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unauthorized, but made without fraudulent intent, the warehouseman shall be liable according to the terms of the receipt as they were before alteration.
Material and fraudulent alteration of a receipt shall not excuse the warehouseman who issued it from liability to deliver, according to the terms of the receipt as originally issued, the goods for which it was issued, but shall excuse him from any other liability to the person who made the alteration and to any person who took with notice of the alteration. Any purchaser of the receipt for value without notice of the alteration shall acquire the same rights against the warehouseman which such purchaser would have acquired if the receipt had not been altered at the time of the purchase.
SECTION 15. In case a negotiable receipt has been lost or destroyed, a court of competent jurisdiction may order the delivery of the goods upon satisfactory proof of such loss or destruction, and upon the giving of a bond with sufficient sureties to be approved by the court to protect the warehouseman from any liability or expense which he or any person injured by such delivery may incur by reason of the original receipt remaining outstanding. The court may also in its discretion order the payment of the warehouseman's reasonable costs and counsel fees.
The delivery of the goods under an order of the court, as provided in this section, shall not relieve the warehouseman from liability to a person to whom the negotiable receipt has been or shall be negotiated for value, without notice of the proceedings or of the delivery of the goods.
SECTION 16. A receipt upon the face of which the word "duplicate is plainly placed is a representation and warranty by the warehouseman that such receipt is an accurate copy of an original receipt properly issued and uncancelled at the date of the issue of the duplicate, but shall impose upon him no other liability.
SECTION 17. No title or right to the possession of the goods, on the part of the warehouseman, unless such title or right is derived directly or indirectly from a transfer made by the depositor at the time of or subsequent to the deposit for storage, or from the warehouseman's lien, shall excuse the warehouseman from liability for refusing to deliver the goods according to the terms of the receipt.
SECTION 18. If more than one person claim the title or possession of the goods, the warehouseman may, either as a defence to an action brought against him for non-delivery of the goods, or as an original suit, whichever is appropriate, require all known claimants to interplead.
SECTION 19. If some one other than the depositor or person claiming under him has a claim to the title or possession of the goods, and the warehouseman has information of such claim, the warehouseman shall be excused from liability for refusing to deliver the goods, either to the depositor or person claiming under him or to the adverse claimant, until the warehouseman has had a reasonable time to ascertain the validity of the adverse claim, or to bring legal proceedings to compel all claimants to interplead.
SECTION 20. Except as provided in the two preceding sections and in sections ten and thirty-seven, no right or title of a third person shall be a defence to an action brought by the depositor or person claiming under
him against the warehouseman for failure to deliver the goods according to the terms of the receipt.
SECTION 21. A warehouseman shall be liable to the holder of a receipt for damages caused by the non-existence of the goods, or by the failure of the goods to correspond with the description thereof in the receipt at the time of its issue. If, however, the goods are described in a receipt merely by a statement of marks or labels upon them, or upon packages containing them, or by a statement that the goods are said to be goods of a certain kind, or that packages containing the goods are said to contain goods of a certain kind, or by words of like purport, such statements, if true, shall not make liable the warehouseman issuing the receipt, although the goods are not of the kind which the marks or labels upon them indicate, or of the kind they were said to be by the depositor.
SECTION 22. A warehouseman shall be liable for any loss or injury to the goods caused by his failure to exercise such care in regard to them as a reasonably careful owner of similar goods would exercise; but he shall not be liable, in the absence of an agreement to the contrary, for any loss or injury to the goods which could not have been avoided by the exercise of such care.
SECTION 23. Except as provided in the following section, a warehouseman shall keep the goods so far separate from goods of other depositors, and from other goods of the same depositor for which a separate receipt has been issued, as to permit at all times the identification and redelivery of the goods deposited.
SECTION 24. If authorized by agreement or by custom, a warehouseman may mingle fungible goods with other goods of the same kind and grade. In such case the various depositors of the mingled goods shall own the entire mass in common, and each depositor shall be entitled to such portion thereof as the amount deposited by him bears to the whole.
SECTION 25. The warehouseman shall be liable severally to each depositor for the care and re-delivery of his share of such mass to the same extent and under the same circumstances as if the goods had been kept separate.
SECTION 26. If goods are delivered to a warehouseman by the owner or by a person whose act in conveying the title to them to a purchaser in good faith for value would bind the owner, and a negotiable receipt is issued for them, they cannot thereafter, while in the possession of the warehouseman, be attached by trustee process or otherwise, or be levied upon under an execution, unless the receipt be first surrendered to the warehouseman, or its negotiation enjoined. The warehouseman shall in no case be compelled to deliver up the actual possession of the goods until the receipt is surrendered to him or impounded by the court.
SECTION 27. A creditor whose debtor is the owner of a negotiable receipt shall be entitled to such aid from courts of appropriate jurisdiction, by injunction and otherwise, in attaching such receipt or in satisfying the claim by means thereof as is allowed at law or in equity, in regard to property which cannot readily be attached or levied upon by ordinary legal process.
SECTION 28. Subject to the provisions of section thirty, a warehouseman shall have a lien on goods deposited or on the proceeds thereof in
his hands, for all lawful charges for storage and preservation of the goods; also for all lawful claims for money advanced, interest, insurance, transportation, labor, weighing, coopering and other charges and expenses in relation to such goods; also for all reasonable charges and expenses for notice, and advertisements of sale, and for sale of the goods where default has been made in satisfying the warehouseman's lien.
SECTION 29. Subject to the provisions of section thirty, a warehouseman's lien may be enforced :
(a) Against all goods, whenever deposited, belonging to the person who is liable as debtor for the claims in regard to which the lien is asserted; and
(b) Against all goods belonging to others which have been deposited at any time by the person who is liable as debtor for the claims in regard to which the lien is asserted, if such person had been so entrusted with the ⚫ possession of the goods that a pledge of the same by him at the time of the deposit to one who took the goods in good faith for value would have been valid.
SECTION 30. A warehouseman loses his lien upon goods:
(a) By surrendering possession thereof; or
(b) By refusing to deliver the goods when a demand is made with which he is bound to comply under the provisions of this act.
SECTION 31. If a negotiable receipt is issued for goods, the warehouseman shall have no lien thereon, except for charges for storage and preservation of those goods subsequent to the date of the receipt, unless the receipt expressly enumerates other charges for which a lien is claimed. In such case there shall be a lien for the charges enumerated, so far as they are within the terms of section twenty-eight although the amount of the charges so enumerated is not stated in the receipt.
SECTION 32. A warehouseman having a lien valid against the person demanding the goods may refuse to deliver the goods to him until the lien is satisfied.
SECTION 33. Whether a warehouseman has or has not a lien upon the goods, he is entitled to all remedies allowed by law to a creditor against his debtor, for the collection from the depositor of all charges and advances which the depositor has expressly or impliedly contracted with the warehouseman to pay.
SECTION 34. A warehouseman's lien for a claim which has become due may be satisfied as follows:
The warehouseman shall give a written notice to the person on whose account the goods are held, and to any other person known by the warehouseman to claim an interest in the goods. Such notice shall be given by delivery in person or by registered letter addressed to the last known. place of business or abode of the person to be notified. The notice shall contain:
(a) An itemized statement of the warehouseman's claim, showing the sum due at the time of the notice and the date or dates when it became due:
(b) A brief description of the goods against which the lien exists;
(c) A demand that the amount of the claim as stated in the notice, and of such further claim as shall accrue, shall be paid on or before a day mentioned, not less than ten days after the delivery of the notice if it is
personally delivered, or after the time when the notice should reach its destination, according to the due course of post, if the notice is sent by mail; and
(d) A statement that unless the claim is paid within the time specified the goods will be advertised for sale and sold by auction at a specified time and place.
In accordance with the terms of a notice so given, a sale of the goods by auction may be had to satisfy any valid claim of the warehouseman for which he has a lien on the goods. The sale shall be had in the place where the lien was acquired, or, if such place is manifestly unsuitable for the purpose, at the nearest suitable place. After the time for the payment of the claim specified in the notice to the depositor has elapsed, an advertisement of the sale, describing the goods to be sold, and stating the name of the owner or person on whose account the goods are held and the time and place of the sale, shall be published once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper published in the place where such sale is to be held. The sale shall be held not less than fifteen days after the time of the first publication. If there is no newspaper published in such place, the advertisement shall be posted at least ten days before such sale in not less than six conspicuous places therein.
From the proceeds of such sale the warehouseman shall satisfy his lien, including the reasonable charges of notice, advertisement and sale. The balance, if any, of such proceeds shall be held by the warehouseman, and delivered on demand to the person to whom he would have been bound to deliver or justified in delivering the goods.
At any time before the goods are so sold, any person claiming a right of property or possession therein may pay the warehouseman the amount necessary to satisfy his lien and to pay the reasonable expenses and liabilities incurred in serving notices and advertising and preparing for the sale up to the time of such payment. The warehouseman shall deliver the goods to the person making such payment, if he is a person entitled, under the provisions of this act, to the possession of the goods on payment of charges thereon; otherwise, the warehouseman shall retain possession of the goods according to the terms of the original contract of deposit.
SECTION 35. If goods are of a perishable nature, or by keeping will deteriorate greatly in value, or by their odor, leakage, inflammability or explosive nature will be liable to injure other property, the warehouseman may give such notice to the owner, or to the person in whose name the goods are stored, as is reasonable and possible under the circumstances, to satisfy the lien upon such goods and to remove them from the warehouse; and in the event of the failure of such person to satisfy the lien and to remove the goods within the time so specified, the warehouseman may sell the goods at public or private sale without advertising. If the warehouseman after a reasonable effort is unable to sell such goods, he may dispose of them in any lawful manner, and shall incur no liability by reason thereof.
The proceeds of any sale made under the terms of this section shall be disposed of in the same way as the proceeds of sales made under the terms of the preceding section.
SECTION 36. The remedy for enforcing a lien herein provided does not preclude any other remedies allowed by law for the enforcement of
a lien against personal property, nor bar the right to recover so much of the warehouseman's claim as shall not be paid by the proceeds of the sale of the property.
SECTION 37. After goods have been lawfully sold to satisfy a warehouseman's lien, or have been lawfully sold or disposed of because of their perishable or hazardous nature, the warehouseman shall not thereafter be liable for failure to deliver the goods to the depositor or owner of the goods, or to a holder of the receipt given for the goods when they were deposited, even if such receipt be negotiable.
NEGOTIATION AND TRANSFER OF RECEIPTS.
SECTION 38. A negotiable receipt may be negotiated by delivery: (a) Where, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the bearer; or
(b) Where, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of a specified person, and such person or a subsequent indorsee of the receipt has indorsed it in blank or to bearer.
Where, by the terms of a negotiable receipt, the goods are deliverable to bearer, or where a negotiable receipt has been indorsed in blank or to bearer, any holder may indorse the same to himself or to any other specified person; and in such case the receipt shall thereafter be negotiated only by the indorsement of such indorsee.
SECTION 39. A negotiable receipt may be negotiated by the indorsement of the person to whose order the goods are, by the terms of the receipt, deliverable. Such indorsement may be in blank, to bearer or to a specified person. If indorsed to a specified person, it may be again negotiated by the indorsement of such person in blank, to bearer or to another specified person. Subsequent negotiation may be made in like
SECTION 40. A receipt which is not in such form that it can be negotiated by delivery may be transferred by the holder by delivery to a purchaser or donee.
A non-negotiable receipt cannot be negotiated, and the indorsement of such a receipt gives the transferee no additional right.
SECTION 41. A negotiable receipt may be negotiable: (a) By the owner thereof; or
(b) By any person to whom the possession or custody of the receipt has been entrusted by the owner, if, by the terms of the receipt, the warehouseman undertakes to deliver the goods to the order of the person to whom the possession or custody of the receipt has been entrusted, or if at the time of such entrusting the receipt is in such form that it may be negotiated by delivery.
SECTION 42. A person to whom a negotiable receipt has been duly negotiated acquires thereby :
(a) Such title to the goods as the person negotiating the receipt to him had or had ability to convey to a purchaser in good faith for value, and also such title to the goods as the depositor or person to whose order