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gent, and dispassionate men, who had never been inoculated with the virus of classical disputatiousness, it is safe to say they would promptly decide that Dr. Schliemann has made out his case. And undoubtedly, until his critics and assailants use their spades as diligently and as much to the purpose as he has used his, and somewhere else on the Troad exhume a witness such as he has exhumed, however successful they may be in pointing out gaps and flaws in his claims, the common-sense of mankind will credit Dr. Schliemann with having discovered the site of the Troy of Homer's Iliad. Of the ornate volume in which Dr. Schliemann relates the history of his researches and discoveries it is impossible to speak, except in the most general terms, in the brief space to which we are restricted. His narrative of his five years' arduous work of excavation—his graphic and good-tempered record of the impediments encountered, the difficulties surmounted, the machinery and methods employed, and his enthusiastic relation of the rich discoveries made, of the rare treasures unburied from their tombs of more than thirty centuries, and of the interesting or exciting incidents that happened from day to day—is one of transcendent interest; and the grand central fact which it emphasizes is the nucleus around which is clustered in rich profusion a bewildering variety of learning bearing on the site and history of Troy, the identity of Homer, the paternity of his poems, and the Homeric times and literature. Sometimes this learning is in the form of a pregnant brief sentence or episode incorporated with and illustrating some fact or opinion; and sometimes it expands into separate exhaustive treatises by Schliemann or his learned friends on recondite topics that are of profound interest and importance in the realm of archaeological, philological, historical, ethnographical, antiquarian, topographical, geographical, or critical inquiry and research. In an introductory chapter, whose brevity is its chief fault, Dr. Schliemann makes himself familiarly known to his readers, in an autobiographical sketch, in which he tells the story of his life with a garrulous unreserve and a frank and ingenuous simplicity that are exceedingly winning, leaving on us the impression that never before was there an enthusiast so practical, or a shrewd, astute, methodical man of business so devoured by enthusiasm, as he. Before he was seven years old it was the dream of his childhood that he would one day excavate Troy; and through the dreariest discouragements and poverty the dream remained ever present with him, and incited him to the acquisition of knowledge and wealth. And when at length fortune crowned his industry, he heaped up more riches solely that he might realize the dream of his childhood, that had become more and more the fixed purpose of his mature years. The steps of these successive periods of his life, and the growth and consummation of the pur
pose to which all his aims and labors were preparatory, are delightfully detailed. This felicitous autobiographical sketch is appropriately supplemented with a succint outline narrative of his first visits to Ithaca, the Peloponnesus, and Troy, in 1868 and 1870, and of his five years' work of excavation at Hissarlik, respectively in 1871, 1872, 1873, 1878, and 1879. After having thus gathered the general results of his researches, as it were, into a nutshell for the convenience of the unscientific reader, Dr. Schliemann proceeds more deliberately and fully to explain his work and its re
sults in detail for the scientific scholar; and
as preparatory to this he contributes four elaborate treatises, in each of which there are constant references to classical and historical authorities, and to his own discoveries supporting his hypothesis of the identity of ancient Troy and Hissarlik. These are severally on the country of the Trojans, or the Troad, on the ethnology of the Trojans and the topography of Troy, on the history of Troy, and on the true site of Troy, the last-mentioned being a valuable and exhaustive paper giving the various modern authors who have advanced more or less elaborate theories on the subject. Separate chapters are devoted to a description of each of the seven cities—five of them prehistoric, and two more recent—which, as his excavations reveal, have successively occupied the site of Troy (each upon the ruins of its predecessor), dwelling of course at much the greatest length, as being of the most curious interest, on the third from the bottom, the “Burnt City,” or the Troy of the Iliad. Dr. Schliemann's book is enriched by a number of papers, essays, and contributions, by emiment scholars and specialists, which are of great value, either as confirming his general conclusions, or as illustrative of particular discussions growing out of or suggested by them. “Several of these—among others the preface by Professor Virchow, giving a critical estimate of the importance of Dr. Schliemann's discoveries, and Professor Max Miiller's dissertation on one of the emblems frequently met with in the remains of the Burnt City—are introduced in the body of the work. Others are collected in an appendix, and embrace a paper on Troy and Hissarlik—being a comparison of the Trojan country as it is with what the Iliad says of it —by Professor Virchow; an essay on the relation of Novum Ilium to the Ilios of Homer, by Professor Mahaffy; an essay on the inscriptions found at Hissarlik, by Professor Sayce; an account of medical practice in the Troad in 1869, by Professor Virchow; two essays, respectively on Hera Bóópis and on the relations between Troy and Egypt, by Professor BrugschBey; and other interesting contributions. The typography of the volume is superb, and it is further made complete by an excellent topical index, and a multitude of maps, plans, and illustrations of scenes and objects referred to in the text.
IN his excellent sketch of the life of Wordsworth, elsewhere noticed, Mr. Myers remarks of the poet that seldom has there been a more impressive instance of the contrast between the apparent insignificance and the real importance of undistinguished youth than in his case; and also that his Northern nature was singularly late to flower. The remark is equally true of Livingstone—another of the great men who sprang up under the colder Northern skies of Great Britain, who matured late, and whose early years gave few indications of his future grand qualities. Both instances may be recorded for the encouragement of those who have not the precocity of a Pope, a Charles James Fox, or a Macaulay. Another sagacious observation of Mr. Myers, suggested by the influences that were potent in forming Wordsworth's moral and intellectual character, to the effect that the scenery and other characteristics of his native Northern air were singularly fitted to supply such elements of moral sustenance as nature's aspects can afford to man, is also as true of Livingstone as it was of Wordsworth. Of the two men, Livingstone's youth was the most undistinguished, its apparent insignificance was the most signal, and he was far the slowest to mature. And yet, as the reader of Dr. Blaikie's judicious memoir of The Personal Life of David Liringstone” will descry if he look beneath the surface, the germs of all Livingstone's greatness as a man are plainly discernible in a boyhood that seemed sterile of promise, whether we consider his lowly birth, the poverty of his early opportunities and attainments, or the unfriendly. circumstances that chained him to an occupation that at the time seemed most unpropitious to his development, and from which there was no visible escape. For Livingstone's parents were very poor; and at the age of ten he was puft at work in a factory, and he continued to work in this humble sphere, first as a piecer and afterward as a spinner, until his twentieth year. But amid all these years of monotonous toil—beside which Wordsworth's youth was a fortunate and balmy one—Livingstone was developing traits, habits, and sturdy virtues that bore golden fruit, and was patiently and persistently laying up just the store of practical experience and knowledge that was destined to be invaluable to him in the great missionary and geographical enterprises that afterward made him illustrious. Dutiful and lowing to his parents, proud of his class, industrious, frugal, calm, self-reliant, self-denying, resolute; having an indomitable but not headstrong will; burning with an insatiable thirst for knowledge, and pursuing it with an inflexible purpose; truthful, simply sincere, honest in word and action, and so genial that from an
* The Personal Life of David Livingstone. Chiefly from his Unpublished Journals and Correspondence in Possessign of his Family. ... By WILLIAM GARDEN BLAIkir, D.D., LL.D. With Portrait and Map. 8vo, pp. 504. New York: Harper and Brothers.
early day he was the universal favorite—these were the homely and serviceable virtues that later in life fitted him to penetrate undiscovered land with means the most incommensurate, and to win the love and confidence of the barbarous savage, as well as of the most cultivated and enlightened of our race. After a day of toil that extended from six o'clock in the morning till eight o'clock in the evening, with short intervals only for breakfast and dinner, he pursued his studies at night till twelve o'clock, or later if his good mother did not snatch his books out of his hands; and in this way he became familiar with most of the classical authors, and could read Virgil and Horace at sixteen. At this early age, another gift that was the secret of much of his power and success in after-life manifested itself and was put into training; namely, the faculty, so to speak, of doing two things at once, or, more correctly, of passing with the utmost rapidity and concentration of mind not only from one subject to another, but from one key or mood to another entirely different. In pursuing his reading of books and in preparing his studies while he was a humble factory lad, it was his wont to place the book on which he was engaged on a portion of the spinning-jenny, so that as he passed at his work, for less than a minute at any one time, he could catch sentence after sentence—giving the most intense attention to what he read or studied in these brief snatches, without abating his conscientious and vigilant attention to his work. This manysidedness of Livingstone's character also showed itself early in another way. On disengaged days at the factory he would scour the country in search of botanical, geological, and zoological specimens; and he thus laid the foundation of a knowledge of natural history, and an acquaintance with the practical life of a sportsman, which afterward enabled him to make invaluable contributions to natural science. Throughout his life this many-sidedness was a faculty that never deserted him, and not only equipped him for sudden and dangerous emergencies, but helped him to turn them to salutary account. Dr. Blaikie's sketch of Livingstone's family and early years, of the causes that inspired him to become a missionary, of his first missionary experiences in South Africa, and of the large plans that then dawned upon him in advance of all others for the opening of the “dark continent” to civilization and Christianity, of his various visits home at different stages of his rising renown, and of his several great exploring expeditions, is a fit record of the career of one of the most remarkable men of modern times, whose life was a beautiful exemplification of symmetrical manhood; of fortitude, energy, and perseverance, combined with gentleness, patience, and benevolence; of heroic endurance and unexampled enterprise; of invincible integrity and conscientiousness; of a trust in God that was as simple and confiding as that of a child in its parent; and of a faith in Christ and a hope in His mercy that was life-long, unfaltering, and that inspired and ennobled his every act and plan.
Of the many sterling volumes that have appeared thus far in the “English Men of Letters Series,” the sketch of Wordsworth” by Mr. F. W. H. Myers most fully satisfies all the requirements that we look for in the class of biographical studies to which it belongs. Thoroughly in sympathy with his illustrious subject, Mr. Myers's sketch of Wordsworth's life is a full, dignified, and rounded outline of his career as boy and man, poet, philosopher, and sage, and familiarly introduces us to him as he develops from the one stage to the other, giving us pleasing glimpses of him among his friends and companions, in his walks amid the inspiring haunts and solitudes of the lakes and mountains of Cumberland, Westmoreland, and Lancashire, in his visits to foreign lands, and in his self-communings with the nature that so entirely absorbed his being, and which he reproduced with such vivid but tranquil power in his poetry. The literary execution of the volume is admirable. Mr. Myers's style is natural, manly, vigorous, yet flexible and graceful, and exact without being artificial or measured; and his criticisms and reflections are eminently acute and sensible, totally free alike from the disparagements of their subject, and from the ingenious subtleties and refinements and the overstrained or far-fetched meanings, that recent biographical critics so much affect.
THE most fervid admirers of Mr. Tennyson will find it difficult to discover anything in his new volume, Ballads and Other Poems," that deserves to be classed among the inspirations of genius of the highest rank, or even with the best of his own productions. Several of the poems—conspicuously the noble and ringing ballads describing gallant Sir Richard Grenville's heroic sea-fight in his good ship the I'evenge with the Spanish fleet of fifty-three sail, and commemorating the memorable defense of Lucknow, and the exquisitely finished blank-verse idyl “The Sisters”—will bear comparison with the best of his foregone performances of the second rate. So, also, the soliloquies of Sir John Oldcastle, when wandering in Wales in the shadow of his approaching martyrdom, and of Columbus, moaning on his death-bed the ingratitude of Spain and Ferdimand, have some lofty and some tragical touches; but the dignity of these heroic and stately personages is marred and belittled by their whining querulousness, and the atmosphere of both the poems is cold and prosaic. Of the
dialect and provincial ballads, which form a large part of the volume, it must be remarked that they rise little above mediocrity. Had they appeared in this country anonymously, and without Mr. Tennyson's imprimatur, they might without violence have been attributed to any one of the half a dozen clever writers who have acquired the knack of rendering a tender or moving simple story more tender and expressive by telling it in homely and familiar phrase. These latest productions of Mr. Tennyson do not so much evince a slackening of his intellectual vigor, or a diminution of his mastery of the technicalities of his art, as a falling off in his ideality. Never before has he been so exclusively and rigidly a realist; never before has his realism been so little picturesque and so little gilded with the “heavenly alchymy” of imagination.
MISS COOLIDGE has shown a fine critical discernment in her estimate of the quality and grade of her own poetry. It is seldom we meet self-criticism as just and discriminating as hers, alike free from the mock humility and spurious modesty that invite compliment, on the one hand, and from the arrogant self-complacency that regards all compliment as superfluous, on the other. In the graceful prelude to her collection of Verses,” she tells us that poems are heavenly things, which only souls with wings may reach, and pluck, and bear below to feed the nations with food all-glorious; but that verses such as hers are not of these, but bloom on the low-hung stem of earthly trees, where they may be gathered by those who can not fly to where the heavenly gardens are. And she describes her office to be that of one who, by devious ways, has pulled some easy sprays from the down-dropping bough which all may reach, and has knotted. them, both bud and leaf, into a rhymed sheaf; or as one who has culled and brought to us a hedgerow offering of berry, flowers, and brake. Truly as this describes the general characteristics of Miss Coolidge's verses, it is easy to perceive in many of them the higher qualities of poesy —ideality, impassioned feeling, and pictorial suggestiveness. Few fairer pictures have been painted by more ambitious poets than are to be found here and there in her collection.
THERE is something indescribably delicate and pure and gentle in some of the brief poems of the youthful Goodale sisters, which have been collected in a volume entitled All Iround the Year." The poems are devoted, with few exceptions, to descriptions of some of nature's loveliest offspring and most beauteous pliases. It is evident that the hearts of these children lie very close to Nature's breast, and they interpret her as loving children interpret a beauteous and bounteous mother. The poems in the collection grouped under the heading “In Berkshire with the Wild Flowers” lave been already noticed in the Record for January, 1880. The additional poems, grouped under “Early and Late” and “Harvest-Home,” manifest gradual improvement—a style less frequently marred by, though not yet quite free from, trite, or commonplace, or conventional phrases and sentiments; a steadying of the mental vision; an increased glow and fervor of emotion, and generally a healthful ripening of the perceptive and imaginative powers. As yet there is no betrayal of any familiarity with the more sensuous and passionate side of human nature; and however it may delay their ripeness as poets, we trust, for their own innocence and happiness, that it may be long ere experience shall enable them to paint all the complexities or to comprehend all the throbbings of the human heart.
• Wordstrorth. By F. W. H. My Ens. “English Men of Letters Series.” 12mo, pp. 182. New York: Harper and Brothers.
* Ballads and Other Poems. By 16mo, pp. 112.
ALFrrp Trn NYSoN.
* Verses. By Sus AN Coolidge. 18mo, pp. 181. Bos
ton: Roberts Brothers.
which are included the Thirty Poems issued in Illustrated
Form in the Volume entitled “In Berkshire with the Wild
Flowers.”. By ELAINE GoodALE and Don A READ Good AI.E.
orated. 16mo, pp. 204. New York: G. P. Putnam's Oils.
MR. WALLACE's Island Life" is an interesting contribution to natural history, supplementary to his able work The Geographical Distribution of Animals. In the preliminary chapters, the author reproduces and summarizes many of the questions that were treated of in his former work; but the discussion of them is more popular and elementary, being less exclusively restricted to the consideration of genera, and more largely devoted to an investigation of the distribution of species. Without in the least undervaluing the importance of the study of the animal and floral productions of contiments and other large divisions of the earth, in order to a solution of the complex and often anomalous problem of the phenomena, laws, and causes of the dispersal of organisms, and while fully recognizing the fact that the problem can only be satisfactorily solved by the combination of many distinct lines of biological and physical inquiry, Mr. Wallace is yet of opinion that islands offer the best, or at least the most convenient, subjects for an interpretation of the facts of distribution. “If,” he says, “we take the organic productions of a small island or very limited tract of country, we have in their relations and affinities—in the fact that they are there, and others are not there—a problem which involves all the migrations of these species and their ancestral forms; all the vicissitudes of climate, and all the changes of sea and land, which have affected those migrations; the whole series of actions and reactions which have determined the preservation of some forms and the extinction of others—in fact, the whole history
* Island Life; or, The Phenomena and Causes of Insular Faunas and Floras. Including a Revision and Attempted Solution of the Problem of Geological Climates. By Alford, Russki.1, WALLAoE. 8vo, pp. 522. New York: Harper and Brothers.
of the earth, organic and inorganic, throughout a large portion of geological time.” Before proceeding to the discussion of the remarkable evidential phenomena presented by insular faunas and floras, and the complex causes that produced them, Mr. Wallace prepares the unscientific reader to accompany him intelligently by a series of preliminary studies, severally devoted to explanations of the mode of distribution, variation, modification, and dispersal of species and groups, illustrated by facts and examples; of the nature of geological change as affecting continents and islands; of changes of climate—their nature, causes, and effects; and of the duration of geological time and the rate of organic development. Having thus laid a foundation for a scientific interpretation of the phenomena of distribution, Mr. Wallace proceeds, in the Second Part of his work, to apply the numerous facts established and theories advanced in the First Part to the phenomena presented by the floras and faunas of the chief islands of the globe. In order to this, he classifies these islands, in accordance with their physical origin, in two principal groups or classes— “continental islands,” or those which have been separated from, and are merely detached and not distant fragments of, continents; and “oceanic islands,” or islands of volcanic or coralline formation, which have originated in the ocean, and have never formed a part of any continent, and are usually distant from continents, and separated from them by deep sea. The “continental islands” are again subdivided into “recent” and “ancient,” the recent being those which are situated on submerged banks connecting them with a contiment, from which they are separated by a shallow sea, seldom exceeding one hundred fathoms, and which they resemble in their geological structure and their animal and vegetable productions—plain indications that they were separated from the mainland at a recent geological period; and the ancient being those which are separated from the adjacent contiment by a deeper sea, of one thousand fathoms or upward, whose mammalia and amphibia almost all form distinct species, and many of them distinct and peculiar genera and families, and whose faunas are fragmentary, many of the most characteristic continental orders or families being quite unrepresented among them, while some of their animals are allied, not to such forms as inhabit the adjacent continents, but to those which are found in remote parts of the world—all these circumstances indicating that they were separated from the adjacent continent at a very remote geological period. To the first-named class belong Great Britain, Borneo, Java, Japan, and Formosa, and to the last-named the Madagascar group, and the anomalous islands of Celebes and New Zealand. Mr. Wallace observes that the floras and faunas of all these islands uniformly exhibit certain well-defined biological features, common to all organisms, which are an important element in ascertaining their origin, the course of their migration, and the motive power which has urged them on. These are: a constant tendency to increase in numbers and to occupy a wider area; a constant exercise of powers of dispersion and migration, through which, when unchecked, they are enabled to spread widely over the globe; and finally, a constant obedience to those laws of evolution and extinction which determine the manner in which groups of organisms arise and grow, reach their maximum, and then dwindle away, often breaking up into separate portions which long survive in very remote regions. Mr. Wallace's descriptions of the geological and zoological characteristics of these islands and groups are no less noteworthy for their picturesqueness and their freedom from technicality than for their scientific precision. His chaste and vigorous style, his faculty for lucid generalization, and the coincidence of their opinions, will remind the reader of Mr. Darwin; nor will his reasonings and speculations suffer by a comparison with those on kindred topics by that eminent philosopher. Especially able and interesting are his speculations and demonstrations with reference to the affinities and probable origin of insular flora and fauna, the powers of dispersal of animals and plants, the barriers that are in the way of those powers and the causes that favor them, the changes—geographical, geological, and climatic—which have influenced the dispersal of organisms, and the routes and agencies by which Northern plants have reached various Southern lands.
No one who read Miss Bird's capital book, A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains, describing the incidents of her eight hundred miles of horseback travel through our wild far Western mountain and mining regions, will require to be prompted to read a similar book by her, entitled Unbeaten Tracks in Japan,” being a spirited narrative of her travels on horseback for 1200 miles, altogether off the beaten track of travellers, through the interior portion of Japan lying north of Tökiyó (Yedo), and including the adjacent and little-known island of Yezo. As was the case in her travels in our wild Western country, Miss Bird had the courage, in spite of the dissuasions of friends and her own fears, to venture on her several expeditions to these unfrequented, and in some instances half-savage, districts of Japan, without a guard or companion, and unarmed; and it is equally to the credit of her own tact and judgment, and of the natural politeness and chivalry of the rude and uncultured people among whom she ventured, that at the conclusion of
her journeys she was able to say she had travelled the entire distance with perfect safety and absolute freedom from any rudeness or cause of alarm. Even among the aborigines of Yezo, the Ainos, a people who bear the same relations to the Japanese that our aborigines do to us, and although she was the first European woman they had ever seen, she was treated with a delicacy and consideration that would put our civilization to shame—their instinctive delicacy and politeness manifesting themselves by the repression of even a glance of curiosity while she was the recipient of their hospitality, and by spontaneously according to her an unsolicited privacy that was never observed among one another. Miss Bird's travels took her among a primitive people, in regions unaffected by contact with Europeans or Americans; and as her movements were leisurely, and she lived among them, she had the fullest opportunity to see their mode of living, and to become familiar with their customs, manners, costume, occupations, religion, superstitions, and conditions generally, and also with the resources of the country, its scenery, the nature of its soil, and its natural and artificial products—all of which she describes in a lively and sparkling way, halfmethodical and half-desultory, that is very engaging. Particularly fresh and entertaining, and at the same time full of interesting and novel information, are her descriptions of the native shrines and temples, of the dwellings of the people, their domestic avocations, the relation of husbands and wives, parents and children, the people and their officials; and her account of Yezo and its aboriginal inhabitants has a peculiar interest as the first full and authentic one derived from personal observation. Although the chief portions of Miss Bird's two delightful volumes are devoted to the unbeaten parts of Japan, and to people with whom foreigners have had little or no intercourse, she does not pass over any part of the country with an unobservant eye. She also describes the cities and districts with which we are familiar from new points of view, and with remarkable vivacity. Her observations upon the administrative, social, and educational systems of Japan, and upon the missionary operations of the various Christian bodies, are full and suggestive.
Earl Hubert's Daughter” is a historical romance, for which we are indebted to the graceful scholarship and antiquarian zeal of Emily Sarah Holt. The period illustrated in this tale is that portion of the thirteenth century which covered the reign of Henry III. and the career of his famous Justiciar, Hubert de Burgh— a period that was remarkable for its rapid and terrible incidents, its tumultuous politics,
B Unbeaten Tracks in Japan. An Account of Travels on Horseback in the Interior, including Visits to the Aborigines of Yezo and the Shrines of Nikkó and Isé. By Is Aisei. LA L. BIRD, 2 vols., 8vo., pp. 407 and 372.
ew York: G. P. Putnam's Sons.
9 Earl Hubert's Daughter; or, The Polishing of the Pearl. A Tale of the Thirteenth Century. By EMILY SARAji Holt. New York: Robert Carter
12mo, pp. 371. and Brothers. y