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ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, vy

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New York.

THE

NEW AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA.

V

VACCARO

V,

the 22d letter and 17th consonant of still life. He engraved in mezzotint Missing's 9 the English alphabet. It was anciently portrait of Charles II., and Kneller's of the called U consonant. Though found on the duchess of Monmouth, and some others. most ancient Roman monuments of which we VACA, CABEÇA DE. See NT EZ, ALVAR. have any knowledge, and even in Etruscan VACCA-BERLINGHIERI, FRANCESCO, an and Samnite inscriptions, it was unknown, ac- Italian physician, born at Ponsacco, near Pisa, cording to Tacitus, to the primitive alphabet in 1732, died in Pisa, Oct. 6, 1812. He was of the Latins. The same character was used professor of surgery in the university of Pisa, to represent both U and V, these letters also was regarded as one of the first physicians of being frequently interchanged (see U); and Italy, and refused the place of physician to the when the emperor Claudius, as Suetonius re- king of Poland because he would not leave his lates, wished to introduce a separate sign for aged father. Among his works are: Considethe sound of V, he made choice of the inverted razioni intorno alle malattie putride (Lucca, digamma 4. In the inscriptions of the Etrus- 1781); Saggio intorno alle principali e piu frecans and other primitive inhabitants of Italy, quenti malattie del corpo umano (Lucca, 1799); V is frequently confounded with the Æolian Riflessioni sui mezzi di stabilire è di conserrare digamma F, through which it claims relation- nell' uomo la sanita e la robustezza (2 vols., Pisa, ship with the Semitic car. Among the He- 1794); and Filosofia della medicina (Lucca, brews, too, and probably also among the Phæ- 1801). —ANDREA, his son, born at Pisa in 1772, nicians, the corresponding letter was employed died there in 1826, was a skilful surgeon and both as consonant and vowel. The present valued writer. form of V is derived from the Greek upsilon VACCAJ, Nicolo, an Italian composer, born (Y), which was sometimes represented without at Tolentino in the Papal States in 1791, was a the stem or vertical bar.-Beside u, this letter pupil of Paisiello at Naples, and from 1811 to is interchanged with b,, and m. The Hebrew 1820 wrote operas, cantatas, and ballets which beth sometimes had a sound approaching that had a moderate success. He then taught of V, and the Greek beta () is pronounced by singing in Venice, Trieste, and Vienna, wrote the modern Greeks vita (veeta). The Spanish Pietro il grande, a comic opera performed at and Portuguese B, too, is in many cases pro- Parma, Zadig ed Astartea, performed at Naples, nounced like V, and for our sound of the former and Giulietta e Romeo, performed at Milan, his letter they have a peculiar character. (See B, best work. He afterward taught singing in and F.) The change with m is noticed chiefly Paris and London, but returned to Italy in in Welsh, in which tongue Roman becomes 1832, and in 1838 became first master of comRotan (pronounced Rovan), while for the Lat. position at the conservatory of Milan. amnis, river, the Welsh equivalent is Afon.- VACCARO. I. ANDREA, an Italian painter, V as a numeral denotes 5, or with a dash over born in Naples in 1598, died there in 1670. He it (5), 500. On old French coins it signifies was a pupil of Stanzioni, adopted the style of the mint of Troyes.

Michel Angelo da Caravaggio, and afterward VAAGEN, East and West, two islands of the of Guido, and at the death of Stanzioni was Loffoden group, the first, pop. 1,000, in lat. 68° regarded as the ablest artist of the Neapolitan 25' N., long. 14° 10' E., the second, pop. 2,000, school. One of his best works is a “Holy Famin lat. 68° 25' N., long. 13° 10' E., each about ily” in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli 30 m. long by 15 wide. They are places of great at Naples. II. Francesco, an engraver and resort for fishermen from January to April. painter, born in Bologna in 1636, died in 1687,

VAART, JAN VANDER, a Flemish painter studied under Francesco Albano, and published and engraver, born in Haarlem in 1647, died in a treatise on perspective illustrated with enLondon in 1721. He went to England in 1674, gravings from his own designs. There is a set and remained there till his death. He painted of 12 perspective views of rivers, fountains, &c., landscapes, dead game, and other objects of bearing his name.

VOL. XVI.-1

VACCINATION (Lat. racca, a cow), inocu- 49 to 1,000, while in Connaught it was 60 to lation for cow pox as a protection against small 1,000.' On the other hand, in a number of Eupox, first practised by Dr. Edward Jenner in ropean states where vaccination is more or less 1796. (See Jenner.) On the 20 or 3d day compulsory, the proportionate number of deaths after virus taken from a perfect vaccine vesicle, from small pox varies from 2 per 1,000 of all whether from the cow or the human subject, causes in Bohemia, Lombardy, Venice, and is placed in contact with the denuded dermis Sweden, to 8.33 per 1,000 in Saxony. Although or true skin, the puncture is observed to be in many instances persons who had been vacslightly inflamed. On the 4th or 5th day & cinated were attacked with small pox in a more vesicle is observed surrounded by a slight blush or less modified form, it was noticed that the of inflammation, and containing a little color- persons so attacked had been commonly vacciless, transparent fuid. This increases in size nated many years previously. It would seem until the Sth day, when it should be from 1 to that the mere lapse of time in many cases is

inch in diameter, the blush of inflamma- sufficient to destroy the protective influence of tion surrounding it at the same time having be- vaccination. The question very naturally arises: come more marked. The vesicle is umbilicated, For how long a period does the protective inthat is, its centre is depressed below the level fluence last ? To this it is impossible to give a of the circumference, in this respect resembling definite answer; it varies with different indi. the pustules of small pox. The vesicle is a com- viduals. The same thing happens with regard pound one, being made of 10 to 14 distinct cells; to the protective influence of an attack of small one of these, if carefully punctured, gives issué pox itself; in most persons it lasts for life; to a minute drop of fluid, leaving the other many, after a period more or less prolonged, cells still distended. On the 8th day the blush are liable to a second attack; while cases have of surrounding inflammation, heretofore very occurred in which a third attack has proved slight, begins to extend, forming what is termed fatal. The period of puberty is generally the areola; it attains its greatest diameter by thought to produce such changes in the system the 11th day, after which it gradually fades and as to destroy the protective influence of vaccidisappears. With the appearance of the areola nation. In all cases revaccination would seem the vesicle begins to become darker and dryer, to be a test of the loss or presence of the and gradually concretes into a brown or ma- protective influence; to render this test cerhogany-colored, translucent crust, which falls tain, where revaccination does not succeed on off about the 20th day, leaving a circular cica- the first trial, it should be a second time caretrix marked with minute depressions or pits. fully performed. In the Prussian army in 1848, About the 8th or 9th day there is usually some 28,859 individuals were revaccinated; among slight febrile disturbance present, which is whom, however, in 6,373 the cicatrices of the often however scarcely noticeable. Such is preceding vaccination were indistinct or invisithe course of the true vaccine vesicle when un- ble. Of these, 16,862 had regular vesicles, interfered with, either by the presence of con- 4,404 irregular vesicles, and in 7,753 cases no stitutional disease or by the accidental occur- effect was produced. "On a repetition of the rence of inflammation. When vaccination was vaccination in these last, it succeeded in 1,579 first introduced, it was hoped and believed by cases. Among the whole number successfully its advocates that it would afford complete and revaccinated either in 1848 or in previous years, permanent protection from the attacks of small there occurred but a single case of varioloid, pox. This hope has proved fallacious. It was and not one case of small pox; while 7 cases discovered that those who had been well and of varioloid occurred either among the recruits thoroughly vaccinated were still liable to some or among those revaccinated without success. extent to attacks of small pox; and though in VACHEROT, ETIENNE, a French philosogeneral the disease was modified (varioloid) and pher, born in Langres, July 29, 1809. He was a rendered shorter in duration and milder in de- pupil of the normal school, in which he became gree, still it occasionally resulted in death. The director of studies in 1837, filling at the same degree of protection afforded by vaccination be- time the position of master of conferences in comes thus a question of great interest. Its philosophy, and in 1839 acting as the substitute extreme value was easily demonstrated by sta- of Victor Cousin in his professorship at the Sortistical researches. In England, in the last half bonne. In 1846 appeared the first volume of of the 18th century, out of every 1,000 deaths, his Histoire critique de l'école d'Alexandrio 96 occurred from small pox; in the first half (3 vols. 8vo., 1846–51), which was severely of the present century, out of every 1,000 attacked by the clergy, and which led in 1851 deaths, but 35 were caused by the same disease. to his forced retirement from the active duties The amount of mortality in a country by small of his office. In the following year he was pox would seem to bear a fixed relation to the dismissed for refusing to take the oath of alextent to which vaccination is carried out. In legiance to the new government. He has also all England and Wales, for some years previous published Théorie des premiers principes suito 853, the proportional mortality by small vant Aristote; De Rationis Auctoritate, tum in pox was 21.9 to 1,000 deaths from all causes; 8e, tum secundum Anselmum considerata (1836); in London it was but 16 to 1,000; in Ireland, La métaphysique et la science (2 vols. 8vo., where vaccination is much less general, it was 1858); and La démocratie (1859), for which he

VAGA

VAILLANT

3

was sentenced by a court of law to a year's im- VAILLANT, JEAN BAPTISTE PHILIBERT, a prisonment, reduced on appeal to, 3 months. French soldier, born in Dijon, Dec. 6, 1790. He has edited, under the titles of École sensua- After graduating as an engineer at the polyliste (1839) and École Ecossaise (1840), the latter technic school, he studied at the artillery school with the assistance of his brother-in-law M. of Metz, obtained a commission as sub-lieutenDanton, two volumes of a course of lectures on ant, Oct. 1, 1809, and immediately entered into the history of philosophy in the 18th century active service. During the Russian campaign, delivered by Cousin in 1819-20, and written an having then the rank of captain, he was comIntroduction to Cousin's history of moral phi- plimented in general orders and received the losophy in the 19th century (8vo., 1841). cross of the legion of honor; but in Aug. 1813, • VAGA, PERINO DEL, or PIETRO Buonaccor- he was made prisoner and remained in captivity si, an Italian painter, born in Florence in 1500, until the declaration of peace. He rejoined the died in Rome in 1547. He was instructed by a emperor after the return from Elba, and fought Florentine painter named Vaga (whence the bravely at Ligny and Waterloo. After the secname generally applied to him), by whom he ond restoration he remained in the army as an was brought to the notice of Giulio Romano officer of the general staff, became chef de batailand other scholars of Raphael. The latter, lon in 1826, and accompanied the expedition to who was then engaged upon his designs for the Algiers, where he directed the siege of Fort loggie of the Vatican, employed him to assist l'Empereur (1830), the fall of which compelled Giovanni da Udine in the arabesque work, and the dey to capitulate. For this exploit, in the was so pleased with his performances that he course of which he was severely wounded, he subsequently intrusted him with the execution was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel; of some of the principal designs in fresco. and in Jan. 1833, he was made colonel in reHe thenceforth was a favorite pupil of Ra- ward for his services at the siege of Antwerp. phael, after whose death he rose into great In 1834 he was sent to Algeria as commander reputation. Being compelled to leave Rome in of the corps of engineers. After his return to 1527, impoverished by the sack of the city, he France he was made major-general (1838) and repaired to Genoa, where he entered the ser- commander of the polytechnic school (1839), vice of the prince Doria and founded a school and employed upon the fortifications of Paris. of painting. He returned to Rome during the In 1845 he became lieutenant-general. In the pontificate of Paul III., by whom he was in- expedition to Italy and the siege of Rome (1849) trusted with many valuable commissions; and he was second in command, but had virtually at the time of his death he probably stood at the whole direction of the attack, and received the head of the Roman school. He designed for his services the baton of marshal of France after the style of Michel Angelo, and by Vasari (Dec. 11, 1851) and the post of grand marshal is placed in that respect next to the great Flor- of the palace under Napoleon III. In March, entine master. His works are widely distrib- 1854, he became minister of war, retaining that uted over Italy, the best being the “ Creation office until April, 1859, when he exchanged it of Eve” in the church of S. Marcello in Rome. for a command in the army of the Alps. He

VAGRANT (Lat. vagor, to wander), in law, served through the Italian campaign, and comsometimes defined as one who has no set- manded at Milan during its occupation by the tled home, but more properly one who wanders allies. In Nov. 1860, he became military comabout without any settled home, refuses to mandant in the imperial household. He is also work, and has no means of subsistence. The a count of the empire, a member of the senate, aw looks upon vagrancy as an offence, not for grand cross of the legion of honor, and a memits moral wrong nor for the harm it does to ber of the academy of sciences. He has transthe man himself, but for its injury to society, lated from the English an Essai sur les prinand the demand it makes upon the means of cipes de la construction des ponts militairis society for the subsistence of the vagrant. If (1823), and published a Rapport sur la situaone having a settled home, without means of tion de l'Algérie (1855). subsistence, requires help, he is a pauper, and VAILLANT, Jean Foy, a French numismanot a vagrant; that is, he is entitled to aid, but tist, born in Beauvais, May 24, 1632, died Oct. is not an offender. On the other hand, if one 23, 1706. He studied meaicine, but acquiring leads a life of idle wandering, with no place distinction as a numismatist was commissioned which he regards as his home or which the by Colbert to collect ancient medals in Italy, law can so regard, but has means of subsis- Sicily, and Greece, for the king's cabinet at tence and chooses so to use them, the law takes Versailles. In 1674 he was sent on a second no cognizance of the fact, because he makes no expedition of the same nature, but the vessel call upon the public means, and inflicts no di- in which he sailed was captured by a corsair, rect injury upon the public welfare. In all the and all on board were sold in Algiers as slaves. states, so far as we know, there are statutes Vaillant was released after 4 months' bondage, against vagrancy; and it is an offence recog- and soon afterward was sent on an expedition nized by ancient English statutes, and proba- through Egypt and several parts of Asia, rebly by the common law. The word vagabond turning in 1680 with a large collection of coins. seems to be used as synonymous with vagrant. Among his numerous works® are: Numismata

VAILLANT, François LE. See LE VAILLANT. Imperatorum Romanorum Præstantiora, a Julio

naus.

Cæsare ad Postumum et Tyrannos (1672); Seleu- ropublic in alliance with Switzerland, but was ciilarum Imperium, seu Historia Regum Syrim annexed to that country by the congress of ad Fidem Numismatum accommodata (1681); Vienna. All citizens over 18 years of age are and Numismata Ærea Imperatorum et Cæsarum entitled to vote at the election of a council in in Coloniis, Municipiis et Urbibus Jure Latino their dizain, or district, and eac council sends donatis (2 vols. fol., Paris, 1688).

4 deputies to the diet or legislature, in which VAILLANT, SÉBASTIEN, a French botanist, the president of each district has an ex officio born at Vígny, near Pontoise, May 26, 1669, seat, as has the bishop of Sion, whose vote died May 26, 1722. He was at first a musician, counts as 4. The executive power is vested in but afterward studied medicine, and while thus a council of 5 elected annually by the diet. engaged received an appointment as surgeon in VALCKENAER, LODEWIJK CASPER, a Dutch the royal fusileers, in which capacity he was scholar, born in Leeuwarden, Friesland, in present at the battle of Fleurus. Visiting Pa- 1715, died March 15, 1785. At the university ris in 1691, he studied botany under Tourne- of Franeker, where he was educated, he became fort, and from 1708 until his death he was pro- professor of Greek in 1741, and of Grecian anfessor of botany and sub-demonstrator of tiquity in 1755; and at Leyden he received in plants in the jardin du roi. He was one of 1766 the same two chairs together with that of the first to recommend the sexual or artificial Dutch history. He edited the works of sevsystem of plants subsequently adopted by Lin- eral of the classical authors, and published De

His principal work is the Botanicon Ritibus in Jurando a Veteribus Hebræis macParisiense, published posthumously in 1727, un- ime ac Græcis observatis (Franeker, 1735); Amder the direction of Boerhaave.

monius de Adfinium Vocabulorum Differentia VALAIS (Ger. Wallis), a canton of Switzer- (Leyden, 1739); and Opuscula Philologica, Criland, bounded N. by Vaud and Bern, E. by tica et Oratoria (2 vols. 8vo., Leipsic, 1809). — Uri and Ticino, S. E. and S. by Piedmont, Jan, a Dutch scholar and statesman, son of the and S. W. and W. by Savoy, between lat. 45° preceding, born in Leyden in 1759, died in 50' and 46° 35' N., and long. 6° 49' and 8° 27' Haarlem, Jan. 25, 1821. He was professor of E.; area, 2,019 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 90,880. jurisprudence succe

ccessively at Franeker and Its most important towns are Sion or Sitten, Utrecht, but, being an active leader of the the capital, Martigny, Leuk, and Visp, all situ- anti-Orange party, was compelled to leave Holated on or near the Rhône. On the N. and S. land in 1787. On Feb. 6, 1793, with others of two chains of the Alps, the Bernese and Pen- his party, he appeared before the bar of the nine, form the boundaries of the canton, and national assembly of France, and reqnested these are connected on the E. by the central that body to send an army into Holland to group of the St. Gothard, by the Gallenstock, support the party of the patriots. A French the Furca, and the Mutthorn. The surround- force under Pichegru was sent into the Nethering mountains have summits varying from 12,- lands in 1795, and Valckenaer, returning with 000 to 15,000 feet in height, and the canton it, became a member of the legislative body of contains some of the most magnificent scenery the new republic, and was also appointed proin Europe. The central valley of the canton fessor of public law in the university of Leyden. forms part of the basin of the Rhône, which le soon after started a journal called “The here receives from the S. the Visp, Borgne, Advocate of Batavian Liberty," which was reDranse, and other tributaries, flowing through linquished in 1796, and Valckenaer was sent as transverse valleys, the upper part of many ambassador of the Batavian republic to Spain. of which is occupied by extensive glaciers. In 1801 he withdrew for a time from public There are 17 glaciers in the Val de Bagnes, life. Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, sent and 8 in the district of Simplon. The lower him in 1810 on a mission to Napoleon, to preslopes of the mountains are covered with vent the contemplated incorporation of the magnificent forests of pine, chestnut, walnut, Netherlands with France. His remonstrance and other hard woods, and orchards. The was ineffectual, and the remainder of his life vine is cultivated to an altitude of 2,000 feet was spent in retirement and study. above the sea level, and the mulberry thrives VALDEZ. See MELENDEZ VALDEZ. in the valley of the Rhône. In the same VALDIVIA, a S. province of Chili, bounded locality there are large tracts of arable land, N. by the province of Arauco, E. by the Anproducing good crops of grain, and many of des, separating it from the Argentine Confedthe finer fruits. The rearing of cattle forms eration and Patagonia, S. by Chiloe, and W. by the chief employment of the people. The man- the Pacific ocean; area, 12,318 sq. m.; pop. ufactures are confined to some coarse articles in 1857, 31,988. The chief towns are Valdivia, for domostio use. The position of the canton the capital, and Osorno.

There are many gives it an important transit trade by the great fine harbors on the coast. The summits of the lines of traffic across the Alps. The principal Andes are covered with snow throughout the exports consist of cattle and a little grain and year, and among them are several active volwine.-Two thirds of the inhabitants are French, canoes. The surface between the sea and the and nearly all Roman Catholics, and the pub- Andes is generally more level than that of other lic schools are under the direction of the Jesu- parts of Chili, and it is drained by many rivers its. The canton was formerly an independent and lakes. The most important streams are the

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