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2nd verse.

Retranslation. Mere Khudáwand-gár ! My God! (emphatic), or Lord

and Master. Dushman uske hon khár, May Her enemies be ruined

(contemptible) Aur hon pámál. And betrampled on! (trodden

under foot) Jang-o-jadal dúr kar;

Put far war and strife! Barhe 'ilm-o-hunar ;

May science and art increase! Amán ko bhej ghar ghar ; Send peace to every house

(house, house) Ham hon khush-hál. Let us be happy (glad con

dition)

ORIGINAL.

Special second Verse in time of Famine or Pestilence.

O LORD, Our GOD! arise
Help, while Destruction fies

Swift o'er us all !
Stay now THY chastening hand :
Heal THOU our stricken Land,
FATHER! in grief we stand,

On THEE we call.

Mere Khudáwand-gár! My God! (emphatic) or Lord

and Master Ho sab ká madad-gâr ; Be every one's helper

Balá ko tál Remove calamity Kar rahm ab ai Dáwar! Do mercy now, O God

(Sovereign Judge) Musibat-zadon par ;

Upon the beaten by misfor

tune Ki hua abtar, 2

As has become declining

(confused or worse) Sab ká ahwál.3 Everyone's state (condition). Special second Verse for Her Majesty's Armies, in time of War.

ORIGINAL

O LORD, Our GOD! arise ;
Scatter HEr enemies,

And make them fall.
Bless THOU the brave that fight-
Sworn to defend HER right,
Bending before THY Might

RULER of ALL.

i Not in common use in Urdu.
9 There should be no comma and “ki” should be “ke."

3 The last two lines may give the impression that under Her Majesty's rule, things have become worse. The lines also seem to be devoid of poetic feeling.

Mere Khudáwand-gár

My God! Dushman hon uske khár ; May Her enemies be (made)

contemptible ! Aur hon pámâl. And be trampled on! Ho unka Tú yáwar,

Be Thou their helper (co

adjutor)
Larte hain jo lashkar, (Of) the Army that fight
Tere áge jhuk kar?

Bowing before Thee
Ai Zu-l-Jalál! O Possessor of Glory!

ORIGINAL

III.
THY choicest gifts in store
Still on VICTORIA pour,

Health, Might and Fame.3
While peasant, Prince and peer,
Proudly Her sway revere, -
Nations, afar and near,

Honour HER Name.
3rd verse.

Retranslation. Bhej ni'mat ai Dáwar ! Send blessing, O Sovereign

God! Apni, Victoria par,

Thine, on Victoria ! Sihhat Taqat. Health (and) strength. Kya dahqán kya Sultán.6 Whether villager, whether

Sultan. Hain ja uspar qurbán,

Who are

on (for) hera

sacrifice (devoted to her). Sab aqwám-i-jahán,

All the nations of the world. Karen 'izzat. May do honour.

ORIGINAL.

IV.
Guard Her beneath THY Wings,
Almighty KING of Kings

SOV'REIGN unseen !
Long may our prayer be blest,
Rising from East and West?
As from one loyal breast ;

“GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.” 1 We strongly recommend the word “ Yávar " for the unfortunate and misleading use of Yar”=Companion or friend, used in the original Urdu Translation of the London National Anthem Society, a Translation which is generally very incorrect.

2 “Kar” is the participial affix to “bow” and not, as might be inferred from its standing separately in the above translation, “make to bow,” which is incorrect.

3 The word “fame” has not been translated.

4 Dawar is a contracted form, of “Dádáwar” and means Judge. Therefore the word “Dawar” seems inappropriate here, for one may demand justice or mercy from a Judge, but not a blessing or "Ni’ámat.” Besides, this word is not commonly used in Urdu, and is, indeed, unintelligible to the Urdu-speaking masses. In the special second verse “in time of famine,” Dawar is appropriate, as mercy is implored.

Should be “dihqan. 6 The word "Sultan” for monarch or “ Peer” in the original is not free from objection or misconception, although Sultan really only means “one who is pre-eminently exalted.”

? The line "Rising from East and West” has not been translated at all.

4th verse.

Retranslation Ho uská nigahbán,

Be Her guard, Shahan Shảh-i-Sháhán, 2 King of King of Kings !

Pinhan hai jo.3 Who art concealed, Ho maqbul jof nikle, Be acceptable what comes

forth. Yih du' á har dilse -

This prayer from every heart, " Tá abad bachawe

“For ever may save. Haqq Qaisar ko." God the Kaisar."

Gunda Singh's translation is, on the whole, a fair one and, considering the difficulty of adaptation under conditions of due adherence to the sense and metre of the original, not unidiomatic and, in one place, perhaps eloquent. There can be little doubt that the intelligent translator has benefited by our criticism on the existing version of the National Anthem Society, the numerous defects of which we first brought to notice and by the various adaptations and translations which have appeared in the columns of the English and Urdu Journals of the Anjuman-i-Punjab, as also by the constant attention which has been devoted to the subject by the Anjuman and the public interest in it which it has created since 1883 and which has been further stimulated by its circulation of idiomatic versions in Urdu and Persian at the Rawalpindi Assemblage where it sought to give expression to the loyalty of the assembled Chiefs and gentry. These versions, however, although efforts of far greater poetic genius than the translation before us, are, perhaps, not immediately so acceptable. An exception may, however, be made in favour of one or the other of the versions of Maulvi Fazil Ghulam Qadir, a real poet, who, it may be remembered, recited impromptu Arabic verses on the occasion of Lord Dufferin's visit to the Oriental College. These, and perhaps other, versions may be analyzed in future issues, but it is clear that a really good and spirited translation of “God save the Queen ” has yet to be composed. However, as the Anjuman Prize had to be awarded to the best among existing versions, I ventured to propose that it be awarded, in the form of a suitably-inscribed Medal, to the most intelligible and correct composition. Other deserving candidates were awarded Diplomas of Honorary Membership of the Anjuman-i-Musháa'ra or Association of Poets, who have rendered the Parent Society such excellent service in imbuing the public sentiment with the heartfelt wish of “God save the Queen”!

The following are the verses as originally composed. They have been somewhat modified by the London National Anthem Society and a few

? This is not a full rendering of the original line. 9 This line seems very effective. 3 This line is scarcely idiomatic, whilst "pinhan” is not a translation of “ unseen."

4 The substitution of "jah" = when(ever), for “jo” would make the sentence more idiomatic, if not elegant.

5 " bachawe" is really to " save one from danger," in which Her Majesty is not placed. It is certainly not the meaning of "save" in “God save the Queen !" “Salamat rakhe" would be better. In the Persian National Anthem “God save the Shah " is rendered by " Salamat Shah." However, there is no place in which “bacháwe" is less objectionable than in the above fourth verse.

modern or special verses have been added to them. It is a great blot on our many excellent collections of hymns that the English hymn rarely, if ever, finds a place in them :

I.

God save our Gracious Queen!
Long live our Noble Queen!

God save our Queen ;
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us ;

God save the Queen.

II.
O Lord, our God! arise,
Scatter ourl enemies,

And make them fall!
Confound their politics,
Frustrate their knavish tricks.
On Thee our hopes we fixa

God save us all.

III.
Thy choicest gifts in store,
On her be pleased to pour,

Long may she reign,
May she defend our laws,
And ever give us cause,
To sing with heart and voice

God save the Queen. (The following is the verse adopted, instead of the above, by the London National Anthem Society.)

Thy choicest gifts in store
Still on Victoria pour,-
Health, Might, and Fame.
While peasant, Prince and peer
Proudly Her sway revere,-
Nations, afar and near,

Honour Her Name.

The remaining verses of the London Society have already been considered.

G. W. L.

| For this the London Society substituted "Her. ? For these verses the London Society substitute :

“ Bid strife and discord cease-

Wisdom and arts increase-
Filling our homes with peace,

Blessing us all."

THE IMPERIAL

AND

Asiatic Quarterly Review,

AND ORIENTAL AND COLONIAL RECORD.

JANUARY, 1893.

RUSSIANIZED OFFICIALISM IN INDIA.

THE FLY IN THE OINTMENT.

By Sir William WEDDERBURN, BART.

My friend Mr. Dadabhai Naoroji has, in the last number of this Review, described the feelings of the educated Indian community towards British rule in India. There could not be a better authority on this point. For there is no man living whom the people of India would more gladly name to speak on their behalf. And he is certainly no unfriendly critic towards ourselves, for he has spent many years in England, and has so identified himself with our interests that an English Constituency has chosen him as its representative. What then does he say? He most cordially and fully acknowledges the great benefits conferred upon India ; placing above all others the gift of Western literature, science, and art, which, through our schools and colleges, have revived the national life, and given to India the hope of resuming her ancient place among the leaders of civilization. And then as to political benefits : England has also freely given to India some of her most cherished institutions—institutions for which England has herself fought hard and bled. She has given freedom of speech and freedom of the press-security of life and property, and law and order.

Never in all past history have the rulers of any empire bestowed such

NEW SERIES.

VOL. V.

A

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