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morass by draining. Its weight is said to be 1500 tons. drawn by forty men seated on its summit, by a windlass and large friction balls, placed in grooves, to the banks of the river, when it was conveyed in a vessel constructed for the purpose, to the spot where it now rests. It is said to be forty-two feet long at its base, thirty-six at the top, twenty-one in thickuess, and seventeen in height.
Another monument erected to the memory of Peter, stands in the great Prospective in front of the palace. It is a solid shaft of red granite, eighty-four feet in height, and about ten in diameter, being cylindrical, and beautifully polished. This shaft stands upon a bronze pedestal, and upon its summit is a statue of Peter in bronze. perhaps, the largest shaft of single stone in the world. It was brought from Finland in its rough state.
The Fortress is an object of much interest. Peter began the foundation of this structure in 1706. Its walls are of brick, and strengthened with five bastions. They encircle a small island. Within the walls are barracks for a small garrison, a gaol, and dungeons. In a separate part of the building is the mint. Near the Fortress is a wooden hut in which Peter abode, whilst the Fortress was in progress. This first palace of the Czar is now protected by a covering, from the ravages of men and time. One room in it is appropriated for devotions to the sainted Peter.
The Peter aud Paul, Kasan and Nevosky churches, are interesting as the depositories of the distinguished dead, and of the keys of cities taken by the Russians, and the banners seized in battle. Amongst the flags suspended in Peter and Paul church, is a Turkish one, on which is the bloody print of a warrior's hand, seizing it in the struggles of death. A new church, called the Isaac's, is now nearly finished.
It has been in progress for several years, having been commenced, if I am rightly informed, by the Emperor Paul. It is partly of stone, and partly of brick, veneered with marble. Its central dome is gilded. Below, and about it, are gilt angels, with expanded wings. Its pillars are of polished granite. It will be, when finished, the most superb building in the city, and well worthy the attention of three successive reigns.
The Academy, established by Peter the Great, has many professors in most sciences and the belles lettres. It contains a good library, and various kinds of natural and artificial curiosities. We might speak of the Admiralty with its golden spire, and of the Market, and the Bazaar, which will bear comparison with any on the continent or in England. Indeed St. Petersburg, with its fifty churches,-its magnificent palaces,- its princely mansions,-its granite quays,-its spacious squares, and airy streets,-its beautiful Neva, and canals,-its delicious gardens,—its surpassing monuments,-its superb exchange, --and its well regulated police, is one of the wonders of the last century. It sprung into being by the magic touch of its great founder, and has received a new adorning from the hand of every successive sovereign. Oh! that the Sovereign of all, would adorn these palaces
with moral beauty, and fill these mansions and churches with the trophies of his grace!
CRONSTADT is the Port of St. Petersburg, on the island of Retufari, at the head of the gulf of Finland.
It has military schools and stores; docks and yards for building ships, a foundry for cannon, and a large marine hospital. It is surrounded by walls and bastions of great strength. The harbour is excellent, being large enough for 500 vessels at once. A large portion of the Russian navy is stationed at Cronstadt. There are several Greek churches in the city, and one on the island, without the walls. There is also a catholic church, and a German one is in progress. The English have a church in the city. The population is 40,000, about 30,000 of which are soldiers and sailors. This is a place of business, having an extensive trade with England, the United States, Germany, and France, in tallow, hides, bones, deals, hemp, and linseed. Italian and Danish vessels are often in the port. The number of English and American vessels annually visiting this port, is about 700. The number of seamen speaking the English language averages, in the summer season, 2,000, who are seen on the vessels crowded in the Mole, on the quays, in the dock-yards, along the canals, and in the streets, engaged on week-days in their respective duties of discharging and lading cargo, but on the sabbath, alas ! in scenes of sin. The Russians are hospitable and kind in the extreme. They are fond of amusement, and addicted to intoxica
Within twenty years the use of tobacco has become very prevalent, from the example of the Germans, with whom the Russians bave many royal, as well as commercial associations. The peasants are ignorant and superstitious. The population of Russia is 60,000,000, of which not 10,000,000 can read. Much is, however, now done for the education of the people. Schools are established, and patronised by government, and private individuals. The Fins can all read. When Finland belonged to Sweden, it was the law that no one should be married, until he or she could read. That law is still in force, and therefore the Finish portion of Russian subjects are the better informed. It is to be hoped, that education and true piety will soon give a new cast to the private habits, and the national character of this great and interesting people.
Extract from the Journal of the Rev. E. E. Adams.
On our way to Colpina, we had a greater variety than from St. Petersburg to Alexandrofsky, both in the scenery, which consisted of a pleasant alternation of hill and vale, and streamlet, and by the distribution of Russian tracts, which Mr. B. took for the peasants whom we might meet. These were received with gratitude, and, in some instances with a joy that could hardly be expressed. We passed a young man, who, having probably been down the river with some articles for the market, was returning home with “larpkee,” a kind of sandals made of bark, which are worn by the peasants. A tract was thrown out to him. He took it with deliberation, perhaps suspicious that it might be something political; but when he discovered it to be a religious tract, what a glow suddenly illumined his face ! What a smile beautified his coarse features ! The deep bronze which the sun had burned upon him was lost in the light of that smile.
His motions and accents seemed to say, that his very nature was put under contribution by the joy of his heart. His jestures, his cheek, his lip were eloquent :
“And both blue eyes more bright than clear,
Each about to have a tear :"
a fervour in them that gave a thrill to our spirits, and bade us bless God for the privilege of giving. That poor peasant's gratitude was an ample reward for any sacrifice we could have made to do him good. What if his soul shall be saved through the instrumentality of that solitary tract! Think of the smile that will wreath his lip, and the extatic brightness that shall fill his eye, when free from the grossness of matter, and the pollutions of sin, he shall pour forth his thanksgiving in the language of heaven! And think of our rapture when we shall hear one note of that thanksgiving breathed for us !
ORIGINAL LETTER FROM THE LATE REV. JOHN NEWTON, TO
A YOUNG GENTLEMAN LEAVING ENGLAND.
wishes me to write; and in pleasing her I please myself. I have a sincere regard for you. I only wish I had more time, especially as I missed seeing you when you called ; but I will do what I can, believing you will accept my letter as a testimony of my friendship. I hope your strong inclination to go abroad, will lead you, under the providence of God, into a line of life, which may prove beneficial to yourself, and useful to others. It will be if
you will seek his favour, and acknowledge him in all your ways, according to Proverbs iii, 5, 6. Our times and ways are in his hands; for the way of man is not in himself. His blessing, if you seek it, will guide you through life with honour and comfort, and then he will receive you to his glory. Many things are proper and necessary; but one thing is absolutely needful, namely, such a knowledge of your relation to God, and your dependance upon him as a creature and a sinner, as may fix
your hopes upon Jesus the Saviour, for time and eternity. In seeking and attaining this one thing—the thing we can never seek in
vain-all other things, which infinite wisdom and goodness sees best for you, shall be added to you. The Lord will guide you continually -satisfy your soul in drought-supply all your wants—and be unto you a very present help in trouble.
You are a child of many prayers -so was I. You are now entering a seafaring life~ I was once in it: but, alas ! broke through all the advantages of a religious educationrenounced all the good advice of my pious mother-stified the convictions of my conscience—and plunged headlong into wickedness and misery. Here, I hope, the parallel between you and I will totally fail. You have read my history; I trust yours will be very
different. There are two disadvantages in a seafaring life; the one is, the want of the public ordinances of divine worship, especially of the preaching of the gospel ;—but the promises of God are suited to every lawful situation, A careful perusal of the bible, with prayer to the Lord for his teaching, will supply the absence of public means, when we are necessarily separated from them: and where the mind is tolerably attentive, much of God may be seen by those who do their business in the great waters. The expanded ocean, whether in a storm or in a calm, is a wonderful object, and can only be exceeded by the great concave of the heaven over our heads. These sublime proofs of the power, wisdom, and presence of God, are always before the mariner's eyes, and are well suited to impress him with the Psalmist's thought,“ Lord, what is man that thou art mindful of him!” The sea likewise is a good school to teach us both the reality, and the necessity of a superintending, protecting providence. A considerate person will meet with several circumstances in the course of a voyage, or passage to India, in which he will perceive, that if he who rules the winds and the waves, does not interfere with his help, all the art and help of man will be unavailing. Psalm cvii. 23—30.
The other most formidable evil is the company among whom you must live, while on shipboard; how different will the language there be, from that you have been accustomed to at home. I will not suppose you are in immediate danger from the profanity and debauchery of the profligate there. I trust your good sense and your habits of life will enable you to renounce and avoid with abhorrence : but you will probably be more or less assaulted by the arts and sophistry of infidelity—these too easily prevailed over me. I was reasoned and ridiculed out of the principles, which my good and careful mother had endeavoured to instil in me from my infancy; and to the commission of evils, which would, some time before, have made me start and tremble had they been proposed. Let no one flatter you into such a good opinion of your own understanding, as shall tempt you to judge of the great truths of revelation, by the dictates of your own weak fallible reason; rather strive and pray for the simplicity of a child, that you may always take up the bible with a sincere desire of having your judgment and conduct formed by it,-pray to the Lord, by whose inspiration the scriptures were written, to teach you by his Spirit the true meaning,—and always take it for granted, that all you read there is truth, because it is his word, and that there can be no
higher possible proof of a thing, than “ thus saith the Lord.” I have
you, I now am old. I shall be happy if my life is spared, that any young person may protit by my testimonies. I can say from my experience, that the way of transgression is hard,--and, as far as I have attained, I can likewise testify, that the ways
of wisdom—the religion of the bible--and our true wisdom, are ways of pleasantness and peace. I was on the brink of destruction, helpless and hopeless, the scorn and pity of slaves in Africa; from thence the Lord mercifully delivered me, even when I was sinning against him with a high hand. I was afterwards on the point of sinking in the ocean ; then death and eternity opened to my view, and I trembled at the prospect. He preserved me, by little less than a miracle-drew me out of the water, and, by degrees, into his service,—now I am permitted to look to him as my refuge, guide, physician, and shepherd. I can see, that wisdom and goodness have directed all my concerns, and, I trust, will direct them to my journey's end ; and I have a good hope, when I cease to live here, I shall live for ever in a better state. All things I derive from the gospel, all this my heart wishes for you, nothing else will give you comfort or peace ; but this will cheer you
in all circumstances—will abate the pressure of affliction, and enhance the relish and value of every earthly good. Should you stop at the Cape of Good Hope, and the Rev. —be living, if you mention my name to him, or shew him this letter, I doubt not, but he will be willing to afford you every good office in his power.
And now I mend you to God, and the word of his grace, and the Lord Jesus, the great and good shepherd of all who trust in him,--who is always near us, as the light by which we see, or the air we breathe. May he keep you in the way that you go, and bring you back to your father's home in peace. Think of me; and when you do, think of me as, dear Sir, your very affectionate friend,
“ HALF A BETHEL FLAG.”
We are happy to find, that our little new Magazine, [" The Child's Bethel Flag"] which has been published for the purpose of interesting our youthful readers in the SAILOR's cause, has already attracted some attention. It therefore gives us great pleasure to insert the following communication
MR. Editor, I admire your project of “The Child's Bethel Flag.” I think it a very happy one; and I trust that this tiny monthly periodical will be a favourite in many families and Sunday schools. Such a cheap publication is needed for the young, in London, the great emporium of the world: it is suitable also for the crowded sea-ports of Liverpool, Bristol, Hull, Glasgow, and all others. I think it needs only to be known, to become highly esteemed, in multitudes of families and