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Senator MALONE. Would you furnish a list of your directors to the committee?

Mrs. Laves. Yes; I would be glad to. I am sorry; I included the officers as well as the directors. They are all members of the board. Of the national board.

Senator MALONE. You say you have included them?
Mrs. LAVES. No; I will include them if you would like.

Senator MALONE. Then do you have a head of the League of Women
Voters in each State?
Mrs. LAVES. A president of each State league; that is right.
Senator MALONE. Then they have officers, do they?
Mrs. LAVES. That is correct. They do..

Senator MALONE. Could you furnish a list of the presidents of each of the States and the officers as far as you know to the committee?

Mrs. LAVES. We would be very happy to do so.

Senator MALONE. I note you say that for 20 years the League of Women Voters has supported the principles of expanding world trade as embodied in the Trade Agreements Act, GATT, and the proposed organization for trade cooperation.

GATT—by that I suppose you mean the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade? Mrs. LAVES. Yes.

Senator MALONE. I am very much interested in your organization, Mrs. Laves.

Mrs. LAVES. Thank you.

Senator MALONE. As a director, are you one of the directors that stay in Washington?

Mrs. LAVES. No.
Senator MALONE. Where do you live?
Mrs. LAVES. I live in Bloomington, Ind.
Senator MALONE. Who are your representatives here?
Mrs. LAVES. The representatives who are resident in Washington?

Senator MALONE. Well, the ones who are either a secretary or a president or legislative representatives?

Mrs. LAVES. The president is Mrs. Robert J. Phillips, of IllinoisSt. Charles, Ill.

Senator MALONE. She lives in Illinois? Mrs. Laves. She lives in Illinois. She comes to Washington at intervals.

She has just been elected, so the schedule has not been worked out.

Senator MALONE. Who was your president last year then and how long do they hold office?

Mrs. Laves. Mrs. John G. Lee was the president, had been president up until last April, the end of April, and she had been president of the league for 8 years.

She comes from Farmington, Conn.
Senator Malone. Do you have 1,000 local leagues in all 48 States?
Mrs. LAVES. That is right.
Senator MALONE. That is quite a lot of league, isn't it?
Mrs. Laves. It is indeed.

Senator MALONE. How many leagues do you have in a State like Nevada where I am from?

Mrs. LAVES. I do not know the exact number. We have a number of local leagues.

Senator MALONE. Would you, as a part of the information you are about to furnish the committee, include all of the leagues located in our State of Nevada?

Mrs. Laves. Yes; I would be delighted to.

Senator MALONE. I would not ask you for all of them as it would take up too much space.

Mrs. Laves. We would be delighted to.
Most of them are very new.
(The information is as follows):
Local leagues in Nevada: Carson City, Elko, Reno, Wells.
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS OF THE UNITED STATES,

WASHINGTON, D. C.
OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS, 1958-60

OFFICERS President: Mrs. Robert J. Phillips, Baker Hotel, St. Charles, Ill. First vice president: Mrs. John F. Latimer, 3601 Connecticut Avenue, NW.,

Washington, D. C.
Second vice president: Mrs. Alf Gundersen, 133 South 14th Street, La Crosse,

Wis.
Serretary: Mrs. Leon K. Richards, 7301 Westover Road, Waco, Tex.
Treasurer: Mrs. Donald F. Bishop, 306 South Smedley Street, Philadelphia Pa.

DIRECTORS Mrs. John Briscoe, Silent Meadow Farm, Lakeville, Conn. Mrs. George A. Dreyfos, 1228 Conery Street, New Orleans, La. Mrs. Paul Holmer, 14 Rancheria, Kentfield, Calif. Mrs. Tor Hylbom, 120 Cresta Road, Colorado S rings, Colo. Mrs. Walter H. C. Laves, 701 So 'th Ballantine Road, Bloomington, Ind. Mrs. L isi Petrillo, 2431 North Edgewood, Arlington, Va. Miss Barbara Strihler, 134 Warwick Avenie SE., Minnea' iolis, Minn. Mrs. Alexander A, Trelhaft, 18600 Shaker Boulevard, Shaker Heights, Ohio. Mrs. Arthur E. Whittemore, 189 Gardner Street, Hingham, Mass.

PRESIDENTS OF STATE LEAGUES Alabama: Mrs. I. Berman, 2124 Allendale Road, Montgomery, Ala. Arizona: Mrs. Lo'is Hirsch, Rote 5, Box 362, Tucson, Ariz. Arkansas: Mrs. Le Mon Clark, Rokwood Trail, Fayetteville, Ark. California: Mrs. Robert L. Zrbach, 120 So'ith Ericlid, Pasadena, Calif. Colorado: Mrs. E. P. Swerdfecer, 1545 Tremont Plare, Denver, Colo. Connerticut: Mrs. Lincoln R. Yo'ing, 404 Farmington Aven'e, Hartford, Conn. Delaware: Mrs. Sam el Handloff, 4 Kent Way, Newark, Del." Distrist of Col·mbia: Mrs. Milton Dunn, 1822 Massachusetts Avenue NW.,

Washington, D. C.
Florida: Mrs. Melville K. Gill, 10 Lacoda Aven'e, Davis Island, Tampa, Fla.
Geor it: Mrs. Edward M. Vinson, 217–18 Rhodes Building, 78 Marietta Street,

Atlanta, Ga.
Idaho: Mrs. James Gundersen, 1703 Amity, Mo'inted Ro'ite, Nampa, Idaho.
Illinois: Mrs. Harper Andrews, room 2104--5, 59 East Madison Street, Chicago,

III.
Indiana: Mrs. John A. Campbell, 505 Illinois Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
Iowa: Mrs. George Norris, 1402 Forth Aven''e, Grinnell, Iowa.
Kansas: Mrs. L. E. Anderson, 1635 Alabama, Lawrence, Kans.
Kent'cky: Mrs. James R. Shepherd, 2730 Harrison Street, Paducah, Ky.
Lo isiana: Mrs. C. K. Moresi, Box 1105, Oil Center Station, Lafayette, La.
Maine: Mrs. Julian H. Orr, 152 Pros ect Street, Portland, Maine.
Maryland: Mrs. William H. Wood, 4216 56th Aven 'e, Bladensburg, Md.
Massachusetts: Mrs. Hugh M Kinstry, 3 Joy Street, Boston, Mass.
Michiran: Mrs. Berrien C. Ketchum, room 506, Garfield Building, 4612 Wood-
ward Avenue, Detroit, Mich.

27629—58—pt. 1- 17

Minnesota: Mrs. O. H. Anderson, University of Minnesota, 15th and Washington

Avenue SE., Minneapolis, Minn. Mississippi: Mrs. Clara S. Williams, 3703 Ridgewood Road, Natchez, Miss. Missouri: Mrs. Robert E. Seiler, 6640A Delmar Boulevard, University City, Mo. Montana: Mrs. Howard R. Jones, 104 Agnes Avenue, Missoula, Mont. Nebraska: Mrs. Dewey F. Gruenhagen, 3540 South 31st Street, Lincoln, Nebr. Nevada: Mrs. Dale Reynolds, 437 Pine Street, Elko, Nev. New Hampshire: Mrs. Elbridge Stoneham, Elm Street, Exeter, N. H. New Jersey: Mrs. Charles Kellers, 20 Fulton Street, Newark, N. J. New Mexico: Mrs. Verle R. Seed, 624 Cedar Street NE., Albuquerque, N. Mex. New York: Mrs. Harry Lea, 461 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. North Carolina: Mrs. Neal Austin, Post Office Box 1806, High Point, N. C. North Dakota: Mrs. Lawrence Summers, 611 Oak Street, Grand Forks, N. Dak. Ohio: Mrs. Griffith L. Resor, Jr., Post Office Box 63, Madeira, Cincinnati, Ohio. Oklahoma: Mrs. William S. Morgan, Building 1001, North Campus, Norman,

Okla.
Oregon: Mrs. Charles Ford, 119 East Broadway, Eugene, Oreg.
Pennsylvania: Mrs. Norman F. Patton, Town Hall Building, Wilkes-Barre, Pa.
Rhode Island: Mrs. Horton Quinn, Boston Neck Road, Narragansett, R. I.
South Carolina: Mrs. C. Smith Toms, 69 Church Street, Charleston, S. C.
South Dakota: Mrs. Clarence Stekl, 2305 West 18th Street, Sioux Falls, S. Dak,
Tennessee: Mrs. R. K. Browning, 119 Tucker Road, Oak Ridge, Tenn.'
Texas: Mrs. Horton Wayne Smith, 1007 West 24th Street, Austin, Tex
Utah: Mrs. Roger Bailey, 180 C North State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah
Vermont: Mrs. Clarence Howard, 134 Monument Avenue, Bennington, Vt.
Virginia: Mrs. Albert E. Farwell, Box 188, Route No. 2, Vienna, Va.
Washington: Mrs. Robert J. Stuart, 608 Realty Building, Spokane, Wash.
West Virginia: Mrs. J. N. Compton, 1401 Summit Drive, Charleston, W. Va.
Wisconsin: Mrs. R. H. Wenberg, office, 119 East Washington Avenue, Madison,

Wis.; residence, 3251 North 50th Street, Milwaukee, Wis.
Wyoming: Mrs. Raymond R. Jones, 919 Fox Farm Road, Cheyenne, Wyo.

Senator MALONE. Nevada has just joined the Union, as far as the League of Women Voters are concerned. It is a fine State. I hope you will visit it.

Mrs. Laves. It is a fine State.
Senator MALONE. Have you visited Nevada?
Mrs. LAVES. I have not.

Senator MALONE. You should visit it. I want to ask you some questions because I know that you want to be accurate and I know that your league does, because you have some of the finest women in the world belonging to the League of Women Voters. I remember that it was not too long ago when they first allowed the women to vote, and you do have an amendment to the Constitution proposed here for equal rights, do you not?

Mrs. LAVES. I believe so.

Senator Malone. The League of Women Voters is, generally, for that amendment?

Mrs. LAVES. No; the league has not taken a position of support for the equal-rights amendment.

Senator MALONE. It just stays away from

Mrs. Laves. We do not oppose it. We do not think it gets at the basic problems that we are concerned with.

Senator MALONE. What are these basic problems?

Mrs. Laves. I think that the basic—the one single, basic objective of the League of Women Voters is to promote citizen responsibility through informed and active participation of citizens in government.

This is the way our bylaws state it, Senator. The thing we are most concerned about is that not only women, but men citizens, as well, citizens generally, should participate in this democratic form of

government we have so that it can really become an effective form of government.

Senator MALONE. I know you want to be accurate, and I do not want to take too much time here, there are other Senators, but would it interest you if I told you that we did not have a democratic form of government? Mrs. LAVES. That we do not have?

Senator MALONE. We have a democracy, which is a theory of government, but, if you read some of the background, also the Constitution, the Constitution talks about a republican, representative form of government; don't you remember? Mrs. LAVES. Yes.

Senator MalOnE. And when they asked Ben Franklin about it in 1789, they called him out of Independence Hall and said, “What have you given us?”

He said, “We have given you a republican, representative form of government, if you can keep it."

You remember that? Mrs. LAVES. I do.

Senator MALONE. So a democratic form of government is like an Indian tribe where everybody votes on every question, and we have a good many Indian tribes in Nevada.

Mrs. Laves. I had assumed, Senator, that there were many forms of government that could be called democratic just as there are other forms of government that may be called autocratic, but that to say that a form of government is democratic simply means that basically the control of the government is in the hands of the governed.

But I am sorry if I have misused the term. Senator MALONE. The dictionary does separate it. There has been a good deal of propaganda to the effect that we have a democratic form of government but the Constitution says we have a republican representative form of government because you represent people for a certain length of time and then consult everybody you can, I suppose, most of us do, and then you listen to the evidence, do your research, and vote your convictions. Then you go home and tell the folks how you voted and why, and then every so often you are the final word in an election.

Mrs. Laves. I would call that democratic but I would not want to quarrel with you.

Senator MALONE. That is not so. It is a republican representative form of government. I think the correction should be made for the record. Vrs. LAVES. Thank you.

Senator MALONE. I want to ask you a few questions if you know, because sometimes people do not have all of the information.

Do you know that under the 1934 Trade Agreements Act the President, or the State Department as his representative, and Mr. Dulles so testified, can in all of these negotiations trade a part or all of any industry in the United States to foreign nations if he believes it will further his foreign policy? Do you know that?

Mrs. Laves. Would you mind repeating that again, I am not sure I caught the first part of your statement.

Senator MALONE. In cross-examination of Mr. Dulles on Saturday 21st he said that the State Department is the representative of the President of the United States, the spearhead, of a policy committee made up of several Cabinet officers, who agree on a general policy of what they are going to consider. Then he is the spearhead in the bilateral trade agreement and the multilateral agreement at Geneva.

Mr. Dulles himself has never attended one of these sessions, I am informed, but he does have a representative there to sit in with 36 competitive foreign nations in multilateral trade agreements.

My question was, that regardless of any peril point established by the Tariff Commission, which I will go into in a minute, the President may disregard it, and may trade any part or all of any industry in the United States to a foreign nation or foreign nations if he believes it will further his foreign policy.

Do you believe that is a good policy?
Mrs. LAVES. He may trade it to any foreign nation?
What do you mean by that?

Senator MALONE. He may leave the tariff lower than the difference in the wage standard of living and the cost of doing business here and the chief competing nations, which means, of course, that their products will come in and displace American products.

So in short, you can just say we are trading it for a foreign policy. He has that authority under this act.

Do you believe that he should have that authority?
Mrs. LAVES. Well, it seems to me, that if by this you mean that the
President will have in his power the ability to determine a tariff level
in terms of the overall foreign policy of the United States-

Senator MALONE. That is right.
Mrs. LAVES. Is that what you have in mind?

Senator MALONE. It means he can trade the crockery industry or any part of it, to the chief competing nations in that field, if he believes that it will benefit further his overall foreign policy.

Mrs. LAVES. The overall foreign policy of the United States?

Senator MALONE. That is right; as fixed by him according to the Constitution or by Mr. Dulles, his agent.

Mrs. LAVES. It seems to me I would not agree to the description you give of the result of a policy of lowering the tariff.

Senator MALONE. Would you describe in your words,

Mrs. Laves. I would describe it as opening to the industries of the other countries freer competition without industries.

Now to say this means selling out our industry to another country, implies that our industries cannot compete with the other industries, that they have to be given a crutch to make it possible for them to compete at all.

I would say that what the act would do would make it possible for the President to eliminate the artificial assistance that our Nation gives to our industry in the interests of an overall foreign policy that is determined, after all, on the basis of the best judgment as to what is good for the whole Nation.

With that amendment, I would accept what you have said.
Senator MALONE. I think you have done very well.

I guess I will have to start a little further back because maybe I have been in this business longer than you have. I do not mean that you should conclude as I have but I want to give you the background.

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