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Stephen C. roster.

in their tripartite nature to a big irregular Y. But no such simile would hold good in considering her appearance on a railway map. Given an evil-minded boy, a small round stone, and a plateglass window, and the natural result would be a counterpart of such a map. The hole in the pane would, big or little, represent the City of Smoke, and each diverging crack would stand for a railway that is loading or unloading its traffic within her gates. At Union Dépôt—the building recently erected over the ashes left by the terrible railroad riots of three summers ago— the following lines come to a focus: the main line of the perfectly appointed Pennsylvania Central; the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago, leading westwardly to the city by the lake; the queerly named “Pan-Handle,” or Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis, leading across the “handle” of West Virginia, and so toward the set-2′ d the city of


music festivals and of much pork; the Alleghany Valley, winding north along the beautiful river, and taking passen|gers " through by daylight” to Buffalo :

the Pittsburgh, Virginia, and Charleston, young and growing southwardly up the Monongahela; the Southwest Pennsylvania, leaving the main line of the Pennsylvania at Greensburg, and leading southwardly toward the border of the State; the Cleveland and Pittsburgh, leading west through Northern Ohio to the Forest City; and the Erie and Pittsburgh, leading north to Erie at the remote northwestern corner of the commonwealth— eight busy roads that bring into and take out of Union Dépôt 144 passenger trains daily. At another dépôt is the terminus of the Pittsburgh division of the Baltimore and Ohio road, joining the main line at Cumberland, Maryland, by way of the Monongahela and Youghiogheny valleys. At the base of Mount Washington, or Coal Hill, three more dépôts are found. Chief among this trio is the Pittsburgh and Lake Erie, leading west along the south bank of the Ohio River, and into the State of that name, a “missing link” recently found, and none too soon, as its construction gave Pittsburgh



independence. Then comes a narrow-gauge with bright hopes, the Pittsburgh Southern, leading southwardly. The Castle Shannon, narrowgauge, brief but busy, completes the list in this quarter. In Allegheny is the terminus of the West Penn road, tributary to the great Pennsylvania Central, and leading up the Alleghany Valley. The Pittsburgh and Western completes the list; it is narrow-gauge and flourishing, with very bright prospects. In all, fourteen busy railroads—fourteen arms that reach far and wide, fattening Pittsburgh, and growing the while in length, value, and importance.

Of Pittsburghers it may be said that their industry is only equalled by their demand for daily news, warm from the wires and press. To gratify this worthy craving they support more newspapers, daily and weekly, than are printed in any city of its population in the country. Ten daily papers, six morning and four evening, appear upon her streets every twenty-four hours, and their combined circulation is something wonderful in its way.

This epitome of the Smoky City's attributes would be in a measure incomplete without a reference to one quiet spot in Allegheny Cemetery, and without a passing tribute to the memory of the Pittsburgher whose body reposes in this green and shaded nook in the city of the dead. Farreaching as are the industries of the busy city that surrounds the spot with endless flame and ceaseless turmoil, and widespread as is the fame of her handiwork, yet here slumbers one whose brief life had a subtler potency, and whose melodies won for their young composer a worldwide fame.

Stephen C. Foster was born, in what is now a part of Pittsburgh, July 4, 1826, and


died in New York January 13, 1864, at the early age of thirty-seven years. The popularity attained by his compositions may best be judged by noting the following figures. Of “Old Folks at Home” there have been sold 300,000 copies; “My Old Kentucky Home,”200,000 copies; “Willie, we have missed you,” 150,000; “Massa's in the cold, cold ground,” and “Ellen Bayne,” 100,000 each; “Old Dog Tray” —in six months—75,000 copies. Of “Old Uncle Ned,” “Oh! Susannah,” and other equally popular works by this young Pittsburgher it is difficult to give the number printed, as Foster did not copyright them. The brain that conceived and the hand that wrote these melodies have long been crumbling to dust, but their work is found in thousands of American and European homes. There is today not a music house in the country that does not regularly order of Foster's publishers in this city one of the compositions named, “Old Folks at Home,” “Willie, we have missed you,” and the beautiful quartette, “Come where my love lies dreaming,” seeming to have the most lasting hold upon the popular fancy. All these songs were born under practical Pittsburgh's canopy of smoke, and in the very heart of her roar and tumult.


Near the beautiful cemetery where lies the dead composer is noted the arched portals of the Allegheny Arsenal, flanked with flag-stones worn into hollows by the tread of succeeding generations of sentries. Within the low wall great Columbiads bask in pleasant sunshine, and pyramids of solid shot show their grim outlines among apple blossoms and neat flower beds. From these gates there issued in the month of December, 1860, a shipment of cannon in compliance with an order from the then Secretary of War, Floyd.

A few minutes' drive from the arsenal there looms up a great, many-windowed building at the edge of the Alleghany. This, during the civil war, was to the Union what the Tredegar Iron-Works were to the Confederacy. The Fort Pitt Cannon Foundry—now no more as such —cast guns that spoke victory on Lake Erie in 1812, that a generation later thundered before the gates of Mexico, and furmished, during the civil war, two thousand cannon, from the twenty-inch Columbiad

to the six-pounder or field-piece. And to complete the grim list, these works cast 10,000,000 pounds of shot and shell between the years 1861 and 1864. The visitor who would most enjoy the City of Smoke must keep his eyes open. And if he uses well his eyes he will note a hundred objects of interest that are beyond the scope of this article even to consider : great cotton mills that are humming hives of whirling spindles; a firmament of lights flashing on the swift water of three rivers; great bridges of iron and wood thrown across these storied streams. Other streams there are whose currents and eddies are humanity. They are the streets of the city on some pleasant Saturday evening. An army of ten thousand men, whose individual earnings vary from five dollars to five hundred dollars per week, is abroad in the narrow gas-lit thoroughfare. They are seeking amusement, and, generally speaking, find it. In the concert saloon, the billiard hall, the bowling-alley or drinking saloon, are found these workers in iron and steel and glass. They are supremely content, orderly, generally sober and thrifty. They form one of the sights of the city. In fact, to the intelligent observer, Pittsburgh is a great kaleidoscope, showing new attractions at every turn. The place is a big, many-leaved volume of such scope that a tithe only of its contents can be given in these glances at some of its most salient features.

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THILE gratifying my curiosity, and through his kind attentions we were able experiencing the pleasure of study- to receive on the camera of our mental ing the habits and customs of a strange experience impressions which, in spite of people during the recent Chinese civil and their meagreness of outline, are here with religious festival of the new year, it oc- offered for the benefit of those interested curred to me that a short article giving in the festival customs of all divisions and the result of these observations might be | types of the great human family. of interest to readers, many of whom nev- As an initial consideration, a word of er have had, and possibly never will have, explanation in regard to the Chinese manthe opportunity to examine for them- ner of computing time and recording selves any of the peculiarities of this alien events may not be amiss. Asiatic race at present sojourning on the Forty-five centuries ago this Oriental shores of the Pacific, apparently unaf- people had constructed astronomical infected by contact with our Anglo-Saxon struments analogous to the quadrant and civilization, and which, while submitting armillary sphere, which enabled them to respectfully to our laws when they touch make observations remarkable for their its interests, or where its outward life accuracy, and making possible, even at comes in contact with our ordinances, that remote period, the formation of a still retains in the land of its present resi- useful calendar. dence unswerving allegiance to the cus- Their present system is a very complitoms and traditions of its fathers, and cated one, but, like every arrangement recognizes with loyal and orderly obedi- of this ingenious people, works with abence the fiats of tribunals of its own or- solute accuracy, once the principle of its ganization. procedure is understood. Within the confines of the Chinese Like that of the Hindoos, the Chinese quarter in San Francisco is presented civil year is regulated by the moon, and probably the most curious phase of life to from the time of the Han dynasty, two be seen on this broad continent. Within centuries before Christ, has begun with a circle whose radius is half a mile, in the the first day of that moon during the heart of an intensely Western American course of which the sun enters their sign city, itself the growth of little more than of the zodiac corresponding to our sign a quarter of a century, is found what we Pisces. They have also an astronomical might call an Asiatic colony, and a colony | year which is solar, and for the adjustbringing with it and retaining in its new ment of these solar and lunar years emhome all the characteristics of its Chinese ploy a system similar to our leap-year parentage. Traverse but a few feet, and plan, except that instead of an intercalary the dividing line between a Mongolian and day every fourth year, as in the Gregoria Caucasian civilization, usually measured an calendar, they insert an intercalary by an ocean, is crossed. Features, lan- month, occurring alternately every third guage, costume, merchandise, the exterior and second year in periods of nineteen. individuality of houses, and the hurried For instance, last year had an intercalary glimpses of interiors revealed by the pass- month: the next one will come in 1882, ing glance, all proclaim what might be a again in 1884, then in 1887, etc.—two inquarter in some Chinese city. Strangers | tercalary months in five years, or seven in and visitors to San Francisco in many nineteen years. The year, therefore, concases see more of the life of this curious tains thirteen or twelve months accordpeople than residents of the city. The ing as it has or has not an intercalary strong local prejudice against our Asiatic one. A month has either twenty-nine or immigrants, and the proverbial procrasti- thirty days, the number of days being innation of those who can avail of an inter- tended to correspond to the number of esting experience at their convenience, days which the moon takes to make the unite to keep “Chinatown” practically a revolution around the earth. A month. sealed book to the better-class denizens of indeed, means one moon, the same Chithe “Queen City of the Pacific.” nese character being used to indicate both. Availing ourselves of the invitation of So, too, the number used to indicate the a Chinese friend to visit him on New- age of the moon at any time denotes also Year's Day–February 9 of our calendar— the day of the month; thus there is al

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