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On August 18th, 1967 one Mary Donohoe, a white female 55 years of age, was kidnapped off the downtown streets of Wilmington. She was abducted in an automobile where she was then taken to the dock area of our city known as the Marine Terminal area. This woman was then raped and robbed. She had beto severely beaten and required hospitalization.

Investigation of this vicious case resulted in the arrest of Perry Matthews, colored male 18 years, a paid W.Y.E.A.C. youth worker and Reginald Samuels, a colored male 20 years of age. Both of these men were later convicted in Superior Court and sentenced to life imprisonment.

On September 4, 1967, two men who have been paid W.Y.E.A.C. workers were apprehended along with four other persons, in an automobile which had been reported stolen from New York City. These arrests took place in the 500 Block of West 6th in our city. The operator of this vehicle was also found to have an eight inch knife with a release button device on it, in his possession. The two W.Y.E.AC. workers who were apprehended were Theodrick Smiley, colored male 23 and Robert J. Bolden III, colored male 21, both of whom have had extensive dealings with our department.

On the night of December 25th, Christmas evening, six police officers from the City of Wilmington were sent to the hospital as a result of injuries they received in a melee that occurred at the Titans Club, located at 1118 E. 13th Street.

The Titans Club is affiliated with the South Street W.Y.E.A.C. office and is in fact its younger members.

Michael T. Wright, a colored male 17 years, and President of the Titans Club was arrested for Maintaining a Disorderly House and a fight followed between police officers and other persons who were present in the Titans Club at this time. Several arrests took place.

On January 30th, 1968 the manager of a store, then operating under the name of Almar Liquors, reported he was approached by a group he referred to as the South Street Gang. They wanted to take over one-half of his business (the bar portion) telling him a “Half loaf was better than none."

This business place, which was located at 1236 N. Heald Street, is no longer in operation. When the manager, Richard McCarthy, white male 31, refused the proposal of "South Street”, a series of burglaries and other events took place at this location which resulted in its going out of business.

Several events involving increased hostile activity among some residents of our city continued to take place.

Intelligence information led to the seizing of certain articles from a racant property in the 700 Block of North Madison Street,

Two one gallon cans of gasoline were found along with a fourteen inch bayonet. The bayonet was stuck in the head section of a crude drawing which had printed under it-"Kill White Cop".

Two cases of empty soda bottles along with strips of rags were found.
Also printed on the other walls were the following:
“Kill Whitey”, “Black Power", "W.Y.E.A.C.”, “Speedo".

On February 23rd, 1968, Lawrence Brown, colored male 27, a paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker, showed up in the Memorial Hospital. He was suffering from gunshot wound of the right leg which he stated he received while walking in the vicinity of 26th and Claymont. He later admitted he had given fraudulent information and had in fact shot himself with a .25-caliber automatic pistol while trying to place it in his jacket pocket. This took place at 2801 Rosemont Avenue, the home of John Freeman. He refused to tell the officers who the gun actually belonged to.

Following the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King on April 4th, 1968, a series of events took place in Wilmington.

Window smashings, fire bombings and assaults on citizens took place for the next two days but was contained by our department.

On Friday, April 5th, several of our junior and senior high schools had to be adjourned due to student disorder.

At one high school, a group of W.Y.E.A.C. members who were present outside of the school, were actually encouraging the students to walk out against the wishes of the faculty.

On Monday, April 8th, memorial services were held in Rodney Square, across from City Hall. About 4,000 to 5,000 persons were in attendance. Everyone present at the ceremony was urged to return peaceably to their respective destinations upon completion of the service.

Following the conclusion of the ceremony, trouble was almost immediately reported in our downtown business district. Several merchants along Market st.,

the main artery in the city, reported large groups of young persons carrying merchandise out of their stores,

Police officers were immediately deployed along Market st. and it became necessary to shut this street to vehicular traffic due to the disorder that was taking place.

Off duty police officers were ordered to report to central and our Police Energency Recall Operation was placed into effect.

Tension and trouble continued to grow throughout the day. It was the younger citizens of Wilmington who were creating most of the disorder at this time and no one seemed to be able to infuence them to curtail their disorderly acts. The situation developed into two days of major civil disorder.

Sniper fire was used against police officers and firemen. A number of properties were burned down, a large number of business places were looted and crimes of violence took place with increasing frequency.

I have photographs and statistics available and would like to submit them into evidence to show some of what actually occurred.

During the disorder, 11 paid members of W.Y.E.A.C., who have been on their payroll at one time or another, were arrested. 44 associate members were arrested during this time. the offenses covered a wide range of charges and individual arrest statistics are available.

The Delaware State Police and Delaware National Guard had to be called into the city of Wilmington on April 9th. Several properties in different city blocks were burning at this time and the Wilmington Police Officers and Firemen needed help to contain the spreading fires and mob activity.

I would like to say at this time that the Wilmington Fire Department did a commendable job under the most hazardous of conditions. They were shot at, and were the targets of bottles and bricks and other forms of harassment. I have a picture available to show the extreme measures the Fire department has had to employ in order to furnish protection for the firemen.

The State Police and National Guard did a superb job and their cooperation was outstanding.

Since the April disorders, gang conflicts have been continuing and W.Y.E.A.C. members have continued to be involved in acts of violence.

On May 18th, Leonard Flowers, colored male 25, the leader of Blackie Blacks (a west side gang), was shot to death on the corner of 8th and Jefferson street. Flowers was killed by Samuel Clemmons, colored male 29, a known police character in our city. Flowers commanded a large following among the young people of the west center city area.

Flowers was shot to death at 7:15 A.M. Earlier that same day at 12:30 A.M. one William Hines, colored male 20 years, was found to be suffering from a stab wound of the abdomen. He was found in the 700 block of Jefferson street. Hines is a member of the gang known as the Spartans and they are active on the east center sector of our city. Hines would not give the investigating officers any information surrounding the assault upon him.

On May 20th, John Carroll, colored male 25, a paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker, was arrested for carrying a concealed deadly weapon. Arresting Officers observed him stopping motor vehicles at 8th & Jefferson Streets. He was found to have a 25 caliber automatic pistol concealed on his person. He was carrying it in a shoulder holster under his W.Y.E.A.C. jacket.

On May 30th, 15 to 20 members of the Spartans came to 8th & Jefferson Street for a confrontation with the "Blackie Blacks”. Several shots were fired, some directly at police officers. A loaded 16 gauge shotgun was found lying in the middle of the sidewalk in the 700 Block of Jefferson Street.

On June 1st, Ralph Roberts, colored male 17 years, was stabbed to death in a gang fight between the Spartans and the Titans at 7th & Church Streets. Roberts was a member of the Spartans and was stabbed by one James Pritchett, colored male 17, who was a member of the Titans.

Investigation of this homicide indicated that a series of gang conflicts had led to this event and resulted in the death of the 17 year old Pritchett.

During the initial stages of this investigation, while police officers were attempting to render aid to the victim, they became the target for bottles and bricks which were thrown at them by other gang members.

Officers Kamenc and McMahon uncovered two sticks of dynamite and four boxes of blasting caps through a confidential source of information. This was found in the 600 Block of Windsor Street on June 5th.

On June 7th, Calvin Loper, colored male 26, a paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker was arrested on two (2) charges of assault with intent to commit murder. He had fired several rounds from a 30 caliber M-1 carbine into a police van that was on normal patrol and occupied by two officers. It was an unprovoked assault in every way.

With Loper at this time, was a Clifford Johnson, colored male 17, and who is also a paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker. He jumped on the arresting officers and attempted to prevent them from taking Loper into custody. Johnson then escaped initial arrest and warrants were signed for him later that date.

Sgt. Matthew Shipp is present at this time and can give a first hand account of this incident.

On June 15th, Emmanuel Redding, colored male 17, who is a paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker continued to add to the growing list of assaults. Redding shot one Andre Anderson, colored male 20, in the stomach at 7th & Jefferson Streets. Redding was later arrested on a charge of assault with intent to commit murder. This appears to be a continuing of the rivalry between the Spartans, the Titans and Blackie Blacks.

On June 22nd an Army National Guard jeep was fired upon in the 2100 Block of North Claymont Street while stopped next to a police patrol car. The tail light of the jeep was shot out and the occupants narrowly avoided serious injury. A large group of persons were observed leaving "B. J.'s Corner" at this time.

On June 27th, patrol officers investigated an open door at “B. J.'s Corner" and in the course of their investigation a sawed off shot gun was discovered inside the premises. The barrel of this shot gun was only 14 1/8 inches long which is in violation of the Federal Regulation requiring a barrel length of at least 18 inches. A picture of this weapon is available.

From the early part of July of this year a series of malicious burnings and arsons began to take place. I have a complete list available along with some photographs.

On August 3rd, a W.Y.E.A.C. Van, Delaware license #-P/C 31971, was found to contain 1,000 rounds of 22 caliber ammunition. The van was occupied at this time by:

Warren Mowbray, colored male 19— W.Y.E.A.C. worker;
Vance Owens, colored male 19—W.Y.E.A.C. worker;
James J. Parker, colored male 19;
James Richards, colored male 20;
James Barber, colored male 18_W.Y.E.A.C. worker;
Allen Steed, colored male 18—W.Y.E.A.C. worker;
Robert Barber, colored male 26;
Edward Osborn, colored male 19; and

Ronald Atkins, colored male 19. Several of these individuals were later arrested in an incident I will refer to as the “Cherry Island” incident and will cover in later testimony.

On August 20th, Emmanuel Redding, colored male 18, again became involved in another episode at 27th and Edgemoor Avenue where shots were fired and an automobile maliciously damaged in a gang dispute. He was later arrested on a charge of Discharging Firearms as a result of this incident. Several other persons were arrested in connection with this case.

Herman (Scottie) Brown, W.Y.E.A.C. worker, was observed by an officer on patrol, carrying a pump action type shot gun from one of the W.Y.E.A.C. Fans into 735 N. Madison Street. This occurred on August 23rd.

On August 25th, a W.Y.E.A.C. Van, Delaware license P/C 15526, was hit with several bullets while parked in the 1500 Block of Todds Lane,

Several arrests of W.Y.E.A.C. workers also took place as a result of the investigation of this incident:

Lawrence Brown, colored male 29 (Youth Organizer) ;
John Freeman, colored male 27 (Asst. Center Director);
George Brown, colored male 29 (W.Y.E.A.C. Director);
Charles (Chezzie) Miller, colored male 24 (Youth Organizer);
Joyce Saunders, colored female 21 ;
Signoria Tucker, colored female 21; and

Annette Bryant, colored female 21.
All of these subjects were arrested on charges of Unlawful Entry after thes
were found hiding in the home of Lois Brown of 1528 Todds Lane.
Three weapons were found lying outside of this location and were as follows:

No. 1-(1) Stevens 22 caliber semi-automatic rifle

No. 2—(1) 25 caliber automatic pistol Pic-Decatur make

No. 3—(1) 22 caliber semi-automatic rifle Ithaca make Detailed investigative reports along with photographs are available regarding this case.

Earlier I mentioned the "Cherry Island" incident and I would now like to elaborate on this. This took place on August 31st.

Cherry Island is a marshlike area of our city where there are no private residences. There are some industrial operations in this area such as the city disposal plant.

Patrol Officers Tasker and Spencer heard gun shots in this area. Investigation revealed a W.Y.E.A.C. Van, the South Street branch, parked in a desolate area.

On further observation the officers observed six (6) men attired in black tams, walking in this area.

The men did not see the officers. They were taking turns firing four (4) different guns that they passed among themselves. One shot went over the heads of the police officers.

Officers Tasker and Spencer called in for assistance. Some initial cars were dispatched and I also responded along with members of the Tactical Patrol Force of which I was in charge.

The area was closed off and the six men started to return to their vehicle, still apparently unaware that police were present.

As they came into view, two of the men were wearing ammunition bandoliers across their chests. All had black berets on, and three (3) of them had badges on the berets which said "I have already been drafted into the Liberation Army".

These men were taken into custody and found to be the following: 1. Meredith Wiggins, colored male 27.

Center Director for South Street W.Y.E.A.C. He had two bandoliers around bis chest and was carrying a 12 gauge shot gun.

2. Warren Mowbray, colored male 18. Youth Worker for W.Y.E.A.C. He was carrying a 16 gauge shot gun. 3. Allen Steed, colored male 18.

Youth Aide for W.Y.E.A.C. He had a bandolier around his chest and was carrying a 30–30 caliber rifle with a two (2) power scope mounted on it.

4. Nelson Hudson, colored male 19.
Youth Aide for W.Y.E.A.C.
5. William Robinson, colored male 24.
He was carrying a 12 gauge shot gun.
6. James Barber, colored male 19.

All subjects were taken into custody. The W.Y.E.A.C. van was impounded and after obtaining a search warrant we found some marijuana inside of this van.

The manner in which these men were attired and their actions preceding their arrests seemed highly suspicious of having even greater implications.

Photographs are available and I would like to submit them into evidence.

This arrest started a series of events which resulted in the obtaining of search warrants and subsequent raids on the homes of some of these individuals.

Allen Steed's home, at 933 Spruce Street, was found to contain a total of 3,235 rounds of assorted ammunition. One 18 inch machete was found there.

Additional weapons and ammunition were found in the home of Nelson Hudson and that list is available.

The home of William Robinson was found to contain additional weapons, ammunition and subversive literature.

The home of Meredith Wiggins revealed additional weapons, including a 22 caliber magnum rifle and additional ammunition. Theodrick Smiley was in the home of Wiggins at the time the raid was conducted on September 3rd.

There are photographs and more detailed information available.

It should also be noted that James Barber was arrested only four days prior to the “Cherry Island" incident when he attempted to burn down a place of business at 529 Vandever Avenue, known as the R & S Delicatessen, along with several other persons.

This store (R & S Delicatessen) has been the scene of constant harassment and four fires were started there the night before Barber's arrest.

This statement has been very lengthy, but I have tried to summarize a period of over two years, and our gang activity in the City of Wilmington has been rather extensive.

There are very recent incidents that could be listed but I feel they will come out in the testimony before this committee. One such incident of just last week involves Calvin Loper. He was the paid W.Y.E.A.C. worker who during the month of June, 1968 was arrested on two charges of Assault with Intent to ('ommit Murder. He had fired into a police van which was occupied at that time by two police officers. He fired at them with an M-1 carbine_this latest incident he was arrested on a charge of Riot involving the assault on a police officer at "B.J.'s" Corner.

I would like to let the list of activities that we have presented to this committee along with additional testimony speak for itself as to whether or not W.Y.E.A.C. has been effective in lessening tensions among different gangs and whether they have provided a form of leadership that would be conducive to inspiring young members of any community to channel their efforts and activities into more constructive fields of endeavor other than gang rumbles and violence.

Captain McCool. Mr. Chairman, I would like to begin by relating a picture of the gang activity as it existed in the city of Wilmington during the early 1960's and up until 1966 when the Wilmington Youth Emergency Action Council was formed.

I would then like to discuss some of the gang activity that has taken place since then.

During the early 1960's there were approximately 10 gangs in the city of Wilmington. Six of these gangs created a real police problem and were as follows: No. 1 was the South Side Gang, which came from the south area of Wilmington.

No. 2 was the West Side Gang, coming from the west center city of Wilmington. No. 3 was the Jayhawkers from the Third and Clavton Street area. No. 4 was the Mountain Dew Gang from the 22d and Pine Streets area, or the northeast area of the city. No. 5 was the Stompers from the 13th and Wilson Street, or the east center city area. The sixth was known as the Romans, and sometimes referred to as the Riverside Gang, coming from the riverside and northeast areas of Wilmington.

The CHAIRMAN. How many of these gangs formed the Wilmington Youth Emergency Action Committee?

Captain McCOOL. Mr. Chairman, four that went into what I will refer to as WYEAC was the South Side Gang, the West Side Gang, the Mountain Dew Gang, and the Riverside or the Roman Gang.

The CHAIRMAN. Four of the six gangs that you identify here became participants in WYEAC?

Captain McCool. That is correct.
The CHAIRMAN. They constituted the WYEAC, in fact?
Captain McCool. Yes, sir.
The CHAIRMAN. Proceed.

Captain McCool. Gang rumbles did take place on occasion and some members of different gangs were injured in various types of assaults. The main problem that the police experienced with the gangs at this time was one gang against another.

The Wilmington Bureau of Police was able to keep major outbreaks of civil disorder from taking place during this period, even though crimes of violence among the gang members continued to happen. The rivalry of the gangs from the different sectors of our city was rather strong and in the spring of 1966 reached a climax.

Beverly J. Keller, who was a colored male, 18 years of age at that time, was an active member of the Mountain Dew Gang.

An altercation between rival gangs had taken place in the evening hours of April 15, 1966. As an aftermath to this, Keller was shot and killed on the Pine Street Bridge at 16th and Pine Street in the city of Wilmington, shortly after midnight on April 16, 1966. .

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