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Indians, and the Chiefs of the various Tribes were assembled to impress on their minds the calamities which would ensue from a perseverance in their hostile purposes. Contrary to expectation, we succeeded in pacifying them for the present. The duration of this state of things, is, however, most uncertain, and the subject is brought particularly to view for the consideration of Congress. The mischief likely to result from placing in the same neighbourhood, without a controlling power on the part of the Executive of the United States, different and hostile Tribes, have already been submitted in a Report from this Department to Congress at their last Session. The events just referred to have tended to confirm the views formerly taken, and I feel myself impelled by an irresistible sense of duty to state, that, unless a preventive is speedily furnished by Law, I fear that, at no distant period, those unfortunate and unhappy people will be externinated by intestine Wars, and thereby, that a subject fruitful of unavailing regret will become a portion of the inheritance of the American People.

1 have the honour to be, &c. The President of The United States. JAMES BARBOUR.

(A.)—Letter of General Brown to the Secretary of War.

Head Quarters of the Army. Sir,

Washington, November 30, 1826. In compliance with your instructions of the 3d ultimo, I have the honour to lay before you the following Returns and Statements, viz:

A Statement of the organization of the Army, conformable to the Acts of Congress.

A Return of the actual strength of the Army, from the last regimental and other returns.

A Return shewing the distribution of the troops in the Eastern De. partment.

A Return shewing the distribution of the Troops in the Western Department.

A Statement shewing the number of men enlisted, the amount of money advanced for the purposes of recruiting, and the amount for which recruiting Accounts have been rendered for settlement, from the Ist of October, 1825, to the 30th September, 1826.

An Estimate of the amount which will be required for the current expenses of the recruiting service for the year 1827.

By Statement E, it will be seen, that the sum of 10,850 dollars 63, remains unexpended in the hands of the Recruiting Officers. This amount is in a regular course of application to the Recruiting Service, and will doubtless, in due season, be properly accounted for.

In the early part of the year, Brevet Major General Scott commenced a tour of inspection and review of the Military Posts in the Eastern Department, which tour was extended southwardly as far as St. Augustine, but, on account of serious indisposition, he was prevented from prosecuting his tour to the north and east.

Brevet Major General Gaines has commenced a tour of inspection of all the Posts in the Western Department.

Colonel Wool has inspected during the last year the posts of Fortress Monroe, Charleston, Pensacola, New Orleans, St. Philip, Petite, Coquille, cantonment Jesup, cantonment Towson, cantonment Gibson, Fort Mackinac, Green Bay, Sackett's Harbour, West Point, Eastport, Portland, Portsmouth, Boston, Newport, New London, New York, Detroit, Niagara, Plattsburgh, Castine, Salem, and Marblehead. The six posts last named are unoccupied by Troops, but contain ordnance and ordnance stores requiring inspection. To these are to be added, the arsenal of Baton Rouge, Augusta, Richmond, Watervliet, Rome, and Watertown, and The United States armory at Springfield.

Colonel Croghan has completed an inspection of the remote posts of the Northwestern Frontier, including the cantonments at St. Peter's and Council Bluffs, but his Reports have not yet been received.

The Companies of the Artillery Regiments have been generally inspected by the Field Officers thereof, but their detailed Reports are not yet received at General Head Quarters.

By information gathered from inspection Reports, as well as from personal observation, it is found that the general condition of the Army continues to be as favourable as circumstances will allow. la discipline and instruction, a decided improvement is perceptible, and, in the Departments of Administration, there is no want of due regularity and promptitude.

The necessary evils resulting from a wide dispersion of our Forces, and the number of small commands which are consequent to the system, have been, in some degree, corrected in the Artillery Regiments, by the operation of the school of practice. Although destitute of the aid which has been sought at the head of Legislation, and still struggling with exceedingly limited resources, this establishment has already afforded the most decided evidences of its usefulness, and an earnest of the salutary effects, on the efficiency and welfare of the Artillery, which must result from its preservation and prosperity.

It is a truth which cannot be disguised that the virtues of an Army, employed during a long period of Peace and inaction in little else thaa the ordinary course of Garrison Service, are in danger of deterioration. In order to preserve the energies and the active vigor of our ranks, and to guard against the approaches of sloth and imbecility, it seemed necessary to adopt some measure which might operate, at least par. tially, if not effectually, in favour of these desirable objects. The influence of concentration, as a system, independently of the various branches of theoretical and practical instruction which might be embraced in it, would, of itself, prove sufficiently beneficial to justify the

adoption of it, as a measure of sound policy. The present location of the school of practice is, perhaps, as favonrable, in every sense, as could be chosen for the Artillery, under existing circumstances, and the plan of periodical details, with which it is connected, comprises many of the advantages which result from occasional changes in the stations of the Troops.

The benefits which are believed naturally to spring from the system in question, are important and manifold. Among them may be noted, in general terms, habits of uniformity and accuracy in the practical routine of service; fresh incitement to the cultivation of Military knowledge; emulation and esprit de corps among the Troops; and mutual conformity and general elevation of Individual character among the Officers. But, by the enervating influences of a passive Garrison life (influences which, without the adoption of this or a similar system, it is impossible to resist) these high qualities, so invaluable to an Army, must, in a measure, be forfeited.

With this view of the subject, it has been thought desirable to extend the principle as far as possible for the benefit of the Infantry also. Duties of an active nature are perhaps more frequently enjoined on this arm of service than on the Artillery, but it stands in no less need of the advantages to be derived from a school of practice. The numerical strength of our Infantry Regiments is indeed small, considering the wide extent of Frontier which they are commissioned to defend, and detachments could not, perhaps, be permanently drawn from them, without prejudice to the ulterior object of their maintenance; but, while this objection would be effectually obviated by the increased efficiency which such an Institution is calculated to produce, the salutary operation of it, in other respects, it is hoped, will, in time, be generally felt and fairly appreciated.

The number of desertions from the Army, during the last year, has been somewhat less than in the several years preceding, but it is still such as to call for the vigorous interposition of Legislative Enactment, to arrest the progress of the evil. The measures relating to this subject, recommended to you in my communication of the 17th of November, 1825, and presented by you for the consideration of Congress, at their last Session, will, it is hoped, be finally acted on by that Body, during the ensuing Session. The design of offering additional pay to the approved Soldier, as a condition of his re-enlistment; that of withholding a portion of the same, as a restraint and security for faithful service; and the plan for the improvement of the non-commissioned grades of the Army, by a judicious increase of their emoluments; are measures which I still consider as promising the happiest effects, as well promotive of the general welfare of the Army, as restrictive of the evil which so greatly impairs its organization and efficiency.

While we rest in the pleasing assurance that our small Military Establishment suffices, in most of its branches, for the immediate purposes of peace, we can never be unmindful of its high importance as the repository of the Military science of the Country, and as the nucleus of future organization, when the exigencies of the Nation shall demand its enlargement.

That it may always be found equally worthy, and well prepared for that degree of expansion which is commensurate with this object, Do effort should be unappreciated or suffered to be unavailing, which tends to its moral elevation, and to the maintenance of those Military virtues on which its future efficiency must mainly depend. I have the honour to be, &c.

JAC. BROWN. Hon. James Barbour, Secretary of War.

SPEECH of the Emperor of Brazil, on the Opening of the

National Assembly.3rd May, 1827. (Traduction.) AUGUSTES REPRESENTANS DE LA NATION BRESILIENNE,

Je viens, ainsi que le détermine la Loi, ouvrir cette Assemblée aree le même enthousiasme que m'a toujours inspiré cet Acte solennel, mais non avec la même joie ; elle est en ce moment remplacée dans mon cæur par la tristesse et par la douleur poignante dont m'a pénétré la mort de ma bien-aimée, chérie, et à jamais regrettée Epouse, l'Impératrice, qui, le 11 Décembre passé, à dix heures et quart du matin, å quitté ce monde pour la demeure des justes, qu'elle occupe sans aucun doute, puisque tous nous avons la foi qu'elle est réservée aux êtres qui marchent comme elle dans la voie de la vertu et de la piété. Cet événement, qui nous pénètre tous d'une douleur si vive, et qui, encore en ce moment, se représente à mon âme comme s'il venait d'arriver, me surprit pendant mon séjour dans la Province de Rio Grande, où je rassemblais tous les moyens que l'amour de la Patrie pouvait me suggérer pour terminer la guerre entre le Brésil et Buenos Ayres, par l'enthousiasme que j'espérais faire naître dans les cours valeureux des habitans de cette Province. Cette guerre, dont l'année dernière, dans ce même lieu, je vous ai annoncé l'existence, continue encore, et ne cessera de continuer, tant que la Province Cisplatine, qui nous appartient, ne sera point délivrée de ses envahisseurs, et que Buenos-Ayres refusera de reconnaître l'indépendance de la Nation Brésilienne, l'intégrité de l'Empire, et l'incorporation de la Province Cisplatine, qui, librement et spontanément, a voulu faire partie de cet Empire. Je parle d'une manière aussi claire, parce que je me confie dans les secours de l'Assemblée à cet égard ; elle fera tous les efforts qu'elle m'a solennellement promis l'année dernière par l'organe de la

Députation, qu'elle a envoyée en ma présence Iinpériale, pour m'exprimer des sentimens entièrement conformes au Discours d'Ouverture de cette même Session.

Vous devrez particulièrement employer les travaux de la présente Session à l'organization d'un système de finances. Le système actuel (ainsi que vous le verrez par le Rapport du Ministre du Trésor National) non-seulement est mauvais, mais même est le pire de tous, et ouvre la porte à tous les genres de dilapidation; un système de finances enfin, je le répète, qui mette un terme, je ne dis pas à tous, mais à la plus grande partie des abus qui existent, dont les Lois favorisent l'existence, et que le Gouvernement ne peut éviter, tels que soient ses efforts pour y parvenir.

Une des branches principales, et qui doit concourir puissamment à l'exécution du système de finances, que je compte voir établir, est la réforme du pouvoir judiciaire. Il n'existe pas de Code, nous n'avons pas de formes de procédure en harmonie avec les lumières du siècle ; les Lois se contredisent entr'elles, les Juges ne savent sur quoi baser leurs sentences, les parties souffrent, les méchants ne sont point punis; les émolumens des Juges sont insuffisans pour les mettre à l'abri des tentations que leur présente un vil et sordide intérêt. Il est donc nécessaire que cette Assemblée s'occupe de régler, avec tout le soin et toute la diligence possible, une branche aussi importante de la félicité et du répos public. Sans finances et sans justice une Nation ne saurait exister. Je reconnais que cette Assemblée a beaucoup à faire; que tout ne peut être terminé dans une seule Session; que chaque Session lègue à la suivante des travaux déjà entrepris; mais il faut commencer, et commencer avec epsemble par l'un de ces deux objets. Bien qu'il puisse exister d'autres motifs de discussion (ce qui ne peut manquer d'avoir lieu sur des points qui, de leur nature, sont délicats dans tout Etat), j'exige de cette Assemblée qu'elle mette à profit tout le tems possible pour confectionner ces Lois, dont la Constitution à chaque pas nous démontre l'urgence et l'indispensabilité, afin que ses principes puissent être mis en exécution à la lettre. Obligé de soutenir une guerre sans que tout soit organisé, le Gouvernement a besoin que cette Assemblée l'autorise, comme elle le jugera convenable, à arrêter dans leur marche les dilapidateurs du Trésor Public, et à punir ceux qui ne rempliraient pas bien leur emploi, ou qui troubleraient l'ordre que nous avons tous juré de maintenir, soit par la démission, soit par tout autre châtiment. Personne plus que moi ne veut s'entourer de la Loi, mais lorsque, contre ceux qui s'en écartent il n'en existe aucune repressive, il faut bien que le Gouvernement jouisse d'une autorité qui la remplace, en tant que le système général n'est pas totalement organisé, et jusqu'à ce que tout marche avec perfection, régularité, et conformément à la Constitution.

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