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hind him. For this hasty action he was called to account, immediately on his return, by his people, who could not understand why, if Carlisle was a bad place, he should not have brought their children away too, and on hearing the other side of the story from the chiefs who had accompanied him, asked to have him deposed for “double talking.” One of the indignant parents, with the mild name of Milk, in writing upon the subject to Captain Pratt, says, with some lactic acidity, “Spotted Tail has been to the Great Father's house so often that he has learned to tell lies and deceive people.” It is pleasant to add that a judicious letting alone had the due effect, and he has requested the government's permission to send his children back to Carlisle. Many visitors go to Carlisle to see the Indians. Some of them, it must be acknowledged, are disappointed. After alighting at the commandant's office, and being courteously received by Captain Pratt or one of his assistants, the spokesman of the party asks politely if they may “first look about by themselves a little.” Cordial permission given, they set forth, but in the course of half an hour are back again with clouded brows, and the appeal, “We thought we might see some Indians round; can you show us some 2'' A smile and a circular wave of the hand emphasize the assurance that a score or two of noble red men are within easy eye-range at the moment. Following the gesture with a glance over the green where the boys and girls are passing, perhaps, to their school-rooms, the shade of unsatisfaction deepens, and
they explain: “Oh, but I mean real Indians. Haven't you some real Indians— all in blankets, you know, and feathers, and long hair o’’ A little allowance must be made for sentiment in human nature, and if these easily disappointed visitors stay long enough, they may be gratified with an occasional “real Indian” dance of a gentle type, or without much trouble the well-named maiden Pretty Day might be persuaded to attire herself, as becomes a high-born princess of the plains, in her cherished dress of finest dark blue blanket, embroidered deer-skin leggings, and curiously netted cape adorned with three hundred milk-white elk teeth, each pair of them the price of a pony. Aboriginal picturesqueness is certainly sacrificed to a great extent in civilization. One who is willing to relinquish the idea, however, of a menagerie of wild creatures kept for exhibition, will not regret to find instead a school of neatly dressed boys and girls, with bright eyes and clean faces, as full of fun and frolic as if they were the descendants of the Puritans. The barracks stand on a knoll half a mile from the town. From the upper piazza of the commandant’s quarters the eye sweeps over a beautiful landscape. Spurs.
of the Blue Ridge circle it in front and
rear, from five to eight miles away, the old town lies down in the hollow, green fields stretch between, and the little “Tort Creek” winds its very tortuous way round the post grounds and through a grove of old trees. Beyond the flag-staff in front of the house is the parade-ground, where the boys drill and the girls play. A pretty sight it is to see the merry little crowd enjoying a game of ball, or with heads up and toes trying to turn out, taking off the boys’ “setting-up drill,” with shouts of laughter, finishing all up properly with the difficult achievement of touching fin
gers to toes without bending the knees. Long brick buildings, ranged in a hollow square with double sides, are variously occupied by schoolrooms and quarters for students and teachers, offices, diningroom, kitchen, hospital, etc. The large stables of the garrison have been, for the most part, converted into workshops and a gymnasium. A little wooden chapel has been put up for the school, simply a long room, well lighted and furnished with settees, but this has been all the building needed. So many substantial edifices, in tolerable order to start with, have been a great advantage. This is especially noticeable in the school building, two stories high like the rest, the upper half of which affords four school-rooms, each fifty feet by twentyfour, and two recitation-rooms of half the length. All are furnished with comfortable desks, blackboards, and all the conveniences of a well-ordered school. The lower story, containing the same room, allows for doubling the number of students, which is the captain's desire. A walk through these pleasant classrooms is of great interest. Each contains from thirty to forty pupils, under the constant care, for the most part, of one teacher, who, as may be imagined, has her hands full to keep all busy and quiet, but who does it, somehow, to a remarkable degree. As at Hampton, the great object is to teach English, and then the rudiments of an English education, and the methods em
ployed are similar. r | The results possible can not be more
fairly shown than by a slate not gotten up for the occasion, but filled with the day's work of one of the pupils—not the best offered, but chosen because it was the work of a little Sioux boy of twelve or thirteen, who, seven months and a half before, had never had any schooling in any language, and did not know a word of English, nor how to make a letter or a figure. He evidently did know how to make pictures, as most of his race do. The blackboards of an Indian recitation-room are usually rich in works of art illustrative of the day's doings, or memories of home life. The industries, agricultural and mechanical, are under the charge of master-workmen; a skilled farmer, carpenter, wagon-maker, and blacksmith, harnessmaker, tinner, shoemaker, baker, tailor, and printer. All the boys not learning trades are required to workin turn on the farm. Twelve acres of arable land belong to the post, and twelve more have been rented—two hundred could well be used. The articles manufactured in the shops are taken by government for the agencies. Under this wise encouragement they have already turned out wagons and farm implements, dozens of sets of harness, hundreds of dozens of tinware, and numbers of pairs of shoes, besides doing all the mending, and making all of the girls' clothing and most of the boys' underwear. The amount of students' work on these varies. No waste is allowed; the masterworkmen do the cutting out and planning for the most part, but the apprentices are brought forward as fast as possible, and the masters say they are up to any apprentices. Indeed, the enthusiastic master-tinsmith put a challenge into a Carlisle paper, which was not taken up, offering to back Roman Nose, one of the St. Augustines, against any apprentice with no longer practice, for $100 a side. One of the young Sioux shoemakers took his Vol. LXII.—No. 371. –43
father's measure when he visited the school, and sent him by mail, after he went home, a pair of boots made entirely by himself. The two printer apprentices are prac
TINNER's A PPRENTices, cARLisle.
ticed chiefly upon the monthly “organ” of the school, the Eadle-Keatoh-toh (Morming Star), a very interesting little sheet. One of the boys, however, Samuel Townsend, a Pawnee from Indian Territory, prints a tiny paper, the School News, of which he is both editor and proprietor, writing his own editorials and correcting his own proof. The girls' industrial room makes as good showing as the boys'. Many have learned to sew by hand, and some to run the sewing-machine. Virginia, daughter of the Kiowa chief Stumbling Bear, made a linen shirt, with bosom, entirely by herself, washed and ironed it herself, and sent it to her father. Two Sioux girls have made calico shirts for their fathers. Mending is very neatly done. At Carlisle, as at Hampton, the tender maidens sweeten industry with sentiment, and carefully rummage the darning basket for the stockings of the boys they like the best. The young St. Augustine from Hampton who went to Indian Territory to collect pupils for Carlisle, took wise advantage of the opportunity to bring back a sweetheart for himself. His naïve account of the affair to the captain makes a good companion piece to the Hampton love-letter. “Long time ago, in my home, Indian Territory, I hunt and I fight. I not think about the girls. Then you take us St. Augustine. By-and-by I learn to talk English. I try to do right. Everybody very good to me. I try do what you say. But I not think about the girls. Then I go Hampton. There many good girls. I study. I learn to work. But I not think about the girls. Then I come Carlisle. I work hard; try to help you. By-andby you send me Indian Territory for Indian boys and Indian girls. I go get
many — fifteen. I see all my people, my old friends. But I not think about the girls there. But Laura, she think. She tell me she be my wife. I bring her here, Carlisle. She know English before. She study and sew. Now Laura's father dead, since come here. Now I think all the time, Ithink, who take care of Laura 2 I think, by-and-by I find place to work near here ; I work very hard. I take care of Laura.” Besides this frank damsel, who “thinks” to so much purpose, he brought with him a bright little sister of his own, and several brothers and sisters of the other St. Augustines, all of whom are among the most promising of the Carlisle pupils. Carlisle, like Hampton, has met with much sympathy from its neighbors. It is illustrated, with other points, in an item which appeared in a Carlisle paper during the visit of the Sioux chiefs: “A few mornings since we noticed one of the young Indian men passing in the direction of the post-office, and at his side a comely Indian maiden. The day being warm, the young man carried a huge umbrella to shield them from the sun. Only a short distance in front of them several Indian chiefs were stalking along, wrapped in blankets, and bare-headed. The contrast was so striking that it attracted the attention of many persons on the street. And the conclusion was irresistibly forced upon all who noticed the incident that the Indian school is proving a great success.” The visit of the Sioux chiefs to Carlisle was prolonged to eight or ten days, and, with the exception of Spotted Tail's uncomfortable episode, was pleasant and profitable to all. Accompanying the party was one Indian named Cook, who, not being a chief, had not been invited to come at government expense, so he came at his own expense, all the way from Dakota, to see his little girl at the Carlisle school. He was greatly pleased with her surroundings and progress, and the day after he arrived went out into the town and bought her a white dress, a pair of slippers, and a gold chain and cross. Arrayed in these gifts, he took his precious “Porcelain Face” out with him to have their photographs taken to carry home. Both Hampton and Carlisle afford excellent opportunity for study of race character. The chief conclusion will be that Indian children are, on the whole, very much like other children, some bright and some stupid, some good and some perverse, all exceedingly human. The untamed shyness, so much in the way of their progress, seems to be as marked in the half-breeds as in those of full blood, unless they have been brought up among white people. It wears off fastest in the younger ones, in constant meeting with strangers, and association with new companions. A certain self-consciousness and sensitive pride is left which is not a bad point in the character. A quick sense of humor is its correlative, perhaps, and both may result from the trained and inherited keenness of observation which appreciates both the fitting and the incongruous. The pupils at Carlisle and Hampton are in constant receipt of letters from their parents and friends, written some in picture hieroglyphics, some in Sioux, and some, through their interpreters, in English, but all expressive of earnest desire for their progress in school. About a hundred of these letters were sent to the Indian Department by Captain Pratt, forty of which were referred to the Senate in answer to Senator Teller's resolution against compulsory education for the Cheyennes. Indian sentiments on education expressed by themselves, and the real effect upon Indian parents of sending their children to a white man's school,
no one need question who reads the following specimens of these letters, translated from the Sioux: “PINE Ringr AGF Nor, DARotA, April 15, 1880. “MY DEAR SoN,--I send my picture with this. You see that I had my War Jacket on when taken, but I wear white man's clothes, and am trying to live and act like white men. Be a good boy. We are proud of you, and will be more so when you come back. All our people are building houses and opening up little farms all over the reservation. You may expect to see a big change when you get back. Your mother and all send love. “Your affectionate father, “CLOUD SHIELD.” “Rosebud Agroscy, January 4, 1880. “MY DEAR DAUGHTER,-Ever since you left me I have worked hard, and put up a good house, and am trying to be civilized like the whites, so you will never hear anything bad from me. When Captain Pratt was here he came to my house, and asked me to let you go to school. I want you to be a good girl and study. I have dropped all the Indian ways, and am getting like a white man, and don't do anything but what the agent tells me. I listen to him. I have always loved you, and it makes me very happy to know that you are learning. I get my friend Big Star to write. If you could read and write, I should be very happy. Your father, BRAVE BULL. “Why do you ask for moccasins! I sent you there to be like a white girl, and wear shoes.”
A small Indian girl who wanted to exhibit her knowledge of a good big English word, announced that she had come East to be “cilyized.” I hope I have shown sufficiently that it is the effort of Hampton and Carlisle not to sillyize the Indian. Let us not, on the other hand, sillyize ourselves. One great lesson of the missionary work of fifty years has been to work with nature and not against nature; the next must be to be content with natural results. We forget that we are ourselves but the saved remnant of a race. I can not do better on this point for both schools than to quote from an address of General Armstrong : “The question is most commonly asked, Can Indians be taught ! That is not the question. Indian minds are quick; their bodies are greater care than their minds; their character is the chief concern of their teachers. Education should be first for the heart, then for the health, and last for the mind, reversing the custom of putting the mind before physique and character. This is the Hampton idea of education.”