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testifying their friendship by actions, You men of Europe think nothing of a od laves me only words to express the voyage by sea.
With us of China a man n cerity of mine.
who has been from sight of land is regarded I an perfectly sensible of the delicacy upon his return with admiration. I have ith anich you endeavour to lessen your known some provinces where there is not wa Derit and my obligations. By calling even a name for the ocean. What a strange our late instances of friendship only a people, therefore, am I got amongst, who eten for former favours you would in- have founded an empire on this unstable = use me to impute to your justice what element, who build cities upon billows that c# to your generosity.
rise higher than the mountains of Tipartala, The services I did you at Canton justice, and make the deep more formidable than 2 anity, and my office bade me perform; the wildest tempest! di ise you have done me since my arrival Such accounts as these, I must confess, w Amsterdam no laws obliged you to, no were my first motives for seeing England.
Es de required. Even half your favours These induced me to undertake a journey wohl have been greater than my most of seven hundred painful days, in order to Saagde expectations.
examine its opulence, buildings, sciences, The sum of money, therefore, which you arts, and manufactures, on the spot. Judge, porady conveyed into my baggage, when then, my disappointment on entering LonI was leaving Holland, and which I was don, to see no signs of that opulence so Durant of till my arrival in London, I much talked of abroad: wherever I turn 2 beg leave to return. You have been I am presented with a gloomy solemnity Leia merchant, and I a scholar; you con- in the houses, the streets, and the inhabiseetly love money better than İ. You tants; none of that beautiful gilding which ca and pleasure in superfluity; I am makes a principal ornament in Chinese perlectly content with what is sufficient. architecture. The streets of Nankin are Tike therefore what is yours: it may give sonetimes strewed with gold leaf: very vad some pleasure, even though you have different are those of London : in the midst za occasion to use it; my happiness it can of their pavement great lazy puddle 31 improve, for I have already all that I moves muddily along; heavy-laden ma
chines, with wheels of unwieldy thickness, My passage by sea from Rotterdam to crowd up every passage : so that a stranger, Eyland was more painful to me than all instead of finding time for observation, is "2 journeys I ever made on land. I have often happy if he has time to escape from arised the immeasurable wilds of Mogul being crushed to pieces. Tartary; felt all the rigours of Siberian The houses borrow very few ornaments 1:55: I have had my repose a hundred from architecture; their chief decoration **disturbed by invading savages, and seems to be a paltry piece of painting hung 2Pe seen, without shrinking, the desert out at their doors or windows, at once a
ada rise like a troubled ocean all around proof of their indigence and vanity: their Be Against these calamities I was armed vanity, in each having one of those pictures in resolution ; but in my passage to Eng. exposed to public view; and their indiizzd, though nothing occurred that gavethe gence, in being unable to get them better Dariners any uneasiness, to one who was painted. In this respect the fancy of their seier at sea before all was a subject of painters is also deplorable. Could you be
unishment and terror. To find the land lieve it? I have seen five black lions and o appear-to see our ship mount the three blue boars in less than the circuit of Vivas, swift as an arrow from the Tartar half a mile; and yet you know that animals
-to hear the wind howling through of these colours are nowhere to be found, te2 cordage — to feel a sickness which except in the wild imaginations of Europe. sepresses even the spirits of the brave, From these circumstances in their build-hese were unexpected distresses, and ings, and from the dismal looks of the monsequently assaulted me, unprepared inhabitants, I am induced to conclude that o receive them.
the nation is actually poor; and that, like the Persians, they make a splendid figure objects with each other, which were befc everywhere but at home. The proverb examined without reflection. of Xixofou is, that a man's riches may be Behold me, then, in London, gazing seen in his eyes : if we judge of the English the strangers, and they at me. It seer by this rule, there is not a poorer nation they find somewhat absurd in my figur under the sun.
and had I never been from home, it I have been here but two days, so will possible I might find an infinite fund not be hasty in my decisions. Such letters ridicule in theirs : but by long travelli as I shall write to Fipsihi in Moscow I beg I am taught to laugh at folly alone, and you'll endeavour to forward with all dili- find nothing truly ridiculous but villai gence; I shall send them open, in order and vice. that you may take copies or translations, When I had just quitted my natias you are equally versed in the Dutch and country, and crossed the Chinese wall, Chinese languages. Dear friend, think of fancied every deviation from the custon my absence with regret, as I sincerely and manners of China was a departing fro regret yours; even while I write, I lament nature. I smiled at the blue lips and r our separation.-Farewell.
foreheads of the Tonguese; and coul
hardly contain when I saw the Daur LETTER III.
dress their heads with horns : the Ostia From Lien Chi Altangi to the care of Fipsihi, muck beauties, tricked out in all the fines
powdered with red earth; and the Ca Russian caravan to Fum Hoam, First Presi- of sheepskin, appeared highly ridiculou dent of the Ceremonial Academy at Pekin, in But I soon perceived that the ridicule la China.
not in them, but in me; that I falsely co THINK not, O thou guide of my youth! demned others for absurdity, because the that absence can impair my respect, or happened to differ from a standard or interposing trackless deserts blot your ginally founded in prejudice or partialit reverend figure from my memory. The I find no pleasure, therefore, in taxir farther I travel I feel the pain of separation the English with departing from nature with stronger force; those ties that bind their external appearance, which is all me to my native country and you are still yet know of their character : it is possib. unbroken. By every remove I only drag they only endeavour to improve her simp a greater length of chain.
plan, since every extravagance in dre Could I find ought worth transmitting proceeds from a desire of becoming mo from so remote a region as this to which beautiful than nature made us ; and th I have wandered, I should gladly send it; is so harmless a vanity, that I not on but, instead of this, you must be content pardon, but approve it. A desire to ! with a renewal of my former professions, | more excellent than others is what actual and an imperfect account of a people with makes us so ; and as thousands find a liv whom I am as yet but superficially ac- lihood in society by such appetites, nou quainted. The remarks of a man who has but the ignorant inveigh against them. been but three days in the country can only You are not insensible, most reveren be those obvious circumstances which force Fum Hoam, what numberless trades, eve themselves upon the imagination. I con among the Chinese, subsist by the ham sider myself here as a newly created being less pride of each other. Your nose-borer introduced into a new world. Every ob- feet-swathers, teeth-stainers, eyebrow ject strikes with wonder and surprise. The pluckers, would all want bread, shoul imagination, still unsated, seems the only their neighbours want vanity.
Thes active principle of the mind. The most vanities, however, employ much fewe trifling occurrences give pleasure, till the hands in China than in England ; and gloss of novelty is worn away. When I fine gentleman or a fine lady here, drese have ceased to wonder, I may possibly up to the fashion, seems scarcely to hav grow wise; I may then call the reasoning a single limb that does not suffer som
nciple to my aid, and compare those distortions from art.
To make a fine gentleman several trades broad their faces ! how very short their e required, but chiefly a barber. You noses ! how very little their eyes ! how ve undoubtedly heard of the Jewish very thin their lips ! how very black their lampion, whose strength lay in his hair. teeth! the snow on the tops of Bao is not newoold think that the English were for fairer than their cheeks ; and their eyeacing all wisdom there. To appear wise brows are small as the line by the pencil
thing more is requisite here than for a of Quamsi. Here a lady with such peri on to borrow hair from the heads of all fections would be frightful. Dutch and is highbours, and clap it like a bush on Chinese beauties, indeed, have some reis own. The distributors of law and phy, semblance, but English women are entirely ic stick on such quantities, that it is almost different : red cheeks, big eyes, and teeth rapossible, even in idea, to distinguish of a most odious whiteness, are not only pet seen the head and the hair.
seen here, but wished for; and then they Those whom I have now been describing have such masculine feet, as actually serve 27ect the gravity of the lion ; those I am some for walking ! og to describe more resemble the pert Yet, uncivil as nature has been, they seem $792äty of smaller animals. The barber, resolved to outdo her in unkindness they subo is soll master of the ceremonies, cuts use white powder, blue powder, and black the hair close to the crown ; and then, powder for their hair, and a red powder with a composition of meal and hog’s-lard, for the face on some particular occasions. pasters the whole in such a manner as to They like to have the face of various Take it impossible to distinguish whether colours, as among the Tartars of Koreki, x patient wears a cap or a plaster : but, frequently sticking on, with spittle, little tcake the picture more perfectly striking, black patches on every part of it, except ceceive the tail of some beast, a grey on the tip of the nose, which I have never hat's tail, or a pig's tail, for instance, seen with a patch. You'll have a better mended to the back of the head, and idea of their manner of placing these ishing down to the place where tails in spots when I have finished a map of an er animals are generally seen to begin : English face patched up to the fashion, ties betailed and bepowdered, the man of which shall shortly be sent to increase your
A fancies he improves in beauty, dresses curious collection of paintings, medals, chis hard-featured face in smiles, and and monsters. maapts to look hideously tender. Thus But what surprises more than all the 5pped, he is qualified to make love, rest is what I have just now been credibly a bopes for success more from the pow- informed of by one of this country. “Most
on the outside of his head than the ladies here,” says he, “ have two faces; iments within.
one face to sleep in, and another to show Yet when I consider what sort of a crea in company. The first is generally reise the fine lady is to whom he is supposed served for the husband and family at home; ay his addresses, it is not strange to find the other put on to please strangers abroad: as thus equipped in order to please. She the family face is often indifferent enough, Beerself every whit as fond of powder, and but the out-door one looks something Dals, and hog's-lard, as he. Io speak my better; this is always made at the toilet, are sentiments, most reverend Fum, the where the looking-glass and toad-eater sit
is here are horribly ugly; I can hardly in council, and settle the complexion of dare the sight of them; they no way the day.” Pemble the beauties of China: the I cannot ascertain the truth of this Luropeans have a quite different idea of remark : however, it is actually certain, saaty from us. When I reflect on the that they wear more clothes within doors euil-footed perfections of an Eastern than without ; and I have seen a lady, Beauty, how is it possible I should have who seemed to shudder at a breeze in her us for a woman whose feet are ten inches own apartment, appear half naked in the bag? I shall never forget the beauties of streets. - Farewell. my native city of Nangfew. How very
our freedom; if the French should conque
what would become of English liber To the same
My dear friends, liberty is the Englishma The English seem as silent as the Japan- prerogative; we must preserve that at ese, yet vainer than the inhabitants of Siam. expense of our lives ; of that the Frer Upon my arrival I attributed that reserve shall never deprive us. It is not to be to modesty, which, I now find, has its ori- pected that men who are slaves themsel gin in pride. Condescend to address them would preserve our freedom should th first, and you are sure of their acquaintance; happen to conquer.”—“Ay, slaves,' cr stoop to flattery, and you conciliate their the porter, “they are all slaves, fit only friendship and esteem. They bear hunger, carry burdens, every one of them. Beic cold, fatigue, and all the miseries of life, I would stoop to slavery may this be i without shrinking; danger only calls forth poison ! (and he held the goblet in their fortitude; they even exult in cala- hand,) may this be my poison !-but mity: but contempt is what they cannot would sooner list for a soldier." bear. An Englishman fears contempt The soldier, taking the goblet from more than death; he often flies to death friend with much awe, fervently cried or as a refuge from its pressure ; and dies “It is not so much our liberties, as our when he fancies the world has ceased to ligion, that would suffer by such a chang esteem him.
ay, our religion, my lads. May the de Pride seems the source not only of their sink me into flames, (such was the soler national vices, but of their national virtues nity of his adjuration,) if the French shou also. An Englishman is taught to love come over, but our religion would his king as his friend, but to acknowledge utterly undone !"-So saying, instead no other master than the laws which him- a libation, he applied the goblet to self has contributed to enact. He despises lips, and confirmed his sentiments wi those nations who, that one may be free, a ceremony of the most perseverir are all content to be slaves; who first lift devotion. a tyrant into terror, and then shrink under In short, every man here pretends tol his power as if delegated from Heaven. a politician ; even the fair sex are som Liberty is echoed in all their assemblies : times found to mix the severity of nation: and thousands might be found ready to offer altercation with the blandishments of love up their lives for the sound, though per. and often become conquerors by mor haps not one of all the number understands weapons of destruction than their eyes. its meaning. The lowest mechanic, how- This universal passion for politics ever, looks upon it as his duty to be a gratified by daily gazettes, as with us i watchful guardian of his country's freedom, China. But as in ours the emperor en and often uses a language that might seem deavours to instruct his people, in their haughty even in the mouth of the great the people endeavour to instruct th emperor who traces his ancestry to the administration. You must not, however Moon.
imagine, that they who compile thes A few days ago, passing by one of their papers have any actual knowledge of the prisons, I could not avoid stopping, in politics, or the government, of a state order to listen to a dialogue which I thought they only collect their materials from the might afford me some entertainment. The oracle of some coffeehouse, which orad conversation was carried on between a has himself gathered them the night befor debtor through the grate of his prison, a from a beau at a gaming-table, who has porter, who had stopped to rest his burden, pillaged his knowledge from a great man and a soldier at the window. The subject porter, who has had his information from was upon a threatened invasion from the great man's gentleman, who has in France, and each seemed extremely anxious vented the whole story for his own amuse to rescue his country from the impending ment the night preceding. danger. “For my part," cries the prisoner, The English, in general, seem fonder " the greatest of my apprehensions is for of gaining the esteem than the love of ose they converse with. This gives a inakty to their amusements: their gay
LETTER V. t conversations have something too wise
To the same. r innocent relaxation: though in com. iny Foa are seldom disgusted with the I HAVE already informed you of the
surdity of a fool, you are seldom lifted singular passion of this nation for politics. to rupture by those strokes of vivacity, An Englishman, not satisfied with finding, hich give instant, though not permanent, by his own prosperity, the contending leusare
powers of Europe properly balanced, de. What they want, however, in gaiety, sires also to know the precise_value of bey make up in politeness. You smile every weight in either scale. To gratify thering me praise the English for their this curiosity, a leaf of political instruction winnes; you who have heard very dif- is served up every morning with tea: when erent accounts from the missionaries at our politician has feasted upon this, he Pan who have seen such a different be- repairs to a coffeehouse, in order to rumihmour in their merchants and seamen at nate upon what he has read, and increase hare But I must still repeat it, the English his collection; from thence he proceeds Sen Dore polite than any of their neigh- to the ordinary, inquires what news, and les: their great art in this respect lies in treasuring up every acquisition there, hunts
descaring, while they oblige, to lessen about all the evening in quest of more, the force of the favour. Other coun- and carefully adds it to the rest. Thus at tro are fond of obliging a stranger ; but night he retires home, full of the important
a desirous that he should be sensible advices of the day : when lo! awaking o the obligation. The English confer next morning, he finds the instructions
: kirdness with an appearance of of yesterday a collection of absurdity inference, and give away benefits with or palpable falsehood. This one would a air as if they despised them.
think a mortifying repulse in the pursuit Talking, a few days ago, between an of wisdom ; yet our politician, no way Elich and a French man, into the suburbs discouraged, hunts on, in order to collect c!he city, we were overtaken by a heavy fresh materials, and in order to be again ter of rain. I was unprepared ; but disappointed. Bey had each large coats, which defended I have often admired the commercial ce from what seemed to me a perfect spirit which prevails over Europe ; have eodation. The Englishman, seeing me been surprised to see them carry on a strak from the weather, accosted me thus: traffic with productions that an Asiatic
raha, man, what dost shrink at? Here, stranger would deem entirely useless. It take this coat; I don't want it; I find it is a proverb in China that an European "D) Fay useful to me ; I had as lief be suffers not even his spittle to be lost; the mibout it.” The Frenchman began to maxim, however, is not sufficiently strong,
** his politeness in turn. "My dear since they sell even their lies to great Food," cries he, “why won't you oblige advantage. Every nation drives a con
by making use of my coat? you see siderable trade in this commodity with ** well it defends me from the rain; their neighbours. I should not choose to part with it to An English dealer in this way, for
es, but to such a friend as you I instance, has only to ascend to his worksaid even part with my skin to do him house, and manufacture a turbulent speech rice."
averred to be spoken in the senate; or a From such minute instances as these, report supposed to be dropped at court; ist reverend Fum Hoam, I am sensible a piece of scandal that strikes at a popular " sagacity will collect instruction. mandarine; or a secret treaty between two The volume of nature is the book of neighbouring powers. When finished, browledge; and he becomes most wise these goods are baled up, and consigned ato makes the most judicious selection. to a factor abroad, who sends in return two - Farewell.
battles, three sieges, and a shrewd letter