougram's Apology 84 Piers Ploughman, Creed, entire

94 Everett, Eulogy on J. Q. Adams, last twenty Chaucer, Prologue to Canterbury Tales, first

76 420 verses Chaucer, Nonnes Preestes Tale, entire :

88 Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, Pe-
93
riod II., chap. i.

73
Squiers Tale, entire
91

87 Prose Tale of Melibaus, in about

Tennyson, The Lotus-Eaters :

In Memoriam, first twenty poems 89 3,000 words.

89

Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol. II., Part Sir Thomas More, Coronation of Richard

III., sec. ii., 5. Of the Superhuman
III., etc., seven folio pages

84
Ideal

73 Spenser, Faerie Queene, Book II., Canto

Ruskin, Elements of Drawing, first six exervii.

86
cises

84 New Testament:-St John's Gospel

, chaps.
Longfellow, Miles Standish, entire

87 i., iv., xvii.

96 New Testament :-St. Matthew, chaps. vii.,

Martineau, Endeavors after the Christian
Life. III. Discourse

74. xvii., xviii.

93 New Testament:-St. Luke, chaps. xii. xxii ...

92 New Testament :-Romans, chaps. ii., vii., where Mr. Marsh could avail himself of com

xi., xv. Shakspeare, Henry IV., Part I., Act II. 91 plete verbal indexes--the Bible, Shakspeare, Othello, Act V.

89 Milton, and the Ormulum. In the complete Tempest, Act I.

88 vocabulary of the English Bible sixty per Milton, L'Allegro

90

cent are native; in that of Shakspeare the Il Penseroso

83 Paradise Lost, Book vi.

80 proportion is very nearly the same; in the Addison, Several numbers of Spectator 82 poetical works of Milton less than thirtyPope, First Epistle and Essay on Man. 80 three per cent are Anglo-Saxon; whereas in Swift, Political Lying

68 the Ormulum, written in the thirteenth cenJohn Bull, several chapters

85 Four Last Years of Queen Anne, to end

tury there are but three per cent of nonof sketch of Lord Cowper.

72 | Saxon kin.

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We have to record a handsome concession | history, and every student working in recent on the part of the Spanish Government-the years upon those periods, has turned wistfully opening up of the great archives at Simancas to but unavailingly towards Simancas for the light the deputies of our Master of the Rolls. The influence was against all search. At length,

which it, and it only, could afford. The priestly interest of the papers at Simancas cannot be the embargo has been taken off. Mr. Brewer, overstated. They are the documentary history of the Rolls, has just returned from Simancas, of Spain, and of all the countries which have where it has been arranged that Mr. Bergenroth, had political relations with Spain. From the a most competent English and Spanish scholar, reign of Henry the Eighth to the time of Crom- shall calendar and abstract the documents relatwell they are of vast importance for our own ling to our history,

existence; of Ordericus Vitalis, who mixes rough and evil natures, and every day strange with wild romances whole chapters obviously new forms of penance appeared. Chrisgathered from men who had acted in the tianity was degenerating into Hindooism, scenes they related ; of Rudolph of Caen, when suddenly a commanding voice rising and of Ekkehard of Urach, both patient and high above the uproar pointed out to the careful compilers of contemporary evidence. people of Europe a path which offered the By the patient analysis of these authorities, certainty of escape from the present, and a not forgetting legend so far as legend is con- sure hope of salvation in the future. Urban firmed by testimony, a narrative may be con- the Second, in a Council held at Clermont, structed of which Von Sybel has given us in in September, 1095, called on Christendom the four lectures a bold outline. It differs to set free the Holy Sepulchre. Here at last widely from the popular one, and as all men was an enterprise which, leading to heaven, who read it all know the latter, we shall could still be prosecuted by violence, and the best explain the additions he has made to prospect flew like the tale of a new millenour knowledge by a rapid but tolerably com- nium throughout the Western world. In plete analysis.

Lorraine, Duke Godfrey of Bouillon levied The Crusades originated in the demoraliz- an army; Count Hugo and Robert of Paris ation of Europe. The centuries of war and raised another in France ; our own Duke social disintegration which followed the death Robert sold Normandy to pay a force adeof Charlemagne had been a cycle of terrible quate to the invasion of Palestine ; Raymond suffering for humanity. Throughout Europe of Toulouse called together all gascons and there was no peace any more. Everywhere provençals not yet infected or disabused by men relied exclusively on force, every man the spirit of luxurious scepticism which was did his utmost to oppress, and as the pres- afterwards their characteristic; Stephen of sure increased as it descended, the mass of Blois collected retainers whose number made the people knew no respite from misery. him almost a king ; and the wise chief of The Church was utterly corrupted, the kings the most potent clan then existing in Eualmost powerless, the barons brigands, the rope, Bohemond of Tarentum, summoned people living on roots, while in all classes the Normans, who had jnst conquered Sicily, there remained, from the few traces of Chris- to found a new empire in the East. Their tian teaching which still survived, a wretched ranks were swelled by huge masses of solself-consciousness which made all sin bear diery and peasants, who ranged themselves its fruit in misery. So horror-struck did the under any leader they chose, and asked only human race become at itself, that towards wages enough to keep them alive. Money the close of the tenth century men looked became all important, and while the feudal universally for the coming of the Avenger, principle received its first shock all over Eufor some immediate and visible outpouring rope, there commenced the first grand transof Almignty wrath and indignation. Injus- fer of property. The peasants of France, in tice triumphant everywhere, caused an ac- a wild crowd, followed a monk of Amiens, tual hate of this world to spring up in men's afterwards celebrated in legend as Peter the minds, whole classes abandoned their prop- Hermit, enlisted in the Crusade as camp folerty, or thronged into the monasteries, or lowers, and, as we shall see, became the dissought in long and painful pilgrimages to grace of Christendom. appease the hunger of their souls for some- By the spring of 1097 the army had thing better*than the wretched scene around reached Constantinople, and after a vain atthem. Pleasure was evil, science dangerous, tempt of Bohemond to induce them to conreligious life or asceticism the one path which duct the war in a statesman-like way, and offered any hope of permanent refuge from conquer Constantinople and Asia Minor as the contamination of mankind. All over a base of operations, they poured through Europe the value of property fell one-half, Asia Minor into Syria. One division, under and the remainder lost its importance in its Tancred the Norman, conquered Cilicia. owner's eyes. The Southern races were Count Baldwin, brother of Godfrey of Bouilboiling over with a mystical excitement, such lon, was elected sovereign in Edessa, and as in our own day a great preacher or a the main army invested Antioch, then held camp-meeting will sometimes produce upon by a satrap of the Seljuks. The city was From The Spectator. tives most in favor with the British public, THE CRUSADES. *

for example-Mr. Mills' and M. Capefigue's THERE is but one defect in this little book,

-are founded almost exclusively on Wiland that is its name. It is not a history at liam of Tyre, a skilful and, in some points, all, either of the Crusades or of their litera- well-informed writer, who deformed his work ture ; but an essay on both, crowded with by deliberate inventions of letters and speechthe results of years spent in research, and es, and based it undoubtedly upon that of alive with that glowing, almost creative Albert of Aix. This latter, who may be said thought which is the highest force of the his- to be the source of all the popular histories torian ; but only an essay still. Such as it of the Crusades hitherto current in Europe, is, however, in presenting this translation to was, in fact, nothing but a compiler of lethe public, Lady Duff Gordon has added one gends, and retailer of all the personal narramore to her many claims on both English tives which he could collect from the crowds and German students. She could not have of returning pilgrims, who, with heated imselected, even from German literature, a vol. aginations, partial knowledge, and excited ume of deeper interest, or more direct and vanity, passed through Aix on their road to unquestionable value. Von Sybel, a pupil the West. He writes easily, and arranges of Ranke, has devoted his leisure for years his stories dramatically, and he has the power to the patient criticism of the history of the of creating personal interest, so frequent with Crusades. Following his master's system, men who are novelists by instinct. But his he has submitted the whole mass of docu- narrative has neither substance nor sequence, mentary evidence upon the subject to a its personages are constantly placed in imsearching analysis, and described the result possible positions, their characters, offices, of his investigations in the preface to his and deeds vary from chapter to chapter, “History of the First Crusade”-a mine of while their greater achievements are contracritical erudition. That result may be briefly dicted by all unquestionable testimony. For stated as a conviction that all existing histo- example, Godfrey of Bouillon, who in the ries of the Crusades are founded upon legend, first half of the work is but one of many but that the materials for accurate history princes engaged in the Crusade, is suddenly do, nevertheless, survive. The outline of a made in the latter the centre and chief of the more truthful narrative has been sketched by whole movement, is elected commander-inhim in four lectures, delivered at Munich in chief by miracle, and is thenceforward sur1855, and the present work is a translation rounded by a halo of poetic rhetoric, which, of these lectures, and of their justification, however, still leaves him almost a lay figure. the critical analysis of the literature of the All this while there exist documents of unCrusades. Regarded as a history, the work, deniable authenticity, by which these legends of course, wants body; but as an historic out- might be tested, and from which a narrative, line, a survey of the road yet to be levelled, somewhat balder, perhaps, than those curit is admirable alike for insight and compre- rent, but still absolutely true, might be conhensiveness and excites in the reader a

structed. Among these are nine authentic strong hope that Von Sybel, who is still, af letters from princes and chiefs engaged in ter many vicissitudes, in possession of lit- the Crusades; the work of Raymund of erary leisure, will yet complete the task he Agiles, which we may call the special correhas so ably defined.

spondent's account of the first Crusade ; It is not, perhaps, strange that the worla Anna Commena's life of her father, valuable should for years have been content with the as the court view of these transactions ; the legendary history of the Crusades. Men “Gesta Francorum,” which Von Sybel belove the dramatic, and such productions are

lieves to have been the work of an eye-witdramatic by their very nature; but it is some ness; the history of the Abbot of Nogent, what remarkable that historians in an inquis important for some details supplied by the itive age should have been content with such

French leaders ; that of Baltric of Dol, who second-hand information. The two narra

adds to the “ Gesta" a few facts derived

from eye-witnesses that of Fulcher of Char* The History and Literature of the Crusades. From the German of Von Sybel." By Lady Dufi tres, whose statement of occurrences up to Gordon. Chapman and Hall.

the attack on Edessa is, perhaps, the best in existence; of Ordericus Vitalis, who mixes rough and evil natures, and every day strange with wild romances whole chapters obviously new forms of penance appeared. Chrisgathered from men who had acted in the tianity was degenerating into Hindooism, scenes they related; of Rudolph of Caen, when suddenly a commanding voice rising and of Ekkehard of Urach, both patient and high above the uproar pointed out to the careful compilers of contemporary evidence. people of Europe a path which offered the By the patient analysis of these authorities, certainty of escape from the present, and a not forgetting legend so far as legend is con- sure hope of salvation in the future. Urban firmed by testimony, a narrative may be con- the Second, in a Council held at Clermont, structed of which Von Sybel has given us in in September, 1095, called on Christendom the four lectures a bold outline. It differs to set free the Holy Sepulchre. Here at last widely from the popular one, and as all men was an enterprise which, leading to heaven, who read it all know the latter, we shall could still be prosecuted by violence, and the best explain the additions he has made to prospect flew like the tale of a new millenour knowledge by a rapid but tolerably com- nium throughout the Western world. In plete analysis.

Lorraine, Duke Godfrey of Bouillon levied The Crusades originated in the demoraliz- an army; Count Hugo and Robert of Paris ation of Europe. The centuries of war and raised another in France ; our own Duke social disintegration which followed the death Robert sold Normandy to pay a force adeof Charlemagne had been a cycle of terrible quate to the invasion of Palestine ; Raymond suffering for humanity. Throughout Europe of Toulouse called together all gascons and there was no peace any more. Everywhere provençals not yet infected or disabused by men relied exclusively on force, every man the spirit of luxurious scepticism which was did his utmost to oppress, and as the pres- afterwards their characteristic; Stephen of sure increased as it descended, the mass of Blois collected retainers whose number made the people knew no respite from misery. him almost a king ; and the wise chief of The Church was utterly corrupted, the kings the most potent clan then existing in Eualmost powerless, the barons brigands, the rope, Bohemond of Tarentum, summoned people living on roots, while in all classes the Normans, who had jnst conquered Sicily, there remained, from the few traces of Chris- to found a new empire in the East. Their tian teaching which still survived, a wretched ranks were swelled by huge masses of solself-consciousness which made all sin bear diery and peasants, who ranged themselves its fruit in misery. So horror-struck did the under any leader they chose, and asked only human race become at itself, that towards wages enough to keep them alive. Money the close of the tenth century men looked became all important, and while the feudal universally for the coming of the Avenger, principle received its first shock all over Eufor some immediate and visible outpouring rope, there commenced the first grand transof Almignty wrath and indignation. Injus- fer of property. The peasants of France, in tice triumphant everywhere, caused an ac- a wild crowd, followed a monk of Amiens, tual hate of this world to spring up in men's afterwards celebrated in legend as Peter the minds, whole classes abandoned their prop- Hermit, enlisted in the Crusade as camp folerty, or thronged into the monasteries, or lowers, and, as we shall see, became the dissought in long and painful pilgrimages to grace of Christendom. appease the hunger of their souls for some- By the spring of 1097 the army had thing better than the wretched scene around reached Constantinople, and after a vain atthem. Pleasure was evil, science dangerous, tempt of Bohemond to induce them to conreligious life or asceticism the one path which duct the war in a statesman-like way, and offered any hope of permanent refuge from conquer Constantinople and Asia Minor as the contamination of mankind. All over a base of operations, they poured through Europe the value of property fell one-half, Asia Minor into Syria. One division, under and the remainder lost its importance in its Tancred the Norman, conquered Cilicia. owner's eyes. The Southern races were Count Baldwin, brother of Godfrey of Bouilboiling over with a mystical excitement, such lon, was elected sovereign in Edessa, and as in our own day a great preacher or a the main army invested Antioch, then held camp-meeting will sometimes produce upon by a satrap of the Seljuks. The city was

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