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topics of great National concernment which may recommend themselves to the calm and patriotic deliberations of the Legislature, it may suffice to say, that on these and all other measures which may receive their sanction, my hearty co-operation will be given, conformably to the duties enjoined upon me, and under the sense of all the obligations prescribed by the Constitution.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. Washington, December 4, 1827.
SPEECH of the King of Bavaria, on the Opening of the
. Session of the States.-17th November, 1827.
Mes chers et fidèles Etats du Royaume, · GRACEs inexprimables soient rendues à celui auquel nous devons tant d'excellentes Institutions, à celui qui nous a donné la Constitution, et qui étoit pour nous tous le plus tendre des Pères ! Jamais peut-être le Trône ne ressentira les battemens d'un cæur si poble et si plein d'amour.
Il seroit superflu sans doute de vous dire quelles sont mes dispositions, de protester de mon attachement aux libertés légales, aux droits du Trône, à cette Constitution protectrice de tous; de vous répéter que je regarde la Religion comme la base la plus essentielle, et que je saurai la maintenir dans tout ce qui lui appartient.
Notre Constitution, malgré tous ses avantages, n'est pas exempte de défauts; l'expérience peut seule démontrer ce que les théories ne peuvent enseigner. Mais notre Constitution elle-même l'a prévu; elle nous ouvre avec sagesse la route des améliorations. • Les Sessions précédentes ont déjà fait beaucoup de bien ; mais il nous reste beaucoup à faire.
Le défaut de Conseils Provinciaux est très préjudiciable. ..!
Pour rendre l'Administration Publique et celle de la justice moins coûteuse, plus expéditive et moins surchargée d'écritures, des changemens sont indispensables.
Le prompt établissement d'un bon système définitif des contributions i est vivement desiré; la justice le réclame, elle veut une Loi qui assure d'une manière plus exacte l'assiette et la répartition de l'impôt; ce besoin est celui des contribuables, mais non des caisses de l'Etat, car non seulement le déficit du service courant est comblé, mais encore la construction d'une grande Place Forte Nationale est entreprise. La Bavière en possédoit une jusqu'au commencement de ce siècle. Lucie Borneo 16. L'institut d'Amortissement de la Dette Publique et des Pensions - suit la marche régulière : les Finances sont en bon ordre. it in
Le nouveau Tarif des Douanes et la Loi sur la culture des terres
ont pour but de soulager le commerce et l'agriculture, et d'ouvrir de nouvelles sources à l'industrie.
J'ai l'espoir qu'un Traité avec la Couronne de Wurtembourg va bientôt reporter la vie et le mouvement vers cette Frontière.
Grâce aux généreuses dispositions de la dernière Assemblée Légis lative, des améliorations importantes ont eu lieu dans plusieurs branches de l'agriculture et de l'industrie manufacturière.
Sur ces objets et sur d'autres non moins importans, mes Ministres sont chargés de soumettre à vos délibérations et à votre approbation divers Projets de Loi, de même que pour une nouvelle forme de Procédure Judiciaire, basée sur la publicité des débats et sur la plaidoirie orale, et enfin pour un Code Pénal, commun à tous mes Sujets.
Je mets toute ma confiance dans les lumières de mes chers et fidèles Etats du Royaume ; je me repose sur leur bonne volonté. Loin de nous tout intérêt personnel; notre seul but est la Bavière, le bien de cette Bavière, objet de mon amour le plus profond.
N'oublions pas cependant que toute bénédiction vient de Dieu.
REPORT of the Minister of Finance to the President of
Mexico.-10th January, 1827. (Abstract.)
(Translation.). Your Excellency, always desirous to promote the best interests of the Republick, your own honour, and that of your Ministers, was pleased to require from me, on the 1st of the present month, a detailed account of the improvements effected in the different branches of the publick Revenue during my Administration.
I undertake this task with pleasure, both because it is one which your Excellency has been pleased to assign to me, and because it bas always been my opinion that, upon so important a subject, the Nation should judge only by the knowledge of facts. .
Nor will this even be sufficient, unless due attention be paid to the extraordinary circumstances under which your Excellency assumed the reins of Government, at a moment when the entire political existence of Anahuac was renewed, and the system, both of Government and of Finance, entirely changed : publick opinion pronounced itself against the abuses of the preceding Ages: the Congress decreed a complete regeneration : it gave a new form to old practices, and introduced others, till then unknowu.
In August 1824, the great metamorphoses commenced. Fate placed me at the head of the Ministry, at the moment when the change was about to be made; when the adoption of the Federal System, and the extinction of the National Chests, the Intendencies, the Di
rectories, and Audit Offices, left ample room for the introduction of the desired Reforms.
The Decrees of the Congress, Nos. 70 and 80, and the Law, No. 106, confirm these facts : all that had previously existed, was swept away : the Minister found himself invested with the charge of Director General; a charge which required both mental and bodily activity, and assiduity. The Ministry was a perfect chaos : order was to be substituted for confusion,-method for irregularity; inferior Agents of every kind were wanting; the Secretary's Office was ignorant of almost all that it ought to have known, and, even in the Capital, efficient Persons were not to be procured ;-the whole weight of the undertaking fell upon the Minister alone, upon whose plans, well or ill formed, and. upon whose activity, the organization of the new System depended.
Such was the condition of the Department when first confided to my care. I have thought it my daty to state it without disguise, in the hope that the changes which have been effected, will be received, at least, as a proof of the earnestness with which I have devoted myself to the task of accomplishing them.
In order to convey a just idea of what has been done, it is absoIntely necessary to institute a comparison between the present state of the Publick Revenue, and that of the Years 1822, 1823, and the beginning of 1824, as developed by my Predecessors in the Finance Department, who were taught by experience the difficulties of their situation, and of whose zeal, and abilities, the Country must always retain a grateful recollection.
« On the 28th of October, 1822, not only was the pay of the Troops in arrear, in the Capital, but on the point of being suspended altogether; and in the States, (then Provinces) it was about to be reduced, from the total want of resources." Such were the expressions used by Don Antonio Medina, then Minister, in his Introduction to his Plan for a new System of Contributions, for the year 1823.
The confusion was, at that time, so great, that, in order to form an estimate of the Receipt and Expenditure of the Provinces, the Minister was forced to make all his calculations upon the basis of those of the Capital alone, as he himself admits in his Report to Congress, of the 3d September, 1823. He therein stated, “ that his orders for the collection of the necessary data had not been complied with, and that he found it very difficult to enforce obedience to them, as their execution depended upon Men, some of whom were too ignorant to give the information required, whilst others were interested in suppressing it, in order to perpetuate abuses; the whole of them being influ. enced by the langour, to which they had been accustomed under the old system.”
This confession, on the part of so distinguished a Publick Functionary, proves that, in the year 1822, at least, disorder was at its
height throughout the Department, the Receipts trifling, and the want of resources great.
In 1823, Don Francisco Arrillaga vas placed at the head of the Finance Department. He characterized as frightful, the abuses which prevailed in the Administration of the Revenue, and declared that plunder and corruption prevailed in all its branches. In April, he was only able, with the help of a Loan from the Consulade, to pay half what was due for the month, upon the Civil List. On the 31st of May, the Receipts were not sufficient to pay the Troops alone. He described their clamours, and those of the Pensioners, and Government Officers; the impossibility of satisfying them; the ab sence of all assistance from the States; the want of the pecessary elements to enable him to form an idea of the resources of the Country. In short, the picture which he laid before the Congress was truly lamentable, and warranted the most serious apprehensions. . On the 12th of November, 1823" (by which time some little improvement might have been hoped for,) Senor Arrillaga stated, in his Report, " that no ordinary measures, or threats, were sufficient to awaken the Government Employés from their culpable indolence; that others of a more serious nature must be resorted to; that the Directors and Ac. comptants, as expensive as useless, had dared to present him with Returns of the produce of the Country, founded upon those only of two Towns and of three Provinces.” He then described the state of the Customs at the end of March, 1823, and drew a wretched picture indeed, of the state of the Finances :—" the administration, in complete disorder; the Revenues themselves exhausted; deposits, both ordinary and judicial, embargoed; Forced Loans, carried to their utmost extent; the produce of the Tithes, Media anata, &c, pledged for many Hundred Thousands of Dollars; Credit destroyed, by the fatal seizure of the Conducta, and by the issue of Paper Money which only obtained a partial currency at a loss of three-fourths of its -nominal value: the removal of Capitalists, with their Capitals, which had followed this destruction of confidence, and trane quillity, and left us without resources, and even aithout hope of a remedy.". ' .
.:?? kreiveinn Boli me 2. No malversation in the application of the Publick Reveaves, is to be inferred from the above description, beyond the effect of an irresistible necessity; but it presents a true pieture of the state of af fairs at the time when I took possession of the Ministry. During the short interval of 9 months, which elapsed; between the last Report anit the period of my entering Office, little improvement had taken place although the sale of the stock of Tobacco on ihand, the Loan of Richards, and that contracted for with the house of Goldschmidt, the strictest economy, the partial receipts of the Customs and some mince branches of the Revenue, enabled my Predecessor to meet the most lrgent demands of the moment, and held out some hope of improve ment. HW I found, however, both the Army and the Civil Employés clamourous for the arrears due to them: those who had advanced money demanded the interest; the Tobacco Planters the settlement of their accounts; the Merchants, the restitution of the Conducta ; the Contractors for Saftpetre, 'the value of the quantities delivered upon account; the garrison of Vera Cruz their well earned allowances: in short, the antichambers of the President and of the Ministry were crowded with Claimants, whilst, with the exception of the small remains of the first Loan, there was nothing in the Treasury to meet their just demands.
If The Law, which, by a new classification of the Revenue, and by confiding to the Minister, in person, the direction of all its branches, prepared the way for the establishment of the present system, first opened to me the field, upon which it was my duty to enter. JMS With regard to what it may have been in my power to effect, the statement, which your Excellency has directed me to draw up, will contain an epitome of all that has been done; I shall pass in review, succinctly, all the different branches of the Revenue, adverting to what has been said of each previously, and comparing its present produce, with that of former epochs, and I shall conclude, with a concise statement of the present state of the Finances. 10 Throughout' the different Offices connected with the Finance De. partment, viz. the Audit Office; the Commissariat General for War, and Marine; the Treasury of the Federation; the General Storekeeper's Department; the Lottery Office; and others which have been created during my administration, great activity has prevailed, and many improvements have been effected. om vd b9vottah tibet)
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The Mint,, One must be filled with absolute indifference, not to lament the contrast between the once fourishing state of this Establishment and the situation of that which existed under the same name, when I took possession of the Ministry. Its riches, and its funds for the purchase of Silver, had always been a resource to the Government, during its greatest embarrassments.' In 1821, the Treasury received from it, besides the share of the profits which lawfully belonged to it, 663,650 dollars, and, between the 27th September of the same year and the 31st March, 1823, the Government obtained the enormous sum of 1,099,392 dollars.
The Mint was ruined by these advances, for the exhausted state of its funds no longer enabled it to purchase, at once, the bars brought in, and the Miners carried their Silver elsewhere, in order to convert tenu - yng og firm v3 K 1 & friend P117) +] the ! 114 * $(