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in 1913 and there were men killed and wounded. One was killed in 1913, Captain McElery of the Philippine Scouts from Arkansas. There were fights going on and the people who got killed were just as dead as those who got killed before the insurrection was officially ended.
I think those are my personal observations of those affrays, and as far as I am concerned the war after 1903 continued in the southern island, and was just as vital to some of the Americans in it as the earlier fighting
Mr. O'KONSKI. I think your testimony and first-hand observations are very valuable for this committee.
Are there any questions?
Mrs. LUSK. I believe not. I think it is always a fact there is considerable activity after the official close of a war.
Mr. O'KONSKI. Mr. Allen.
Mr. ALLEN. I wonder, General, if anybody could give us further information as to the extent or number of casualties, both killed and wounded during that period of some 12 years?
General Shaw. Of course, somewhere in the War Department records there would probably be reports of all these engagements. I know there were on those I took part in. Reports went up until the business was over stating the troops engaged and the casualties in each engagement. Especially, when anybody was wounded I made a report and sent it up. Just where they got to, I don't know. I think they will probably be in the Archives of the War Department. Whether the Veterans Administration can segregate them, I don't know.
Mr. ALLEN. What happened to the bill in the Seventy-sixth Congress?
Mr. Williamson, can you tell us that?
Mr. FLOYD. This bill was passed by the House and the Senate and the President vetoed this bill.
Mr. ALLEN. I am talking about the Seventy-sixth Congress.
Mr. ALLEN. Now there was a bill introduced in the last Congress and one in this Congress. What I want to know is what happened to the bill in the Seventy-sixth Congress.
Mr. FLOYD. It died in the Senate.
Mr. ALLEN. How about the bill we had in the last Congress? Did that
come out of the Invalid Pensions Committee? Colonel STANDISH. They came out of the Invalid Pensions Committee.
Mr. ALLEN. Not this committee?
Mr. ALLEN. I was wondering how that got by me and that explains it. I could not remember a thing about this bill.
General SHAW. I would like to say I am one of the few officers living that can tell about the Philippine Insurrection and the Moro campaign, too. The Philippine Insurrection goes back quite a long
ways and a good many of those people are gone. More of them knew about the Moro situation,
Mr. ALLEN. Were those Moros pretty good fighters?
General Shaw. The best fighters there were in the Philippines and they made excellent scouts, and in this last World War, the Japs took charge of all those places down there on the seacoast, but in Mindanao the Moros all went into the brush and pretty soon they got organized with a few Americans and got some arms and finally got in touch with General MacArthur who furnished some supplies and ran the Japs out of the entire southern island so they could only exist in the coast towns under the protection of their battleships.
Mr. ALLEN. As the expression goes, “You made Christians out of them?"
General Shaw. They ran the Japs out of the interior in Mindanao. There were some Americans who were over there; school teachers and so on who have been soldiers before and naturally they, took charge of these operations. The Moros are excellent fighters. They always fight. They don't have anything particularly against you, but they wanted to see if the Americans were good fighters and when we proved we were better fighters and had better arms and material, they became very friendly and they stay friendly.
The Moros are a pretty high-class lot of men.
Mr. O'KONSKI. Any other questions? (No response.) Thank you very much, General, for coming.
Colonel STANDISH. The next witness is Mr. William M. Floyd, national commander, Regular Veterans' Association.
STATEMENT OF WILLIAM M. FLOYD, NATIONAL COMMANDER,
REGULAR VETERANS' ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, D. C. Mr. Floyd. Mr. Chairman, Madam Lusk and members of the committee, Brigadier General Shaw is a Congressional Medal of Honor man and has appeared many times in behalf of the Regular Veterans' Association on this legislation. He told me yesterday he would come up if he possibly could come and he wanted to see this legislation passed for the between 1,900 and 2,000 who served between the years 1902 and 1913.
I have a report here to submit. I am quite willing to place it in the record.
I might point out the objections to this bill which was vetoed in the Seventy-ninth Congress have been removed. The Invalid Pensions Committee at that time asked General Hines to prepare a bill to meet the objections of the President of the United States in vetoing this bill and he drew this bill and in the meantime Congressman Hagen introduced this bill at the request of the Regular Veterans' Association. We had a hearing on the bill and it passed the House and died in the Senate.
Now we feel that each and every Member of the House will have no objections as to this bill going by at the present time to try to help out those people, 1,900 of them, which will mean a little less than $1,000,000, if the bill passes.
Mr. O'KONSKI. There are other people, 200 widows?
Mr. Floyd. There are 200 widows. The last time we had a hear, ïng and the last report was in 1945 there were at that time by the
Veterans' Administration's estimate about 2,300 men which would come under the bill, but they are dying off and I might point out to you, Mr. Chairman, that the average age for them at the present time is over 73 years. General Shaw, who is the “Daddy” of our jungle fighters, I believe has told you about conditions.
Therefore, I would like to see this bill passed as soon as possible, and I would like to present this statement for the record.
Mr. O’KONSKI. Without objection the further statement by the. gentleman will be inserted in the record.
(The prepared statement of Mr. Floyd is as follows:) STATEMENT OF WILLIAM M. FLOYD, NATIONAL COMMANDER, REGULAR
VETERANS ASSOCIATION This is my fifth time appearing here before a committee on this legislation, and I am sure that the veto message from the President has nothing to do with this committee, because I do not believe it will change your minds.
In the Boxer Rebellion there was no war declared, but those men received service-connected pensions. The ending date of the Philippine War the President set as July 4, 1902. Gentlemen, we lost many and many a peacetime serviceman who volunteered his service in the Philippine Islands, for the Moros could not speak English. They could not understand why we declared peace and they did not understand English, and there was many a man who had his arms cut off with a bolo.
Some of you gentlemen have had this bill brought to you, older members of this committee, for the past 5 years, and I do not think it is necessary for me to take up your time.
Service pensions should be the principal monetary benefits accorded by the bill, and such benefits in existing law shall consist of war service. Gentlemen, if this was not war service, what was it? These boys were dodging bolos and machine-' gun bullets and any other provisions of ammunition that those Moros and Philippine insurrectionists could get hold of.
At that time we had no hospital records. A member of this expeditionary force, if they want to call it that, cannot have his disability declared a service disability because there were no reports, and these men cannot establish that record. The campaign medal which you have here is the same campaign medal as it was for the Spanish-American War. They received the medal; those boys did, from 1902 to 1913, and received double time, but no double-time pay. They received 20 percent foreign service pay. Their pay was $12 1 month and $13 in the next month. Compare that with the pay today. I served in six engagements in the last World War, and I am sure these men in the Philippine Insurrection had more hazardous service than any of us men had in World War at any time. I can say that and be truthful. I am sure that these boys have had no hospital or clinic records and have had no hospital facilities. We had weather conditions, naturally.
Mr. Chairman, the Seventy-ninth Congress paid a pension to civilian employees for working on the Panama Canal and we have no objections to Congress paying those who helped dig the Canal, but each of you members know that these Regulars, who served their Government with less pay and less hospital facilities, is or should be classed ahead of any civilian employee.
There was an epidemic of bubonic plague in 1963, which caused 147 deaths. In 1905 there was another epidemic which lasted until February of 1906. Out of 283 cases there were 243 deaths. Only 40 were saved. This was not in the region of Manila, where the natives were civilized, but in the Moro Province where the Regulars were engaged in active warfare. Those civilians who worked on the Canal Zone did not have to face all kinds of weather and jungles, but still our Government gave them a pension for less hazardous service.
There are lines drawn where these men on the Panama Canal never smelled gunpowder. The same thing in some of the war-hazard conditions that our Government is now paying. Members of the armed forces are being paid now a service-connected disability because they never have seen or heard gunfire in all their days.
Our President had been misinformed and was not familiar with the service rendered by those members of the armed forces who went through hell on Leyte, Samar, and Mindanao, including the Moro Province, between July 4, 1902, and,
December 31, 1913. Those veterans are the "Daddies of all jungle fighters today.”
The declaration of peace by no means ended the active service of our armed forces in the islands. American forces during the years following the beginning of the organized government, and until 1913, were engaged in field operations of a dangerous and exhausting character against guerrilla bands and against the pulajanes—their rations were poor and so scarce at times that they had to live as best they could off the country which these Regulars were not accustomed to. Drinking water was always foul and taken from mudholes covered with slime in which water buffaloes bathed; their only covering at times was their rubber poncho, while mosquitoes, fleas, ants as large as butterflies, and leeches tormented them day and night. The only soldiers allowed in camp hospitals were those severely wounded or too ill from tropical diseases to perform field duty, and very little quinine or other medicines were obtainable.
The American who wishes to keep his health in the Philippines will protect his head from the midday sun by a helmet, or an umbrella, or both; will insist on having his drinking water boiled at all times; will avoid all unripe or overripe fruit; will see that vegetables uncooked are thoroughly washed in boiled water; and will be very cautious about eating raw shellfish and cold meats which have been standing in exposed places. A temperate diet of freshly cooked food with comparatively little meat is the one most conducive to health in a tropical climate of which these Regulars had a very hard time for the cooks were always busy watching out for the insurrector. In general persons with organic weaknesses could not go to the Philippines, for the climate conditions will soon develop their weak spots.
Of course, the President did proclaim July 4, 1902, as the peace date on which the Philippine Insurrection was supposed to have been over, however, neither the soldiers operating far back in the jungles against insurrectos, the insurrectos themselves, nor the Moros knew anything about the synthetic peace of, fact, noted any marked change in conditions at 12 noon on July 4, 1902. This being the case, why not place the peace date, if we just must have one, where it honestly belongs, December 31, 1913, insofar as Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, including the entire Moro Province are concerned.
March 6, 1906: Battle of Bud Dajo. Assault units composed of 272 Regulars of the Sixth United States Infantry, 211 Regulars of the Fourth United States Cavalry, 110 Regulars of the Nineteenth United States Infantry, 68 Regulars of the Twenty-eighth Battery of Artillery, 6 sailors from United States Gunboat Pampango, and 57 Constabulary.
Total, 790 members of the armed forces were in this engagement. Our casualties were 23 killed and 73 wounded, a total of 96 volunteers, including Vocar's trail. Therefore, gentlemen, this proves to you that the Moros did not have such a thing as a peace treaty, even on Vocar's trail. General Bliss and his staff were attacked and two Regulars seriously wounded with bolos.
I refer to the facts that according to the records of civil government, an epidemic of bubonic plague in 1903, alone caused the death of 147.
In the year of 1905 there was an epidemic which lasted until February 1906. Out of 283 cases there were 243 deaths. This was in the region of Manila. You can see that these Regulars did not have proper hospital care or medicines.
The expedition in April 1903 on the north shore of Lake Lanas, Lt. George C. Shaw, now a retired general living in Washington, D. C., and appeared here this morning before you in behalf of this bill, led his company in this attack and captured two forts in a 3-day fight; had some wounded and was in the hospital at Camp Vicars. This company had nine Regulars with arms off, chopped off by the Moros. Although, these forgotten men did receive a peacetime pension and a medal, this was not declared war service.
On July 10, 1904, they attacked a village called Tavin in north Samar. Over 30 people were killed and over 100 homes burned. The next day, July 11, 1904, they attacked a northern village called Cantaguie in the river valley north of central Samar. These Moros killed a lieutenant of police and captured Mayor Teniente, who was the appointee of the United States Government. The Moros later killed him and poured oil over him and set fire to his body.
We lost 21 Regulars killed in action at the Battle of Bud Ďajo, Jolo, March 1906 (whereas only 15 soldiers were killed in the storming and capture of Manila from Spain on August 13, 1898). There has never been any question raised against the fact that we were engaged in a war when the 15 members of the armed forces were killed at the Battle of Manila, however, technically, the Spanish-American War was over before the capture of Manila took place, gentle
Some might say this will place these battles (which was not ended until 1913) in the same class with other peacetime expeditions, landings and operations. The covering preliminary peace terms between the United States and Spain, were signed at 4 o'clock on Friday afternoon, August 12, 1898. On Saturday, August 13, 1898, the Navy and Army made a combined attack upon the city of Manila and captured it. News of the preliminary peace treaty did not reach Admiral Dewey and General Merritt until around noon on Monday, August 15, 1898. Certainly it would be ridiculous to state that the veterans who took part in the Battle of Manila, are not Spanish-American veterans and entitled to a wartime service pension incident to such service, but likewise are the veterans who fought the Filipinos and Moros after July 4, 1902, entitled to a wartime service pension for both incidents, even if taking place after the peace date, cover actual war service.
I might say here that the entire story of this intrepid little army will never be fully told, and we think it very unfair that a member of the armed forces who served in those islands for 2 years, and in some instances longer, cannot receive a thin dime in pension (but he has received the same medal), while a member of the armed forces who went to one of the several camps in the United States for a few weeks can draw a pension from our Government of $60 a month. I might also call your attention to the fact that the Philippine Insurrection was the only profitable war ever indulged in by our Nation.
It must be borne in mind that many veterans today receive Spanish War pensions even though they did not see actual war service, but we feel they deserve it, and at the same time there are hundreds of men who served in the zones of uprising against the established constituted authority of the United States in the Philippine Archipelago who were wounded or killed and yet. they, or their dependents, have not been properly recognized.
Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, veterans of the Regular Establishment voluntarily chose the military life as their profession the same as you gentlemen who voluntarily quit your profession to be a slave for your Government, and the Regular enlisted men are the only ones in the United States who receive no provision for social security. If they do not have the 30 years in service to retire on, they are out of luck. These men train our vast Army in time of war, and in time of peace they are always trying out new mechanism of war to be prepared. The existing laws are not sufficient for your defenders in time of peace. This is the only country in the history of this great Republic that does not take care of the volunteer enlisted members of the armed forces.
I would like to call your attention to the members of the armed forces who were on the islands from 1903 to 1907. There was an average of 76,544. This is around the number of police you have in New York, If any of these policemen become disabled they would receive benefits, wouldn't they? From 1908 to 1913, you had 61,420 members of the Regular Establishment still over—what for?
As late as February 28, 1913, now general, John J. Pershing advised the. Governor General the Moros would not yield to disarmament without a fight. “Then, later the Moro Province was dissolved by the act and Frank W. Carpenter relieved General Pershing December 16, 1913.
You can see by this act that the war lasted through all these years 1902 to include 1913, history proves this, also, your casualty list.
December 1904, 1,800 native soldiers were on Samar and about 4,000 United States Infantry soldiers occupying coast towns.
November 12, 1904, Governor Wright went to Samar and other southern islands and soon after his return, 700 native troops in Samar were increased to nearly 2,000 and 16 companies of United States Regular Army troops were thrown into Samar: 11 officers and 197 enlisted men had been killed in action; 48 officers and 991 men had died of disease; 46 officers had been wounded in action; 768 men had been discharged for disability; 7,424 firearms and 45,018 rounds of ammunition had been captured or surrendered; 4,862 outlaws had been killed; 11,997 prisoners taken and civil government moved on with military assistance. Did Samar resist?
January 22, 1905, an English woman in the Philippines, (Mrs. Campbell Dauncey) said “The country is honey-combed with insurrection and plots; the fighting has never ceased."
January 31, 1905, a state of insurrection was declared to exist. The writ of habeas corpus was suspended in Cavite and Batangas Provinces; the United States Army was ordered out and reconstruction tactics resorted to; the soldiers suffered exposures, diseases, and death in this more than any other service.
In a report dated August 31, 1906, Gen. Henry T. Allen says: “At present 17 companies of scouts and 4 companies of Eighth United States Infantry, under