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out any coolies at all, situated on a mountain, and in a sea of
forest and hills; some of the same tribe of men who accompanied
the Shan detachment served them the same trick. The Shans there-
fore left their grain at Kareabonglo and pushed on for Beren.
The chief here promised to give us thirty coolies, which added to
those the interpreter had brought up with the baggage, and the guard
that had been left behind, enabled me to carry eight days grain.
On the 21st February, left Kareabonglo, having been detained for
the want of coolies three days. At 10° 35' A. M. by a good path went
over some undulating ground, and then gradually ascended at 1 P. M.
to the Dádákee stream, which is about forty yards wide, with fine clear
cold water gushing through large round pebbles; it falls into the
Támákee or Dhunsiree. Ascending, we went along by an excellent
path till we came to the Inchurkeeriver, another stream of nearly equal
size to the Dádákee, discharging itself into the Tămăkee. Passing it
we had alternatively good and steep paths till we had passed over
a plain and up the bed of a rocky rivulet. We then ascended and
passed over the hill on which Umbolo, or Juekong, is situated; we left
this village out of sight on our left, and encamped in very good huts,
erected for us by the chief Okonah at 7 P. M. Umbolo consists of
about eighty or a hundred houses. The Nagas hereabout are a much
finer race than those of the Cachar Hills; and the colour of the
eastern Nagas is a much more wholesome brown than of those in the
vicinity of Goomegogoo, who are more of an ochre colour. The chief
brought down eggs, &c., and relieved those men who had come from Ka-
reabonglo by another band. He seemed quite delighted at the idea
of the Angamees, the tyrants of the Hills, being put down; and collected
twenty maunds of grain for us, which however we could not take with
us as we had no porters. I was informed by a Muniporee (who had
been captured whilst young, and sold to a Naga of this village, and
had married a Naga girl) that there was a road from this to Assam
in five days via Sumoogoding. The distance from this to the village
we had left (Kareabonglo) is about 12 or 13 miles, and there area
good many hills to go over.
February 22d. We left at 10°20' A. M. and crossed a small stream,
and an hour afterwards ascended the great range to the village of
Unggong, from whence a most commanding view is disclosed of the
low hills up to and beyond Tooleeram's country, with the course of
the Dhunsiree or Támákee. The hill on which stands Sumoogoding
is plainly visible, as also the whole of the Angamee valley, and par-
tially grass covered hills. The people of this village treated us civilly,
and collected grain (rice) forus of a very good kind. The village consis"


of about sixty houses, on the top of a very high hill joining the great range. I went into their village, the people were a little frightened at first, but afterwards they came round to look at the singularity of our dress and difference of colour. They were very much astonished at the whiteness of our cloths, they indeed are in a most primitive state of nature; the road went at the back of their village. We halted about an hour afterwards on the banks of a small stream having passed the Unggrongrow river at the base of the hill the village stands on; it falls in the Támákee, at a distance of one day's journey from the village in question. The distance to-day was only six miles, owing to 30me of our Semker coolies (who had joined us at Kareabongko) having run off on the way. February 23d. Left at 8° 5' A. M. by a tolerable path, and entered the great range which we had hitherto skirted, and went up and down hill till we suddenly diverged from the continued forest to a most noble opening, which disclosed to our view an extensive valley surrounded by partly cleared mountains, with topes of firs, these were in solitary groups and in ravines; the large village of Beren apPoated on the summit of a high mountain across the valley. The *ampment of the Shans was visible on a knoll below the village. 0n arriving nearer to what we supposed to be cleared ground, we "und extensive wastes of low grass, such as is met with in the Kasyah hills, Winding over several ravines, and passing a river flow"4°outh, we met the Mohurrir, Ram Doss, and a party of Shans who had come out to meet and warn us to keep together, as the Angamees had the night before attacked them and wounded one man, and were "ing about in parties to catch stragglers. On further inquiry, I was sorry to find that it was through their """y great neglect, and to their total inattention to the warning o given them, to keep their bayonets fixed on guard and sentry : that one of the party, the Shan sentry, was speared in the leg. lieve there were ten or twelve Angamees about the camp, and two of them Crawled up through the grass at 12 P. M., and actually spearthe *ntry who was sitting down, and most probably asleep. o being speared he attempted to fire his fusil, but the powder o it missed fire, whereupon he had time to butt him, but and * forced himself away and ran off; the second sentry came up fired, but missed; had the bayonets been fixed, the fall of the o Would have been inevitable. I found the camp built on . of an old circular fort, erected formerly by Raja Krishna after o Of Cachar, who was driven out of the country by famine, "8 one or two men by the spears of the Angamees; he came

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up to revenge the attacks made on his subjects by those banditti. He
brought up a long ten or twelve pounder to frighten these wild people
with, but he found an enemy that made his great gun useless, and
was obliged to leave it behind in the jungles. The chief of Beren,
Iquijimpo, was most accommodating, and offered to sell the old cylin-
der for one hundred rupees. On arrival, finding the dried grass around
the stockade had not been removed, I set fire to it to save our enemy
the trouble of doing it for us, and had the good fortune to drive the
fire away from three sides of the stockade, when deeming all danger
passed from the fourth side I left some persons to finish what I had
begun; but from carelessness, or a sudden gust of wind, the fire spread,
and the cry of houses on fire, soon made me aware of what had happen-
ed. I seized first the magazine and placed it out of danger, then the
grain was all removed, and just as the last bundle was rolled over the
paling the flames devoured the store house. A little cordage was burnt.
but no material accident or loss occurred, and all parties behaved very
well. The troops were drawn up in line after the removal of the stores,
ready to have repelled any attack the enemy might have made. I
sent up to the people of Beren, who were all assembled on the height,
to come down to re-build the camp, but they would not do so; I there-
fore sent up some Shans to fire a few shots to frighten any wandering
Angamees from the neighbourhood, when the Beren people came
down and re-built our camp on the ground of the circular fort. This
fort was a raised knoll of earth, built up with stones to the height of
three feet, with a gradual slope all round. I was perfectly astonished
at the fine athletic mountaineers we now had to do with, and was much
amused at their accounts of the Angamees. The chief of Rassam
and Sarralo who had met us at Umbolo came down from the vil-
lage, and in a most mysterious manner pointed to the stream and said
the Angamees had poisoned it; I replied with a smile, and the gravity
of his countenance ceased. I imagine the Angamees had instructed
him to try and frighten us out of the country by some such story.
The two chiefs also hinted at the retreat of the Cacharee and
Munipooree forces sent against the Angamees, and the absurdity of
our attempting it. In fact they tried in every way to talk us over
and boasted of their superior cunning in the most barefaced and at
the same time ridiculous manner. The evening we arrived, suspec-
ing the Angamees might favour us with a visit, I remained close
to the sentries till 10 o'clock, when the jingle of a shield in the jungle
warned us of the vicinity of our enemy. I foolishly fired a couple
of shots in the direction of the noise, which drove the Angamees away;
had they not been thus alarmed, and had they approached, we mig"



have then punished them for their intrusion at such unseasonable hours. They remained in the neighbourhood all night, but deeming it waste of powder and shot firing at sounds, I directed the sentries to adopt a rather primitive mode of letting them know of our watchsulness, and that was, to pelt stones into the jungle when they heard any thing in it, and only to fire when they saw their enemy; this order had a very good effect, for the enemy remained at a distance all might, and retired before day-break. Whilst at this place the chief of Gopelo, a larger village than Beren, came to pay his respects in order to prove that he was friendly ; the chiefs of Moolookee, Jalooka, Bákka also came. The jealousy existing amongst the different villages is very great, and after the Beren people had built our huts, they said–" There's such a village has done nothing, make them build the railing." On the 26th the brother of Impuisjee, one of the two greatest chiefs of the Angamees, came to the village of Beren, but Would not come down to the camp until I had sent Ram Doss Mohurir Accompanied by a Naick and five Shans and the interpreter to assure him on oath of his safety, and to receive his oath of amity in return. On seeing the party approach however he ran off into the jungles, notwithstanding the chiefs of Beren and Rassan were with them, and *ured him that nothing would be done to him. The Shans were then left behind, and Ram Doss went out to meet him, but he objected "the sword and shield the Mohurir had with him; these being left behind he came close, and the oath was taken in the following manher—A chicken was produced, the head of which the Mohurir held, and the Angamee the body; they both pulled till they severed it in two, which was to signify, that if either was treacherous his head would be divided from his body in the same manner. They then held a piece "a spear at the ferule end, which was cut in two, and each retained the bit in his hand ;—this is one of the most sacred oaths amongst these "dmen. The chief then came down to the camp, and I assured him "his brother need have no fear for his life, if he would come in, "swear not to molest the Honorable Company's subjects any more. He agreed to every thing proposed, and volunteered on condition of * lives being spared, to pay a tribute of ivory, slaves, &c. He said his brother had gone to fetch the articles referred to. I showed him a Walth and a telescope, and told him I could see every thing he did "*") villages, and after frightening him by firing at a pumpkin, I gave "one presents and dismised him. I waited till the 1st March for his brother's coming, as also for grain from Semker, but neither "g. I got coolies from Beren and started for Báláka, a village six miles on our route, and to which the Beren people had agreed to take our traps and the little grain we had. The road was good the whole way, with only one or two hills. We encamped on a flat piece of ground near a well below Báláka, which is always built near villages for the cattle to drink out of The chief of Ungolo came in with eggs, &c. and said his young men had joined Ikkaree in the incursions into the Cachar Hills; that they were forced to go, but should not do so again. The term ‘youths' is applied to all able bodied villagers. I deemed it needless to bind the smaller chiefs, who stood at the beck of the greater ones, to oaths they could not keep. The chief of Jykama (or as it is written in Captain Pemberton's map of the North-east frontier, Yueékhe) sent in a person of his village to know whether his coming in would cause the loss of his life; I assured him that we were most desirous for peace, but that his not coming in would be a sign of his enmity, and that in that case I should attack his village; the chief departed quite satisfied. March 2d. I was unable to move for want of coolies. I this day got intelligence of Doorgaram Subadar and of the levy having come to Beren according to order, with forty Kookees out of one hundred who had arrived at Semker. The chief of Umponglo came in, and said Impuisjee, the greatest chief of the Angamees, who had promised to meet me, had gone to Umbolo, or Sirchong, to ask advice of the chief of that village regarding a meeting with me. This chief is his nephew; he promised to give us grain as we passed his village, he also said the children of his village had gone in Ikkaree's train to the Hills, but that they would not do so again. Ikkaree is the second chief of the Angomees, and the principal leader in the predatory attacks on the Cath" Nagas; he was captured by Doorgaram Subadar in one of his incus. sions to Goomegogoo, but escaped, as he said himself, by the neglect of a burkundaz. Our grain being all expended, and finding none co" ing forth from the villagers, I placed the chief of Báláka in arrest, to induce them to exert themselves for us, but my experiment had " very opposite effect, for they all fled from the village and left their chief to his fate. On his taking an oath to bring coolies and grain, if I let him go, I released him, which was another kind of experiment, and proved something like letting go a newly-caught bird, for " never saw him again. Doorgaram Subadar came up to-day. On the 3d March I was obliged to divide the party, as it * necessary to increase our rate of going onwards, or to return, for every moment reduced our supply of grain. I therefore left the Shan and levy detachments under Doorgaram, with instructions to make the best of his way after me, or otherwise to act according " ":

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