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the Philippine Archipelago against forces hostile to the organized government, which engagements are comparable to other campaigns or expeditions in which the military or naval forces have participated in times of peace.
This measure would grant special benefits to a particular group and exclude other members of the Regular Military and Naval Establishments who similarly have been called upon, on numerous occasions, to engage in similar military operations in times of peace. I believe that it is sound in principle to abide by the official beginning and ending dates of wars in providing benefits, heretofore described, and feel that extension of the period of the Philippine Insurrection, beyond that established in conformity with recognized legal precedents, would constitute sufficient deviation from that principle to invite further exceptions for additional groups with service in military occupations, expeditions, or campaigns other than during a period of war.
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. DECEMBER 8, 1944.
H. R. 4099
SEVENTY-EIGHTH CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA; AT THE SECOND
SESSION, BEGUN AND HELD AT THE CITY OF WASHINGTON ON MONDAY, THE
TENTH DAY OF JANUARY, ONE THOUSAND NINE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FOUR AN ACT To extend the period of the Philippine Insurrection so as to include active service with the United States military or naval forces engaged in hostilities in the Moro Province, including Mindanao, or in the islands of Samar and Leyte, between July 5, 1902, and December 31, 1913
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That for the purposes of Public Law Numbered 2, Seventy-third Congress, March 20, 1933, and Veterans Regulations, as amended, or laws reenacted by Public
Law Numbered 269, Seventy-fourth Congress, August 13, 1935, as amended, the Philippine Insurrection shall be deemed to have ended July 4, 1902: Provided, That where there was active service with the United States military or naval forces engaged in the hostilities in the Moro Province, including Mindanao, or in the islands of Samar and Leyte, the date herein stated shall extend to December 31, 1913.
Sam RAYBURN, Speaker of the House of Representatives.
H. A. WALLACE, Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate. [Endorsement on back of bill:) "I certify that this Act originated in the House of Representatives.
“South TRIMBLE, Clerk.” Mr. O'KONSKI. Are there any further questions? Mr. ALLEN. I wanted to say this, I fully appreciate what Mr. Williamson said about H. R. 886 and similar bills, because I would say myself that I have been rather reluctant to reach out and take in everybody who was not actually in the military service of the country.
That has been the consistent position of the Veterans of Foreign Wars as far as I know, and of all other veterans' organizations.
Mr. WILLIAMSON. Yes, sir.
Mr. O’KONSKI. Will you stand by until the hearings are finished, because some question may arise, if you are not in a hurry?
Mr. WILLIAMSON. Yes, sir.
Mr. O'KONSKI. There are two Members of Congress present who desire to make statements. One is Mr. Hagen of Minnesota, the author of H. R. 451.
STATEMENT OF HON. HAROLD C. HAGEN, A REPRESENTATIVE
IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF MINNESOTA
Mr. Hagen. My name is Harold C. Hagen, Representative from the Ninth District of Minnesota, and I am the author of H. R. 451, the bill which you are talking about here today.
I have lived with this thing many years now and I have introduced other bills of a similar nature, and you have had hearings and you have a record of the various bills which have been introduced by other Members of Congress over the years.
This new bill H. R. 451 is developed and presented through the suggestions of the Veterans' Administration itself.
General Hines, who is not with the Administration any longer, made several suggestions which were used in connection with the new bill H. R. 451, which I believe meets the objections by the President.
As pointed out by Mr. Allen, this bill does not change the date of the official ending of the war. It merely gives the proper service recognition so they can get benefits because of service in the area during a certain period.
As I recall, there is no opposition to this bill. I don't know of any opposition any place to this legislation. The cost, which is an important factor, is relatively small. There are other witnesses here who will give you this information. It is only justice due these men for many many years to secure passage of this measure.
I believe there are involved somewhat less than 2,000 men. Every one of them, if you could get them before this committee to testify, would tell you of the actual fighting that was going on in a large part of this area mentioned. The New York and Chicago newspapers had special correspondents in the fighting area, and you will find, as you go through previous hearings on this legislation, graphic stories of the actual fighting, pictures of men being killed and buried, and it was the sort of insurrection which resulted in the loss of life and injury to many of our men.' So, I am sure every one of these 1,900 or so men interested could tell you how the actual fighting in the area at the time was.
Mr. ALLEN. I imagine a good many of them are dead. Mr. Hagen. There are about 1,900 left. As time goes on the cost will be less each year.
I want to say this too, we all know the World War is over to all intents and purposes, but officially this last war is not over.
So in a like manner this war in the Philippines was officially over, but actually it was not over, so you have a precedent in the last war you can follow. In one case the war was over and we didn't recognize it and in another the war was not over and we did recognize it.
Mr. ALLEN. In other words you want to protect this small group? Mr. Hagen. Who continued fighting.
Mr. ALLEN. Who probably were forced by circumstances to keep fighting after the war was officially declared over?
Mr. HAGEN. That is right. They were maintained there. They had to defend themselves and defend our American citizens in that area and they were continually fighting and scrapping.
Mr. ALLEN. Do you know how many were killed after the termination of the war?
Mr. HAGEN. I don't have that here. Perhaps it is in the other hearings and there are other witnesses who can tell you. Perhaps General Shaw can give you this information.
I do want to thank you for the time you have spent on this bill because I am very keenly interested in seeing it approved by the committee and by the Congress.
Mr. O'KONSKI, Thank you very much.
Mr. Welch, Congressman from California, has another meeting he would like to attend, and would like the privilege of making some remarks on H. R. 886 at this time.
STATEMENT OF HON. RICHARD J. WELCH, A REPRESENTATIVE
IN CONGRESS FROM THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA Mr. Welch. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee.
This bill, H. R. 886, proposes to grant benefits, hospital treatment, and domiciliary care to very limited groups of civilian employees who served in the Quartermaster Corps under the jurisdiction of the Quartermaster General during the war with Spain and the Philippine Insurrection and the China Relief Expedition.
Now I call your attention to the fact there is only a limited number of men who served their Government in this capacity during the war with Spain. This service was rendered in 1898, 50 years ago. It is safe to say that the average age of the men who served in the transport service during the Spanish American War is 75 years. They were not enrolled in the Regular Army. They did, Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, wear å regulation uniform.
They manned the guns on the transports and they received honorable discharges from the service at the expiration of the war.
Immediately after Admiral Dewey destroyed the Spanish Fleet in Manila Bay, he weighed anchor and left with his fleet, but before leaving he supplied the native Filipinos with guns and ammunition to protect themselves against the other tribes then on the island. Shortly thereafter the Philippine Insurrection occurred which was followed by volunteer troops from this country to the Philippine Islands.
Upon arrival of the troops at Manila, which at that time had no wharves or docks, it was necessary to land troops in small boats manned by the transport workers.
The were fired upon as they approached the shore and as a result, as the records will show, a number of those men lost their lives and others were wounded.
Mr. Chairman and members of the committee: Is it not most extraordinary that the merchant marine seamen who manned the vessels of the American lines commanded by the Navy during the last war and who at most served 6 months, now and have been for a number of years enjoying the pension benefits, while the merchant seamen who during the Spanish-American War manned the Army transports owned outright by the Government and in many cases served for years, are denied any consideration for their faithful and loyal service given to the Government during the Spanish-American War.
I have pursued this bill for a long time, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee. Many of those men were from San Francisco which was the port of embarkation where the troops left to go to the Philippine Islands. As I said, I knew many of them personally. I knew the condition of many after they returned. Some of them prospered. Some by reason of conditions over which they had no control became wards of the municipality or the State. Those men did a different service entirely from the class of men I think the gentleman who represented the Veterans of Foreign Wars had in mind.
The only thing that raised any question of doubt whatsoveer was the fact that they were not sworn into the service, but as I said they wore the uniform of the Government and they received honorable discharges. They manned the guns and they were the only men who could man the guns.
There were no wharves in Manila. They manned the boats which took the men ashore and they had to wade ashore. Boys I knew in San Francisco and was raised with lost their lives close to shore. Some of those men who are now old men were wounded and still carry wounds from that war.
So, I respectfully submit, Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, that they are in a category all by themselves. There is only a handful left.
Mr. O'KONSKI. Can you give us an estimate of how many are left?
Mr. WELCH. No, I cannot. The average age of the transport workers is a little beyond that of men who served in the Philippine service.
It is safe to say their average age is over 75. It is only a matter of a few years when there will be none of them left, so if we can bring a little happiness into the few remaining years allotted to them, to those old men, I am sure you feel as I do about it and will go as far as you can, consistent with your duty in giving them the relief asked for in the bill.
I thank you.
Colonel STANDISH. We have Gen. George C. Shaw, United States Army, retired, Congressional Medal of Honor man, who would like to testify.
Mr. O'KONSKI. We will be very glad to have his testimony.
STATEMENT OF BRIG. GEN. GEORGE C. SHAW, UNITED STATES
ARMY, RETIRED (CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL OF HONOR), WASHINGTON, D. C.
General SHAW. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I am Gen. George C. Shaw, retired.
I have testified on various bills along the line of this bill, especially H. R. 4099 of the Seventy-eighth Congress and H. R. 7693 of the Seventy-sixth Congress.
I don't know anything about the merits of this bill and how it would benefit the veterans. Perhaps the veterans' associations can tell you better than I can, but I can tell you the conditions that existed in the Philippine Islands from 1899 until 1914.
I served in the Philippines proper, in Luzon in 1899 to 1902 with the Volunteers and from 1902 to 1904 in Leyte and Mindanao with the Regulars. I was then a lieutenant in the Twenty-seventh Regular Infantry.
From 1912 to 1915 I served with Regular troops and Philippine Scouts on the islands of Samar and Mindanao. So, I know about the conditions that existed there in this time and especially in the period from 1912 to December 1913, which was after the Philippine Insurrection was declared ended. That, I think you will remember, the Philippine Insurrection proper was officially declared ended on the Fourth of July 1902.
In Mindanao in the Southern Islands it was extended about a year, as I remember, to maybe about the 15th of July 1903. I am not quite certain about some of these dates. I am getting a little old to remember these details, but I think you have already had all that in these previous hearings, that is, the actual dates.
I am quite familiar with the conditions that existed, especially in the Southern Islands among the Moros from the time we took it over in 1902. Previous to 1902 we had not done much in the Southern Islands. We had just held the seaboard and the coast because we were busy in Luzon, but we went to work in 1902 and from 1902 to July 1903 we were very busy there in Mindanao.
In 1902, rather in the beginning of 1903, I was sent up to Lake Lanas, in the interior of Mindanao. We had quite a fight. Captain Pershing, who was engaged in fighting the Moros around Lake Lanas, and there were a lot of them, and very good fighters, and in April 1902 we had a big fight on the north shore of Lake Lanas, and then we had another, and I was engaged in both, and in May 1902, I was again engaged, and you will realize that was 45 years ago, and now after July 1903 when they declared the insurrection ended in Mindanao, General Pershing had cleaned up that situation very very well, and the Moros were very much afraid of him. He was Captain Pershing at that time.
Then the War Department issued a declaration declaring the insurrection in Mindanao ended in July 1903. Then General Pershing came home, and all the troops with him, and a lot of fresh troops were sent over and the Moros began to do things to see what kind of an outfit this was, and they proceeded to open up things right away and in the next year, right in the same exact position around Lake Lanas, there was another big fight with the troops under the command of General Wood. This was in 1904, and this kept on in 1905 and 1906, and they had good sharp fights down in the island of Jolo, and that continued right along and I went down there again. There was trouble in the island of Jolo. There were bands roaming around the island and General. Pershing was then in command of the Department of Mindanao and I was sent down to join his forces in June of 1913, and from June 1913 to October 1913 we had four very sharp fights there. There was one late in June, and there was another in July. I wasn't in that, but some of my troops were, and there were two in August.
Those were the last two big fights. After that the insurrection was broken up and they broke up into small bands and the constabulary took care of those.
The white troops were taken out in June in the South Island and the Philippine Scouts took over and I was there till 1915 and saw the finish of this large affair.
After that there were numerous affairs that the Philippine Constabulary and the Philippine Malitia took charge of, even as late as a few years ago, I think about the beginning of the World War, before we actually got into it there were engagements around Lake Lanas between the Philippine Troops and sons of those Moros that fought 20 or 30 years before. So, there was something going on continuously there among those troops, but I knew about those affairs particularly from 1902 to 1913 and there were men killed and wounded from 1903 in all these fracases. The last fracas we had in Jolo was