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should be a gloss on evos,- for that this would be rather given by av pw nov.” Alford.
N.B. As a rule, the Uncial, are of greater value than the Cursive MSS.
Superstitions of Nations. Mr. HALIBURTON, Vice-president of the Nova Scotia Institute, has been lecturing at Halifax, N.S., on a comparison of the customs and superstitions of nations, as affording evidences of the unity of origin of the human race.
In all ages and in all countries, a sneeze is supposed to be an omen of impending evil to the person who sneezes, or to an undertaking which he may at the time be commencing, and an invocation of the Deity is requisite to protect the sneezer from the danger he incurs. Among the ancients, Homer mentions it. Aristotle fruitlessly endeavours to explain its existence; Apuleius refers to it; and Pliny has a problem on it: “ Cur sternutantes salutantur.” Tiberius observed it, and rigidly exacted the custom of protecting the person who sneezed, by an ejaculation to the gods. The Jewish Rabbis were equally puzzled to account for its existence among the Hebrews, who to this day exclaim “ Tobim Chaim " (a long life to you) on such occasions.
But the custom is also met with in the most remote parts of Asia, among the most secluded nations of Africa, and in many tribes of the New World. De Soto, in his wanderings in Florida (which country he discovered), noticed that when a Sachem sneezed, the savages around him bowed down, and invoked the sun to save him. In Otaheite, it is the custom to invoke the protection of Heaven, when a person sneezes. Mariner relates the like of the natives of Fiji, and of the Tonga group.
Mr. Haliburton considers that these remarkable identities in the observance of so irrational a custom took their rise from the religious fears and superstitions of primitive man, the common parent of all these widely-scattered tribes; and he regards it as a strong proof of the unity of the human race. Let anthropologists answer the question, how else did all men, in all countries, arrive at the same singular conclusion, as to the mysterious dangers attendant on a sneeze, if this belief was not inherited from a common source ?
Among Celtic tribes (as, for example, in the superstition of the Highlanders) the influence of the fairies is the danger to which the sneezer is exposed, and minor spirits of an analogous grade are those guarded against by the invocations of the Polynesian savage.
Proposed Exploration of Peru. (Extract of a letter from Professor Raimondi, Lima, 13th July, 1863, to William Bollaert, Esq., London). “ Accept my thanks for the trouble you have taken to translate for the society from my work on Loreto, what appertains to anthropology. The work in question is but a small specimen of the materials I am getting together for my large work on Peru, which will amount to at least twenty thick volumes, and will take up the whole of my lifetime to complete.
“Since I had the pleasure of exploring with you the province of Tarapacá in 1855, I have not ceased to wander over this interesting country, collecting precious materials connected with geography, meteorology, anthropology, mineralogy, geology, zoology, and botany.
“ Such is the abundance of materials already collected, that I fear I shall never be spared to finish my explorations, and publish my labours. I have the idea to divide my work into separate portions. The first to be the geographical, including meteorology, and all I have been able to collect about the different races which now occupy Peru, particularly as to their origin. I have a great number of crania for this object, of the people who inhabited Peru before the conquest. The second part will embrace mineralogy; the third, geology ; the fourth, botany; the fifth, zoology.
“I have still to explore for the next four years, so as to complete my studies. The publication of my great work cannot take place for some years; but I will from time to time publish short memoirs, which I shall send you copies of, so that you may distribute to the learned societies of England.
“ I am now starting from Lima for the interior, a journey of eighteen months. I go to Callao; then to Pisco, by sea; then to Ica, where I have my animals awaiting me: then onwards to Arequipa. Here I shall remain a month, so as to examine the mineral waters in the vicinity; also to explore the volcano of Misti (Arequipa). Then to Moquegua and Tacna. Then I shall ascend to the table-land of Titicaca, and go all round the great lake analysing the waters. From Puna I intend to enter the tropical forests of Caravaya, where I shall be two or three months, so as to study with care the Chinchonas and the gold washings. Then I go to Cuzco, to examine its country, returning to Lima by another route.
“If you like you can make this, my projected exploration, known to the learned societies in England, and I shall be glad to receive any views of theirs, and be glad to attend to their instructions. I shall be in Arequipa until October. Address to me, care of Dr. Miguel, Colunga School of Medicine, Lima.”.
Mental Calculation.* All the performances of Colborn, Buxton, and other celebrated calculators, appear insignificant when compared with those of our contemporary, Zacharias Dase, of Hamburg. Having had ample opportunities to witness his extraordinary performances, I shall first describe what took place on the 12th, 15th, and 19th of January, and subsequently add what I have observed in my daily personal intercourse with him.
Dase commenced by casting a rapid glance on twelve ciphers written by a spectator on a board, and reciting them forwards or backwards. He then invited any person to multiply the number with any single number, and immediately named the multiplicator on the product being communicated to him.
At the third representation, Dase recited 188 ciphers, forwards and backwards, stating at the same time how often and at what place each number occurred. I subjoin a few of the questions and answers.
* Versuch einer Wissenschaftlichen Begründung der Psychologie. Von Professor Dr. P. Jessen. Berlin : 1865.
Q. What is the product of 354783293 multiplied by 5423957? A. (11 minutes) 1924329325550401.
Q. What is the product of 6529710840352 divided by 98 ? A. (instantaneously) 66629710840352.
Q. 684028396281753, divide by 6541325. A. (27 minutes) 104570312 23835735
Q. Divide 423339075240048565 by 708346795. A. (after five minutes) 597643807.
Q. Tell the square root of 582169. A. (immediately) 763.
Q. Tell the 19th rootof 7093585369945932256195429028464404423 A. (after three minutes) 87.
Q. The steeple of the Nicolay Church being 180 feet high, how many such steeples must be towered upon each other before the last reaches the moon, assuming the distance to be 50,000 German miles: A. (immediately) 6666666 and two-thirds.
Q. What time would a snail require to perform this journey, assuming that it covers two inches and three-sevenths in a minute? A. (after a few minutes) 5929411764 minutes; 98823529 L hours; 4117647 ;ış days; or, 11281 years and 82. 4 days.
At the end of his representations, Dase gave some specimens of what he calls his “surveying glance." Thus, he mentioned at once the number of a handful of peas or beans, the number of books on the shelves, or the pieces in a bundle of firewood without a moment's hesitation. If ever he commits an error, he instantly corrected it. Thus, he estimated the number of a handful of peas to be 242, but he immediately corrected it by saying that he had probably counted two peas twice.
The most difficult tasks which Dase performed were the extraction of the 52nd root of a number of 97 ciphers, and the multiplication of two sums, each consisting of 100 ciphers, which he accomplished at Munich, in 8 hours.
He stated that during this calculation, the conversation of the spectators rather entertained him, and that neither noise nor loud conversation disturbed him in the least.
On my questioning him how far he thought he might go in multiplication of sums, he replied that he could not tell, but he had no hesitation in saying that he could undertake the multiplication of sums of 300 ciphers, and might probably require 100 hours mentally to accomplish the task.
From the experiments it resulted that he solved the multiplication of 8 ciphers in of a minute; 12 in 21 minutes; 20 in 6-8 minutes; 40 in 40 minutes; 60 in 3 hours; 100 in 8 hours.
Zacharias Dase, the son of a publican, was born at Hamburg, June 23, 1824. He was sent to an infant school at the age of two and a-half years, and entered a popular school in his sixth year. Up to his fifteenth year he received instruction in reading, arithmetic, writing, geography, history, and the German language. He was always the first in arithmetic, nor was there any book published on
this subject in Hamburg which he had not studied through. He says of himself:-“ Originally I occupied myself more with written than with mental calculation, and I am therefore justified in asserting that, though my calculating capacity may be innate, it has been developed by undeviating industry. My mind never becomes fatigued by calculations. I may continue them for the whole day and am as fresh to begin again in the evening." From his early childhood Dase suffered from a spasmodic affection of the stomach, and epileptic attacks. Speaking of his moral character, he says :-"I am not passionate nor sensual; I am indifferent to the fair sex; I avoid spirituous liqnors; I am good natured, tolerant, companionable, a man of peace, and make no distinction in my intercourse with my fellow beings, whether they be of high rank or not; I am fond of children, and am rather economical.” With regard to his mental faculties, he complains that he could make no great progress in mathematics, that he had no memory for form and space. Nor did he make much progress in the highest branches of arithmetic, his great skill being limited to the extraction of roots, the calculation of factors and logarithms. He could give no exact account of the process by which he arrived at his results; but he seems to proceed in his mental calculations as if he were performing them on paper or a slate. In multiplying, all the numbers are plainly visible to him; he multiplies the multiplicands successively with the multiplicator, placing the sums mentally beneath each other. He further states that besides this capacity for number, he possesses order and locality in an eminent degree, so that in large towns he soon finds his way. He complains of possessing neither the faculty of ambition nor wit, but, on the other hand, much patience.
Man and the Gorilla.—As the work by Professor OWEN (Catalogue of the Osteological Collection in the College of Surgeons. 4to. Lond. 1853) may not be accessible to all our readers, we make no excuse for reprinting the following excerpt, in the present state of our knowledge of the subject :
“ The chief differences which the cranium and teeth of the Tr. gorilla present, as compared with those parts of the human structure, may be summed up as follows:-1. The smaller proportionate size of the cranium; 2. The more backward position of the foramen mag. num, and its more oblique plane in relation to the base of the skull, 3. The smaller relative size, and more backward position of the occipital condyles; 4. The longer basioccipital, and broader, flatter, and lower superoccipital; 5. The longer basisphenoid, and shorter alisphenoids; 6. The smaller size of the coalesced parietals; and their separation from the alisphenoids; 7. The conversion of a greater part of the outer surface of the parietals into concavities or depressions for the lodgment of the temporal muscles, by reason of the bony crest developed from the line of the obliterated sagittal suture and of the lambdoidal crest; 8. The larger proportion of this crest and of the squamosal plate developed from the mastoid, and the smaller size of the proper mastoid process; 9. The smaller size of the vaginal
and styliform processses, and the absence of the styloid process, arising from the non-anchylosis of the stylohyal bone ; 10. The larger post glenoid process and the longer auditory process (tympanic bone,) with their relative position, one behind, but not below the other; 11. The position of the stronger zygomata opposite the middle third of the basis cranii; 12. The prominent superorbital ridge; 13. The longer nasal bones, anchylosed together, and flattened at their lower half; 14. The greater proportional size, and greater prominence of the upper and lower jaws ; 15. The longer osseous palate, and the median emargination of its posterior border; 16. The parallelism of the alveoli of the molars and canine of one side with those of the other ; 17. The diastema or vacant place in front of the socket of the canine in the upper jaw, and behind that socket in the lower jaw ; 18. The large and more produced premaxillaries; the persistence of more or less of their sutures, showing the intervention of their upper extremities between the nasal and maxillary bones; 19. The minor extent of the connexion of the lacrymal with the “pars plana" of the æthmoid, or their separation by the junction of the orbital plate of the maxillary with that of the frontal behind the lacrymal; 20. The greater depth of the rhinencephalic fossa, and the absence or rudimental state of the crista galli; 21. The squamosal, lambdoidal, alisphenoidal, and pterygoid air-cells; 22. The more prominent cusps of the molar teeth; 23. The larger relative size, and more complex grinding surface, of the last molar tooth in both jaws : 24. The larger relative size of the premolars, especially of the first; 25. The more complex implantation of the premolars by three roots, two external, and one internal; 26. The much larger and longer canines; 27. The sexual distinction in the development of these teeth ; 28. The more sloping position of the crowns of the incisors; 29. The broader and higher ascending ramus of the lower jaw; 30. The total absence of the prominence of the symphysis forming the chin.”
Extracts from “ Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie”, by Drs. Lazarus and Steinthal. Berlin, 1859. (Journal for National Psychology.)-Introduction...... Anthropological physiological and climatal conditions, however much they may contribute towards the explanation of a national character, can never sufficiently explain the psychical state of a nation. ...
Ethnology, as it has been hitherto treated, may be termed a chapter of zoology, for its object is, properly speaking, man considered as an animal, a natural product, independent of his mental development, merely according to his physical structure and his diversities as they are found conditioned by soil and climate. There are also taken into consideration the descent and relations of nations, their intermixture and migrations.
But man is by nature more than an animal. Man is a spiritual animal, with innate mental dispositions, inclinations, feelings, independent of his spiritual development in history. Man must also be considered in this aspect. Ethnology would, thus treated, not actually