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of an antiquary's cabinet, is grieved that the curtain During the reigns of Elizabeth, James, and be drawn, and to give place to new pilgrims! And Charles, literary language received large accessions when the Lord of this universe hath showed us the of Greek and Latin, and also of the modern French amazing wonders of his various frame, should we take it to heart, when he thinketh time, to dislodge ! This

have given from Overbury and Fuller may serve to illustrate is his unalterable and inevitable decree : as we had the remarks quoted above. In our opinion, Sir Walter Scott no part of our will in our entrance into this life, we has considerably exaggerated the faults of Lyly's Euphues, should not presume to any in our leaving it, but which, however, are certainly of the kind described. Let us soberly learn to will that which he wills, whose very take, for example, two passages at random, the first on vigour all that it wil

of mind, and the second on grief for the death of a daughter: the orderer, not repine at the order and laws, which all-where and always are so perfectly established, that

[Prerequisites of Mental Vigour.] who would essay to correct and amend any of them, There are three things which cause perfection in a man he should either make them worse, or desire things | nature, reason, use. Reason I call discipline: use, exercise: beyond the level of possibility.

if any one of these branches want, certainly the tree of virtue must needs wither; for nature without discipline is of sinall

force, and discipline without nature more feeble: if exercise REMARKS ON THE STYLE OF THIS PERIOD.

or study be void of any of these, it availeth nothing. For as in

tilling of the ground in husbandry there is first chosen a fertile The poetry of Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the

soil, then a cunning sower, then good seed, even so must we prose of that of her successor, were much disfigured compare nature to the fat earth, the expert husbandman to through the operation of a strong propensity, on the the schoolmaster, the faculties and sciences to the pure seeds. part of the authors, to false wit; a propensity, as Sir If this order had not been in our predecessors, Pythagoras, Wa

Socrates, Plato, and whosoever was renowned in Greece for the unexpected connections of sound, or of idea, for real

glory of wisdom, they had never been eternised for wise men, humour, and even for the effusions of the stronger

neither canonised, as it were, for saints, among those that study passions. It seems likely,' he adds, that this fashion

sciences. It is therefore a most evident sign of God's singular

favour towards him, that he is endued with all these qualities, arose at court; a sphere in which its denizens never

without the which man is most miserable. But if there be any think they move with due lustre, until they have

one that thinketh wit not necessary to the obtaining of wisdom, adopted a form of expression, as well as a system

after he hath gotten the way to virtue, and industry, and exerof manners, different from that which is proper to

cise, he is a heretic, in my opinion, touching the true faith in mankind at large. In Elizabeth's reign, the court

learning: for if nature play not her part, in vain is labour : language was for some time formed on the plan of and, as it is said before, if study be not employed, in vain is one Lyly, a pedantic courtier, who wrote a book nature: sloth turneth the edge of wit, study sharpeneth the entitled “Euphues and his England, or the Anatomy mind; a thing, be it never so easy, is hard to the idle; a thing, of Wit;" which quality he makes to consist in the be it never so hard, is easy to wit well employed. And most indulgence of every monstrous and overstrained con- plainly we may see in many things the efficacy of industry and ceit that can be engendered by a strong memory and

rendered by a strong memory and labour. The little drops of rain pierce the hard marble; iron, & heated brain, applied to the absurd purpose of

with often handling, is worn to nothing. Besides this, industry hatching unnatural conceits. * It appears that this

showeth herself in other things: the fertile soil, if it be never

tilled, doth wax barren, and that which is most noble by nature fantastical person had a considerable share in deter

is made most vile by negligence. What tree, if it be not topped, mining the false taste of his age, which soon became

beareth any fruit? What vine, if it be not pruned, bringeth so general, that the tares which sprung from it are

forth grapes? Is not the strength of the body turned to weak. to be found even among the choicest of the wheat.

ness with too much delicacy? Were not Milo his arms brawn. * * These outrages upon language were committed

fallen for want of wrestling? Moreover, by labour the fierce without regard to time and place. They were held unicorn is tamed, the wildest falcon is reclaimed, the greatest good arguments at the bar, though Bacon sat on the bulwark is sacked. It was well answered of that man of Theswoolsack; and eloquence irresistible by the most saly, who being demanded who among the Thessalians were hardened sinner, when King or Corbet were in the reputed most vile, “Those,' he said, that live at quiet and pulpit.f Where grave and learned professions set ease, never giving themselves to martial affairs.' But why the example, the poets, it will readily be believed, should one use many words in a thing already proved? It is ran headlong into an error, for which they could plead custom, use, and exercise, that brings a young man to virtue,

and virtue to his perfection. such respectable example. The affectation of the word” and “ of the letter" (for alliteration was almost [A Father's Grid for the Death of his Daughter.] as fashionable as punning) seemed in some degree to bring back English composition to the barbarous

Thou weepest for the death of thy daughter, and I laugh at rules of the ancient Anglo-Saxons, the merit of whose

the folly of the father; for greater vanity is there in the mind

of the mourner, than,bitterness in the death of the deceased. poems consisted, not in the ideas, but in the quaint

• But she was amiable--but yet sinful: but she was young, arrangement of the words, and the regular recur

and might have lived'-but she was mortal, and must have rence of some favourite sound or letter. 'I

died. “Ay, but her youth made thee often merry-Ay, but

thine age should once make thee wise. Ay, but her green years * For an account of Lyly as a dramatic poet, see p. 166. were unfit for death-Ay, but thy hoary hairs should despise

• Witness a sermon preached at St Mary's before the uni. life. Knowest thou not, Eubulus, that life is the gift of God, versity of Oxford. It is true the preacher was a layman, and death is the due of nature; as we receive the one as a beneharangued in a gold chain, and girt with a sword, as high fit, so must we abide the other of necessity. Wise men have sheriff of the county ; but his eloquence was highly applauded found that by learning, which old men should know by expe

ody whom he addressed, although it would rience, that in life there is nothing sweet, in death nothing have startled a modern audience at least as much as the dress | sour. The philosophers accounted it the chiefest felicity never of the orator. “ Arriving," said he, “ at the Mount of St to be born; the second, soon to die. And what hath death in Mary's, in the stony stage where I now stand, I have brought it so hard, that we should take it so heavily? Is it strange to you some fine biscuits, baked in the oven of charity, carefully see that cut off which, by nature, is made to be cut off? or that conserved for the chickens of the church, the sparrows of the melted which is fit to be melted? or that burnt which is apt spirit, and the sweet swallows of salvation." " Which way of to be burnt ? or man to pass that is born to perish? But thou preaching," says Anthony Wood, the reporter of the homily, grantest that she should have died, and yet art thou sorrowful " was then mostly in fashion, and commended by the gene- | because she is dead. Is the death the better if it be the longer? rality of scholars." -Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 183.

| No, truly. For as neither he that singeth most, or prayeth Scott's Life of Dryden, section i.-The extracts which we longest, or ruleth the stern oftenest, but he that doth it best,

and Italian. The prevalence of Greek and Ro. pedantic, implicated, and obscure. Nothing can be man learning was the chief cause of the introduce more incompact and nerveless than the style of tion of so many words from those languages. Vain Sidney ; nothing more harsh and quaint, from an afof their new scholarship, the learned writers de- fectation of foreign and technical terms, than the lighted in parading Greek and Latin words, and diction of Browne. If we allow to Hooker and even whole sentences; so that some specimens of Milton occasional majesty and strength, and somethe composition of that time seem to be a mixture of times a peculiar felicity of expression, it must yet various tongues. Bacon, Burton, and Browne, were be admitted, that though using pure English words, among those who most frequently adopted long the elaboration and inversion of their periods are passages from Latin authors; and of Ben Jonson it such as to create, in the mere English reader, no is remarked by Dryden, that he did a little too small difficulty in the comprehension of their meanmuch to Romanise our tongue, leaving the words ing; a fault, surely, of the most serious nature, and which he translated almost as much Latin as he ever productive of aversion and fatigue. To Raleigh, found them. It would appear that the rage, as it Bacon, and Burton, we are indebted for a style which, may be called, for originality, which marked this though never rivalling the sublime energy and force period, was one of the causes of this change in our occasionally discoverable in the prose of Milton, language. Many think,' says Dr Heylin in 1658, makes a nearer approach to the just idiom of our ' that they can never speak elegantly, nor write sig- tongue than any other which their age afforded. It nificantly, except they do it in a language of their is to the Restoration, however, that we must look own devising; as if they were ashamed of their for that period when our language, with few excepmother tongue, and thought it not sufficiently cu- tions, assumed a facility and clearness, a fluency and rious to express their fancies. By means whereof, ! grace, hitherto strangers to its structure.' * more French and Latin words have gained ground upon us since the middle of Queen Elizabeth's reign,

ORIGIN OF NEWSPAPERS. than were admitted by our ancestors (whether we look upon them as the British or Saxon race), not

ht! Before concluding the present section, it may be only since the Norman, but the Roman conquest.'

est proper to notice the rise of a very important branch And Sir Thomas Browne about the same time ob

hoof modern literature. We allude to NEWSPAPERS, serves, that if elegancy still proceedeth, and English

which, at least in a printed form, had their origin in pens maintain that stream we have of late observed

England. Among the ancient Romans, reports (called to flow from many, we shall, within few years, be

be Acta Diurna) of what was done in the senate were fain to learn Latin to understand English, and a

frequently published. This practice seems to have work will prove of equal facility in either.' 'To so existed before the time of Julius Cæsar, who, when great an extent was Latin thus naturalised among

consul, gave orders that it should be attended to. English authors, that Milton at length, in his prose

The publication was, however, prohibited by Augusworks, and also partly in his poetry, introduced the

tus. ' Acta Diurna,' containing more general inidiom or peculiar construction of that language;

telligence of passing events, appear to have been which, however, was not destined to take a perma

common both during the republic and under the nent hold of English literature; for we find imme

emperors ; of one of these, the following specimen is diately after, that the writings of Clarendon, Dryden, given by Petronius : and Barrow, were not affected by it.

On the 26th of July, 30 boys and 40 girls were In looking back upon the style of the writers of born at Trimalchi's estate at Cuma. whose works we have given an account in the pre- At the same time a slave was put to death for sent section, it will be perceived that no standard uttering disrespectful words against his lord. and regular form of composition had as yet been re. The same day a fire broke out in Pompey's gardens, cognised. • Each author,' says Dr Drake, arrogated which began in the night, in the steward's apartment. to himself the right of innovation, and their respec- | In modern times. nothing similar appears to have tive works may be considered as experiments how

been known before the middle of the sixteenth far their peculiar and often very adverse styles were

century. The Venetian government were, in the calculated to improve their native tongue. That

year 1563, during a war with the Turks, in the they have completely failed to fix a standard for its

habit of communicating to the public, by means of structure, cannot be a subject of regret to any man

| written sheets, the military and commercial inforwho has impartially weighed the merits and defects of their diction.

mation received. These sheets were read in a parA want of neatness, precision, and ticular place to thosc desirous to learn the news, who simplicity, is usually observable in their periods,

paid for this privilege a coin called gazetta-a name which are either eminently enervated and loose, or

which, by degrees, was transferred to the newspaper

itself in Italy and France, and passed over into Engdeserveth greatest praise : so he, not that hath most years, but

land. many virtues, nor he that hath grayest hairs, but greatest

The Venetian government eventually gave goodness, liveth longest. The chief beauty of life consisteth

these announcements in a regular manner once anot in the numbering of many days, but in the using of vir

month; but they were too jealous to allow them to tuous doings. Amongst plants, those be best esteemed that in | be printed. Only a few copies were transmitted to shortest time bring forth much fruit.

various places, and read to those who paid to hear. The following sentence affords a sample of Lyly's most affected

Thirty volumes of these manuscript newspapers exist manner in the Euphues':

in the Magliabechian library at Florence. When parents have more care how to leave their children

About the same time, offices were established in wealthy than wise, and are more desirous to have them main-France, at the suggestion of the father of the celetain the name than the nature of a gentleman; when they brated Montaigne, for making the wants of indivi. put gold into the hands of youth, where they should put a rodduals known to each other. The advertisements under their girdle; when, instead of awe, they make them received at these offices were sometimes pasted on past grace, and leave them rich executors of goods, and poor walls in public places, in order to attract more attenexecutors of godliness; then it is no marvel that the son, being loft rich by his father, will become retchless in his own will.

ing tion, and were thence called affiches. This led in

I time to a systematic and periodical publication of The Euphues' consists of two publications-one entitled advertisements in sheets; and these sheets were Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit,' 1580; and the other, Euphues and his England,' 1681.

* Essays Illustrative of the Tatler, &c. vol. i. p. 38.

was

termed affiches, in consequence of their contents It was during the civil war that newspapers first having been originally fixed up as placards.

acquired that political importance which they have . After inquiring in various countries,' says Mr ever since retained. Whole flights of Diurnals' and George Chalmers, ‘for the origin of newspapers, I Mercuries,' in small quarto, then began to be dissehad the satisfaction to find what I sought for in minated by the different parties into which the state England. It may gratify our national pride to be was divided. Nearly a score are said to have been told, that mankind are indebted to the wisdom of started in 1643, when the war was at its height. Elizabeth, and the prudence of Burleigh, for the Peter Heylin, in the preface to his 'Cosmography,' first newspaper. The epoch of the Spanish Armada mentions that the affairs of each town or war were is also the epoch of a genuine newspaper. In the better presented in the weekly newsbooks.' AccordBritish Museum there are several newspapers, which ingly, we find some papers entitled News from Hull, had been printed while the Spanish fleet was in the Truths from York, Warranted Tidings from Ireland, English channel, during the year 1588. It was a and Special Passages from other places. As the conwise policy to prevent, during the moment of general test proceeded, the impatience of the public for early anxiety, the danger of false reports, by publishing intelligence led to the shortening of the intervals of real information. And the earliest newspaper is publication, and papers began to be distributed twice entitled The English Mercurie, which, by authority, or thrice in every week. Among these were The

“ imprinted at London, by Christopher Barker, French Intelligencer, The Dutch Spy, The Irish Merher highness's printer, 1588.” Burleigh’s newspapers cury, The Scots Dove, The Parliament Kite, and The were all Extraordinary Gazettes, which were pub- Secret Owl. There were likewise weekly papers of lished from time to time, as that profound statesman a humorous character, such as Mercurius Acheronwished either to inform or terrify the people. The ticus, or News from Hell; Mercurius Democritus, Mercuries were probably first printed in April 1588, bringing wonderful news from the world in the moon; when the Armada approached the shores of England. The Laughing Mercury, with perfect news from the After the Spanish ships had been dispersed by a antipodes; and Mercurius Mastix, faithfully lashing wonderful exertion of prudence and spirit, these ex- all Scouts, Mercuries, Posts, Spies, and other inteltraordinary gazettes very seldom appeared. The ligencers. On one side was The Weekly Discoverer, Mercurie, No. 54, which is dated on Monday, Novem- and on the other The Weekly Discoverer Stripped ber the 24th, 1588, informed the public that the Naked. So important an auxiliary was the press solemn thanksgiving for the successes which had considered, that each of the rival armies carried a been obtained against the Spanish Armada was this printer along with it. day strictly observed. This number contains also The first newspaper ever printed in Scotland was an article of news from Madrid, which speaks of issued under the auspices of a party of Cromwell's putting the queen to death, and of the instruments of troops at Leith, who caused their attendant printer torture that were on board the Spanish fleet. We to furnish impressions of a London Diurnal for their may suppose that such paragraphs were designed by information and amusement. It bore the title of the policy of Burleigh, who understood all the arti- Mercurius Politicus, and the first number of the fices of printing, to excite the terrors of the English Scotch reprint appeared on the 26th of October, 1653. people, to point their resentment against Spain, and In November of the following year, the establishto inflame their love for Elizabeth.' It is almost ment was transferred to Edinburgh, where this rea pity to mar the effect of this passage by adding, printing system was continued till the 11th of April, that doubts are entertained of the genuineness of 1660. About nine months afterwards was esta• The English Mercurie.' Of the three numbers blished the Mercurius Caledonius, of which the ten preserved, two are printed in modern type, and no numbers published contain some curious traits of originals are known; while the third is in manu- the extravagant feeling of joy occasioned by the script of the eighteenth century, altered and inter- Restoration, along with much that must be set down polated with changes in old language such as only as only the product of a very poor wit trying to say an author would make.'*

clever and amusing things.* It was succeeded by In the reign of James I., packets of news were The Kingdom's Intelligencer, the duration of which is occasionally published in the shape of small quarto said to have been at least seven years. After this, pamphlets. These were entitled Newes from Italy, the Scotch had only reprints of the English newsHungary, &c., as they happened to refer to the papers till 1699, when The Edinburgh Gazette was transactions of those respective countries, and gene-established. rally purported to be translations from the Low Dutch. In the year 1622, when the thirty years' * For example_March 1, 1661. A report from London of war, and the exploits of Gustavus Adolphus, ex a new gallows, the supporters to be of stones, and beautified cited curiosity, these occasional pamphlets were con

with statues of the three Grand Traitors, Cromwell, Bradshaw, verted into a regular weekly publication, entitled and Ireton.' "As our old laws are renewed, so likewise are our The Certain Newes of this Present Week, edited by good honest customs; for nobility in streets are known by Nathaniel Butter, and which may be deemed the (the Commonwealth), a lord was scarcely to be distinguished

brave retinues of their relations; when, during the Captivity first journal of the kind in England. Other weekly from a commoner. Nay, the old hospitality returns; for that papers speedily followed; and the avidity with which laudable custom of suppers, which was covenanted out with such publications were sought after by the people, raisins and roasted cheese, is again in fashion; and where may be inferred from the complaint of Burton, in his before a peevish nurse would have been seen tripping up stairs Anatomy of Melancholy,' that if any read now-a and down stairs with a posset for the lord or the lady, you days, it is a play-book, or a pamphlet of newes.' shall now see sturdy jackmen groaning with the weight of Lord Clarendon mentions, in illustration of the dis-surloins of becf, and chargers loaden with wild fowl and capon." regard of Scottish affairs in England during the On the day of the king's coronation— But of all our bontadora early part of Charles I.'s reign, that when the whole and capriccios, that of the immortal Janet Geddes, princess of nation was solicitous to know what passed weekly in the Tron adventurers (herb-women), was the most pheasant ; Germany and Poland, and all other parts of Europe, for she was not only content to assemble all her cruels, baskets, no man ever inquired what was doing in Scotland, creepies, furms, and other ingredients that composed her shop,

but even her weather chair of state where sho used to dispense nor had that kingdom a place or mention in one page justice to her lang-kale vassals, (which) were all very orderly of any gazette.'

burnt, she herself countenancing the action with a high-flown, * Penny Cyclopædia, xvi. 193. spirit and vermilion majesty.'

311

6

Fourth Period.

THE COMMONWEALTH AND REIGNS OF CHARLES II. AND JAMES II. [1649 TO 1689.]

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POETS

In the department of divinity, Jeremy Taylor, Bar.

row, and Tillotson, laid the sure foundations of ProHE forty years testantism, and the best defences of revealed religion.

comprehended In speculative philosophy, we have the illustrious in this period name of Locke; in history and polite literature, produced some Clarendon, Burnet, and Temple. In this period, too, great names ; | Bunyan composed his inimitable religious allegory, but, considering and gave the first conspicuous example of native the mighty force of mind and powers of imagination rising sucevents which cessful over all the obstructions caused by a low then agitated station in life, and a miserably defective education. the country, and The world has never been, for any length of time, must have in without some great men to guide and illuminate the fluenced the onward course of society; and, happily, some of them national feel- were found at this period to serve as beacons to ings — such as their contemporaries and to all future ages. the abolition of the ancient monarchy of Eng

ABRAHAM COWLEY. land, and the ABRAHAM COWLEY was perhaps the most popular

establishment of English poet of his times. Waller stood next in the commonwealth-there was less change in the public estimation. Dryden had as yet done nothing taste and literature of the nation than might have to stamp his name, and Milton's minor poems had been anticipated. Authors were still a select class, not earned for him a national reputation : the same and literature, the delight of the learned and in-year that witnessed the death of Cowley ushered the genious, had not become food for the multitude. The Paradise Lost' into the world. Cowley was born in chivalrous and romantic spirit which prevailed in the reign of Elizabeth, had even, before her death, begun to yield to more sober and practical views of human life and society : a spirit of inquiry was fast spreading among the people. The long period of peace under James, and the progress of commerce, gave scope to domestic improvement, and fostered the reasoning faculties and mechanical powers, rather than the imagination. The reign of Charles I., a prince of taste and accomplishments, partially revived the style of the Elizabethan era, but its lustre extended little beyond the court and the nobility. During the civil war and the protectorate, poetry and the drama were buried under the strife and anxiety of contending factions. Cromwell, with a just and generous spirit, boasted that he would make the name of an Englishman as great as ever that of a Roman had been. He realised his wish in the naval victories of Blake, and the unquestioned supremacy of England abroad; but neither the time nor inclination of the Protector permitted him to be a patron of literature. Charles II. was better fitted for such a task, by natural powers, birth, and education ; but he had imbibed a false and perverted taste, which, added to his indolent and sensual disposition, was as injurious to art and literature as to the public morals. Poetry declined from the date of the Restoration, and was degraded from a high and noble art to a mere courtly amusement, or pander to immorality. The whole atmosphere of genius was not, however, tainted by this public degeneracy. Science was assiduously cultivated, and to this period belong some of the London in the year 1618, and was the posthumous proudest triumphs of English poetry, learning, and son of a respectable grocer. His mother had influence philosophy. Milton produced his long-cherished enough to procure admission for him as a king's epic, the greatest poem which our language can scholar at Westminster; and in his eighteenth year boast; Butler his inimitable burlesque of Hudibras ; he was elected of 'Trinity college, Cambridge. Cowley and Dryden his matchless satire and versification. I lisped in numbers ;' he published a volume of poems

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in his thirteenth year. A copy of Spenser used to dreams. The place of his retreat was ill selected, lie in his mother's parlour, with which he was in- and his health was affected by the change of situafinitely delighted, and which helped to make him a tion. The people of the country, he found, were not poet. The intensity of his youthful ambition may be seen from the two first lines in his miscellanies

What shall I do to be for ever known,

And make the age to come my own ? Cowley, being a royalist, was ejected from Cambridge, and afterwards studied at Oxford. He went with the queen-mother to France, where he remained twelve years. He was sent on various embassies, and deciphered the correspondence of Charles and his queen, which, for some years, took up all his days, and two or three nights every week. At last the Restoration came with all its hopes and fears. England looked for happy days, and loyalty for its reward, but in both cases the cup of joy was dashed with disappointment. Cowley expected to be made

UM master of the Savoy, or to receive some other appointment, but his claims were overlooked. In his youth he had written an ode to Brutus, which was remembered to his disadvantage ; and a dramatic production, the Cutter of Coleman Street, which Cowley brought out shortly after the Restoration, and in which the jollity and debauchery of the cavaliers are painted in strong colours, was misrepresented or misconstrued at court. It is certain that Cowley felt his disappointment keenly, and he resolved to retire into the country. He had only just passed his fortieth year, but the greater part of his time had been spent in incessant labour, amidst dangers and suspense. He always professed,' says Dr Sprat, his biographer, that he went out of the world as it was man's, into the same world as it was nature's and as

House of Cowley at Chertsey. it was God's. The whole compass of the creation, a whit better or more innocent than those of the and all the wonderful effects of the divine wisdom, town. He could get no money from his tenants, and were the constant prospect of his senses and his his meadows were eaten up every night by cattle thoughts. And, indeed, he entered with great ad- put in by his neighbours

. Dr Johnson, who would vantage on the studies of nature, even as the first have preferred Fleet Street to all the charms of great men of antiquity did, who were generally both Arcadia and the golden age, has published, with a poets and philosophers.' Cowley nad obtained, sort of malicious satisfaction, a letter of Cowley's, through Lord St Albans and the Duke of Bucking dated from Chertsey, in which the poet makes a ham, the lease of some lands belonging to the queen, querulous and rueful complaint over the downfall of worth about £300 per annum-a decent provision his rural prospects and enjoyment. His retirement for his retirement. The poet finally settled at Chert- extended over a period of only seven years. One Bey, on the banks of the Thames, where his house day, in the heat of summer, he had stayed too long still remains. Here he cultivated his fields, his gar- amongst his labourers in the meadows, and was den, and his plants; he wrote of solitude and obscu- seized with a cold, which, being neglected, proved rity, of the perils of greatness, and the happiness of fatal in a fortnight. The death of this amiable and liberty. He renewed his acquaintance with the be- accomplished man of genius took place on the 28th loved poets of antiquity, whom he rivalled occa- of July, 1667. His remains were taken by water to sionally in ease and elegance, and in commemorating Westminster, and interred with great pomp in the the charms of a country life; and he composed his abbey. “The king himself,' says Sprat, ' was pleased fine prose discourses, so full of gentle thoughts and to bestow on him the best epitaph, when, upon the well-digested knowledge, heightened by a delightful news of his death, his majesty declared that Mr bon-hommie and communicativeness worthy of Horace Cowley had not left a better man behind him.' or Montaigne. The style of these discourses is pure,

Cowley's poetical works are divided into four natural, and lively. Sprat mentions that Cowley excelled in letter-writing, and that he and Mr M. parts - Miscellanies," the “ Mistress or Love Verses,

Pindaric Odes,' and the • Davideis, a heroical poem Clifford had a large collection of his letters, but they of the Troubles of David.' The character of his had decided that nothing of that kind should be genius is well expressed by Popepublished. This is much to be regretted. The private letters of a distinguished author are gene Who now reads Cowley? If he pleases yet, rally read with as much interest as his works, and

His moral pleases, not his pointed wit : Cowper and others owe much of their fame to such

Forgot his epic, nay, Pindaric art, confidential disclosures of their habits, opinions, and

But still I love the language of his heart. daily life. Cowley was not happy in his retirement. Solitude, that had so long wooed him to her arms, Cowper has also drawn a sketch of Cowley in his was a phantom that vanished in his embrace. He Task,' in which he laments that his splendid wit had attained the long-wished object of his studious should have been ‘entangled in the cobwebs of the youth and busy manhood; the woods and fields at schools. The manners of the court and the age length enclosed the melancholy Cowley' in their inspired Cowley with a portion of gallantry, but he shades. But happiness was still distant. He had seems to have had no deep or permanent passion. quitted the monster London ;' he had gone out from He expresses his love in a style almost as fantastic Sodom, but had not found the little Zoar of his as the euphuism of old Lyly or Sir Percie şhafton.

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