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They were in Peking to make a trade agreement, were they not?

Secretary DULLES. A trade agreement was negotiated by the business people of Japan, but its terms were not found acceptable from a political standpoint.

Senator MALONE. When the Japanese treaty was before the Senate for approval I made a statement on the future relationship between Japan and China—they of course will resume trade with China. How many nations have recognized Communist China now?

Secretary DULLES. I do not have the precise figure. I would say approximately 25, something in that general order.

Senator MALONE. Does that include all of the European nations?
Secretary DULLES. No, sir.
Senator MALONE. How many?

Secretary DULLES. Are you talking about Western Europe or Eastern Europe?

Senator MALONE. All of Europe.

Secretary DULLES. All of the so-called Soviet bloc countries of Europe have recognized Communist China.

Senator MALONE. Then what you would call free Europe. How many of them have recognized Communist China? Name what you can remember and then you can complete the record.

Secretary DULLES. The United Kingdom has, Sweden has, I think Denmark has.

I would not want off hand, Senator
Senator MALONE. Would you complete the record?
Secretary DULLES. Yes.
(The following was subsequently received for the record :)

RECOGNITION OF COMMUNIST China Twenty-six nations members of the United Nations and one other nation, Switzerland, recognize or have diplomatic relations with the Communist Chinese regime. In addition, four other Communist regimes (East Germany, North Korea, Outer Mongolia, and North Vietnam) recognize the Communist Chinese regime. The 27 nations recognizing Communist China are: Afghanistan

Norway Albania

Pakistan Bulgaria

Poland Burma

Rumania Ceylon

Sweden Czechoslovakia

Switzerland Denmark

United Arab Republic Finland

United Kingdom Hungary

U. S. S. R.: India

Byelorussia
Indonesia

Ukraine
Israel
Nepal

Yugoslavia
Netherlands

There are, on the other hand, 42 members of the United Naviops and 3 other nations (Republic of Korea, the Vatican and the Republic of Vietnam) which recognize or have diplomatic relations with the Government of the Republic of China.

In addition, the Federal Republic of Germany recognizes neither the Communist Chinese regime nor the Republic of China.

Senator MALONE. When Great Britain, England, recognized Communist China, did that include their member nations of the Empire?

Secretary DULLES. Some of them and some not.

Yemen

Senator MALONE. Would you complete the record in that regard? Secretary DULLES. Yes.

Senator MALONE. Now the ones that have recognized Communist China trade with Communist China, do they not?

Secretary DULLES. Yes, and some who do not recognize nevertheless trade.

Senator MALONE. Yes, I think that is exactly right. And, of course, it was proven through congressional hearings, that these nations also were trading with Russia with certain strategic materials like copper, were they not? England, for example?

Secretary DULLES. No, they are not trading in strategic goods.
Senator MALONE. Copper is strategic goods.
Secretary DULLES. We have a list of strategic goods.

My recollection is that copper so far has been kept on the strategic list, and that there is not trade in copper.

There is trade I believe in copper wire.
Senator MALONE. What is copper wire made out of? Copper?
Secretary DULLES. That is correct.

Senator MALONE. Once you have copper, no matter what form it is in you have copper; do you not?

Secretary DULLES. Yes.
Senator MALONE. For any purpose.
Secretary DULLES. You can always melt it down.

Senator MALONE. I will ask permission to have included in the record at this time a list of strategic and critical materials that is furnished by the armed services from time to time.

It appears on page 10 of the Senate Report 1627, 83d Congress.

Senator Long. If that is already available, Senator Malone, that will be printed in the record.

Senator MALONE. At this point.

Senator Long. Yes, the document to which you have referred with that page reference.

(The document referred to is as follows:)
LIST OF STRATEGIC AND CRITICAL MATERIALS

Group I
Abrasive crude aluminum oxide, p. 48 Magnesium, p. 94
Aluminum, p. 48

Manganese ore, battery grade, pp. 95, Antimony, pp. 43, 190

188 Asbestos, amosite, p. 47

Manganese ore, chemical grade, pp. 95, Asbestos, chrysotile, p. 47

188 Asbestos, crocidolite, p. 47

Manganese ore, metallurgical grade, pp. Bauxite, metal grade, p. 48

95, 188 Bauxite, refractory grade, p. 48

Mercury, pp. 100, 186 Beryl, p. 52

Mica, muscovite block, good stained Bismuth, p. 53

and better, p. 105 Cadmium, p. 57

Mica, muscovite block, stained (radio. Celestite, p. 61

tube quality), p. 105
Chromite, chemical grade, pp. 61, 189 Mica, muscovite film, p. 105
Chromite, metallurgical grade, pp. 61, Mica, muscovite splittings, p. 105
189

Mica, phlogopite splittings, p. 105
Chromite, refractory grade, pp. 61, 189 Molybdenum, p. 107
Cobalt, p. 67

Nickel, pp. 107, 150
Columbite, pp. 150–151

Petroleum, pp. 234–250 Copper, p. 72

Platinum group metals, iridium, p. 150 Corundum, p. 78

Platinum group metals, platinum, p. 150. Diamonds, industrial, p. 78

Quartz crystals, p. 112 Fluorspar, acid grade, pp. 79, 229-234 Rare earths, p. 112 Fluorspar, metallurgical grade, pp. 79, Selenium, pp. 114, 150 229-234

Tin, p. 116 Graphite, amorphorus lump, p. 85 Titanium, pp. 121, 195–197, 199-212 Graphite, crucible grade, p. 85

Tungsten, pp. 123, 185 Graphite, lubricant and packing grade, Vanadium, p. 129 p. 85

Zinc, p. 130 Kyanite, p. 87

Uranium, pp. 214–219 Lead, p. 88

Thorium, p. 150

NONMINERALS Bristles, hog, p. 142

Palm oil, p. 140 Castor oil, p. 139

Pyrethrum, p. 137 Coconut oil, p. 139

Quinidine, p. 138 Cordage fibers, abaca, p. 138

Quinine, p. 137
Cordage fibers, sisal, p. 138

Rubber, crude natural, p. 140
Cotton, extra long staple, pp. 141, 145 Sapphire and ruby, pp. 86, 87
Feathers and down, waterfowl, p. 142 Shellac, p. 138
Hyoscine, p. 137

Silk, p. 141
Iodine, p. 85

Talc, steatite, block, facing p. 146 Jewel bearings, instrument jewel except Sperm oil, p. 140 vee jewels, pp. 86, 87

Vegetable tannin extract, chestnut, Jewel bearings, sapphire and ruby vee facing p. 146 jewels, pp. 86, 87

Vegetable tannin extract, quebracho, Jewel bearings, watch and timing- facing p. 146 device jewels, pp. 86, 87

Vegetable tannin extract, wattle, facing Opium, p. 137

p. 146

Group II

MINERALS Bauxite, abrasive, p. 48

Platinum group metals, palladium, facCryolite, natural, p. 50

ing p. 150 Graphite, crystalline fines, p. 85

Platinum group metals, rhodium, facing Ilmenite, p. 198

p. 150 Mica muscovite block, stained and Platinum group metals, ruthenium, faclower, p. 105

ing p. 150 Mica, phlogopite block, p. 105

Rutile, p. 197 Platinum group metals, osmium, facing Zirconium ore, Baddeleyite, p. 136 p. 150

Zirconium ore, zircon, p. 136

NONMINERALS Agar, pp. 137, 141

Optical glass Cotton, p. 141

Talc, steatite, ground, p. 115 Diamond dies, facing p. 146

Wool, pp. 141, 192 Emetine, p. 137

Senator MALONE. You will find copper very prominent on that list, Mr. Secretary, and the definition of it as a strategic or critical material, so designated since our domestic production does not equal our consumption and it is indispensable in an emergency.

Secretary DULLES. Yes.
Senator MALONE. That is the general definition; is it not?
Secretary DULLES. I believe so; yes.

Senator MALONE. On this list there are 77 such materials I believe grouped in group 1 and group 2. So that there will be no argument about what is strategic.

These nations do trade in many of these materials, do they not, with Communist China and, it has even been shown, with the Soviet bloc.

Secretary Dulles. They trade; yes, sir.
Senator MALONE. Mr. Secretary

Secretary DULLES. If I may say so, of course the United States also trades with the Soviet bloc. There is no prohibition of trade with the Soviet bloc.

Senator MALONE. What does our trade consist of?
Do you have the list or could you furnish it?

Secretary DULLES. The Department of Commerce could furnish it;' yes.

Senator MALONE. Could you get it and make it part of your testimony?

Secretary Dulles. Yes.

(The following material referred to was subsequently received for the record:)

Chart 1

U. S. EXPORTS TO EASTERN EUROPE

AND COMMUNIST CHINA

Million Dollars

QUARTERLY, 1947-1957

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