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other. It is not improbable, however, that the Highlanders, who are now largely intermixed with a deal of Scandinavian blood, onre spread further south than what is considered the southern borders of the Highlands, and were forced to retire northwards into their mountains, through the superior power of another Celtic population that worked its way northwards from the more fertile districts of England and south of Scotland, for no race would willingly inhabit an area composed of barren mountains if it could take up a position on more fertile lands. A great number of the names of places in the centre and south of Scotland are not Gaelic, but names that can be translated by any one who has even a comparatively superficial knowledge of Welsh, such as I happen to possess. It is therefore probable that the southern and midland parts were inhabited in old times by the same race of people that now inhabit the extreme west of England, or Wales. And to a certain extent this is proved by the ancient British literature. I use the word British as applied to Welsh literature. But however this may be, it is certain that the Britons or the Welsh tribe of Celts overspread at one time (when the Romans invaded our country) the whole of the southern part of Great Britain; by and bye, after the Roman invasion, they mixed with their conquerors, but the Romans, as far as blood is concerned, seemed to have played but a very unimportant part in our country. They may have intermarried to some extent with the natives, but they occupied our country very much in the manner that we now occupy India. Corning here as military colonists, they went away again as soon as their time of service was up and left the country altogether. But after the retirement of the Romans, invasions took place by the Danes, the Scandinavian tribes, the Anglo-Saxons and others who came in to occupy the country permanently. Then the native tribes, dispossessed of their territories and driven westwards, retreated into the interior and higher parts of the country. Their remains are still extant in Devon and Cornwall, where there is a tolerably pure Celtic race, and among the Welsh mountains where the same Celtic element is still to a great extent free from admixture. They were driven back into the mountainous regions, whither it was not worth the while of their pursuers to follow them, in order to dispossess them of those barren tracts. Thus it happens that the oldest tribes now inhabiting our eountry are to be found among the old palaeozoic mountains, which, composed of the most ancient of our geological formations, and rising up into the highest grounds, must have been the first parts of the British islands to rise above the waters, during the last elevation of the land."
The coincidence between the geological formation and the ethnic differences is at least remarkable. There was, however, a time when the Keltic races stretched over the mesozoic and cainozoic formations of Eastern England, when the present ethnic outliers of the Hebrides, Western Scotland, Man, Wales, and Cornwall, were all connected into one kindred population speaking a Kcjtic language. "Denudation" and "erosive action " have, however, rendored them a scattered people, while the mesozoic and cainozoic formations are filled with the modified and mixed descendants of the Jute and the Saxon.
We hope that at some future time Professor Ramsay may work out the problems contained in his sixth chapter more in detail. He concludes in the following words :—
"When we come to consider the nature of the population inhabiting our island, we find it also to be greatly influenced by this old geology. The aboriginal tribes have been driven into the more barren mountain regions in the north and west, and so remain to this day— speaking to a great extent their aboriginal languages, but gradually melting up with the great mass of mixed races that came in with later waves of conquest from other parts of Europe. These later races settling down in the more fertile parts of the country, began to develop its agricultural resources. In later times they have applied themselves with wonderful energy to turn to use the vast stores of mineral wealth which lie in the central districts. Hence have arisen those densely peopled towns and villages where the manufactures of the country are carried on. Yet in the west, too—in Devon, and Cornwall, and in Wales, where the great slate regions are—there are busy centres of population, where the mineral products are worked by the aboriginal inhabitants of Celtic origin.
"It is interesting to go back a little and inquire what may have been the condition of our country when man first set foot upon its surface. We know that these islands of ours have been frequently united to the continent, and as frequently disunited, partly by elevations and depressions of the land, and to a great extent, also, by denudations. When the earliest human population reached their plains, they were probably united to the continent. Such is the deliberate opinion of some of our best geologists. They do not assert it as a positive fact, but they consider it probable that these old prehistoric men inhabited our country along with the great hairy mammoth, the rhinoceros, the cave bear, the lion, and the hippopotamus, —that they travelled westwards from the Continent of Europe, along with these extinct mammalia, over that continuation of the land which originally united Great Britain to the Continent. But in later times denudations and alterations of level have taken place, chiefly, I believe, great denudations of the chalk, and of the strata that cover the chalk, and then our island has become disunited from the mainland. And now, with all its numerous inlets, its great extent of coast, its admirable harbours, our country lies within the direct influence of the Gulf Stream, which influences the whole climate of the west of Europe, and we, a mixed race of people, Celt, Scandinavian, Saxon, Norman, more or less intermingled in blood, are so happily placed that, in a great measure, we have the command of the commerce of Europe, and send out our fleets of merchandise from every port. We are happy, in my opinion, above all things in this, that by denudation we have been dissevered from the Continent of Europe, for thu3 it happens that, uninfluenced by the immediate contact of hostile countries, and almost unbiassed by the influence of peoples of foreign blood, during the long course of years in which our country has never seen the foot of an invader, we have been enabled so to develope our own ideas of right and wrong, of political freedom, and of political morality, that we now stand here, the freest country on the face of the globe, enjoying our privileges, under the strongest and freest Government in the living world."
Much of the scope of the present work is theological, and the principles on which the Anthropological Review is conducted preclude the discussion of theological subjects. The Tractatus TheologicoPoliticus, however, contains much valuable information respecting purely scientific topics which have, since Baruch Spinoza gave to the world those profound works which will be for ever associated with his name, become even popular. As the learned and anonymous editor of the Tractatus observes :—
"The Hindus preceded the Hebrews in civilization by hundreds, perhaps by thousands of years, and in their Vedas, which existed in writing centuries before the Jews became serfs to Egyptian taskmasters, they have not only given us a clear insight into their religious world, but have actually transmitted the record of this in the tongue which is the root of all the dialects spoken in Europe to the present day. It might have been that the Sanscrit Vedas had descended to us as our especial religious inheritance, when we should have had Brahm, Vichnou, and Siva as our triune divinity. The Zends, again, the religious books of the ancient Persians, are of great antiquity, and, as the Persians were nearer neighbours of the Jews than the Hindus, so do we find that they have influenced Jewish ideas in a much greater measure."
Much credit is due to the editor, and especially to the publishers,
who have produced this valuable work in a compendious form and at
a cheap price. Many readers will gladly peruse it, if only to study
the thoughts of an author whose terse and vigorous style has raised
him for the last two hundred years to the position of the best-abused
author in philosophy. We would very much like to see the Ethica of
the same author published in the same manner as the present volume.
* Tractatus Theologico-Politicus; a Critical Inquiry into the History, Parpose, and Authenticity of the Hebrew Scriptures: with the right to free thought and free discussion asserted, and shewn to be not only consistent, but necessarily bound up with true piety and good government. By Benedict de Spinoza. From the Latin ; with an Introduction and Notes by the Editor. 8vo. London: Triibner and Co. 1863.
Many of the errors which pervade the educated classes of society are due to the diffusion amongst them, while their memories are strong, and before their understanding is matured, of statements contained in the school books forced upon their infant comprehension, which, although wholly at variance with known facts, become articles of compulsory belief for their acceptance. In the above little book, which we especially select as the most complete, as well as the most exact elementary geographical compendium in our language, the English public, which is always prone to view cheap literature with too favourable eyes, will find some exceedingly puzzling statements respecting the races of men. The author of this school compilation says, "man is adapted to live in all climates excepting those of extreme cold." We need not tell our readers that this is the reverse of the fact, and that man cannot live (and thrive) in all climates. We know not what idea of "adaptation" the child who reads this statement is expected to possess; but the simple fact that the Europeans in Bengal die out in the third generation, contravenes the assumption of the cosmopolitanist. But the most wonderful statement which we remember perusing since the days of Gulliver, is that "the original people of Australia are considered of the same race with the Hottentots of South Africa." This is indeed an original theory; and is nearly on the same mental level as the statement which we heard an African traveller make a few months ago in a semi-scientific audience, that the Hottentots were a mixed race produced between the Dutch and the natives of the Cape settlement. England is possibly the only country in Europe where such a statement could have been made, and we regard such exhibitions as most detrimental, not only to anthropology, but to general education, as it presupposed an amount of ignorance respecting the early colonization of the Cape Colony of which we can only find adequate precedents in the infant school. The time will shortly come when the legitimate desire of the people to give to their children scientific text-books really worth reading may be gratified, and when the teachers who disdain to impart sound elementary knowledge, on the selfish plea, illos vero indignoi puto, qui bus rationem reddam, will find that they no longer address an attentive, or a remunerative audience.
* Geographical Primer (Chambers' Educational Course). 12mo. London and Edinburgh: William and Robert Chumbers.
Acts xvii, 26. A correspondent sends us the following:—I send you a list, and value, with respect to date, of the authorities for omitting and retaining «</«ito« in the text of Acts xvii, 26. Alford believes the weight of evidence to be in favour of aifunos, and retains it in the text.
Codex Alexandrinus - v cent.
Vaticanus - - iv cent.
Regius - - - xi cent.
Coistinianus - - xi cent.
Harleianus - - xv cent.
Genevencis - - xi cent.
Alexandro-Vaticanus - xi cent.
Venetianus - - xi cent.
Version Vulgate - .» - iv cent.
„ Coptic - - - iI I cent.
„ Sahidic - - - iI I cent.
nroi. cf evos and xai 'rairavTa) iv cent.
Author Clement - - - n cent.
Bede ... vm cent.
v or vi cent. vi or Vii cent.
Uncial MS. Cursive MS.
Laudianus Angelicus Romanus ,, Mutinensis Most of the Cursive MS. Greek Codex, cited in Bede's Commentary Version Peschito-Syriac
„ Philoxenian Syriac and other versions Author Irenaeus
„ Theodoretus of Cyrus of Syria
v cent. iv cent. xi cent. xi cent. xi cent.
"Meyer (Dr. H. A. W.) well remarks on the omission that it is more likely to have happened owing to evos Hi/iutos than that itfuno?