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have already been given in my “history" of their “Wars with Kashmir.”
Just as in Chilâs and Kandiá, the administration is in the hands of a
Board of Elders. The Maharaja of Kashmir only obtains tribute from
three villages in Chilaz, viz., the villages of Chilás, Takk and Bundar.
V.-Nagyr,* [is tributary to Ahmad

Shah of Little Tibet about the
beginning of this century, but
soon throws off this allegiance
to Ahmad Shah under Alif
Khan. (?) ... ... ...

Alif Khan. 1800 (?) [" Nagyr," which Col. Bid

Rajah Zahid Jafar (the present Raja dulph very properly writes

of Nagyr). * Nager" (like “ Pamèr”) is now spelt “Nagar," so as to confound it with

Son (a hostage for his father's adhethe Indian “Nagar" for

sion to Kashmîr, whom I saw at "town," from which it is

Gilgit in 1866). The names of quite different.)

his maternal uncles are Shah Iskandar and Raja Kerîm Khan (?) the elder brother. (The full genealogy of Hunza-Nagyr is given else

where.) VI.—HUNZA

Ghazanfar, died 1865.

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Ahmad Shah.

NIZAM-UD-DIN Yusuf Saad-ulla

(surnamed Ali Khan.

Mir Shah). Khan. .
Rahmat Shah Ibra- MAHMUD SHAH (1872]
Shah. him Khan. (present ruler of

Badakhshan Shaja-ul JEHAN- Suley- Shah-
under Kabul) Mulk DAR man zada
stayed a long

Shah, Shah. Hasan. time with his

the former

Abdulla maternal uncle, ruler, inde Khan (by the ruler of Kun pendent of a concuduz, whence he Kabul (now

bine). has often been (1872) a fugimiscalled “a Sayad tive; infests the

from Kunduz.” Kolab road). Yusuf Ali Khan had seven sons : Mirza Kalán, surnamed Mir Jan ; Hazrat

Ján; Ismail Khan ; Akbar Khan ; Umr Khan, Sultan Shah ; Abdur

rahim Khan (by a concubine). Saad-ulla Khan had two sons : Baba Khan and Mahmud Khan (by a

concubine). * Only so much has been mentioned of the Genealogies of the rulers of Nagyr, Hunza, and Dir, as belongs to this portion of my account of Dardistan.

+ Full details of the successor of Ghazan Khan to the present vassal of the Kashmir (Anglo-Indian) Government are given elsewhere.

VIII.-DIR

Ghazan Khan (a very powerful ruler.

Chitral is said to have once been tributary to him).

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Rahmat-ulla Khan and other eight

(dispersed killed in

struggles for the Chiefship). The connection of Little Tibet with the Dard countries had ceased before 180o.

ROUGH CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF DARDISTAN SINCE 1800. 1800.-Gurtam Khan, hereditary ruler of the now dispossessed Gilgit

Dynasty, rules 10 years in peace; is killed in an engagement with Suleyman Khan, Khushwaktia, great uncle of the famous

Gauhar Amán (or Gormán) of Yasin. 1811.—Muhammad Khan, the son of Gurtam Khan, defeats Suleyman

Khan, rules Gilgit for 15 years in peace and perfect independence

whilst 1814.—(Sirdar Muhammad Azim Khan, Barakzai, is ruler of Kashmir). 1819.-Ranjit Singh annexes Kashmir. 1826.—Suleyman Khan of Yasin again attacks Gilgit and kills Muhammad

Khan and his brother, Abbas Ali. Muhammad Khan's son,

Asghar Ali, is also killed on his flight to Nagyr. 1827.-Suleyman Shah appoints Azad Khan (?), petty Raja of Gakutsh,

over Gilgit as far as Bunji; Azad Khan ingratiates himself with the people and rebels against Suleyman Shah whom he kills (?)

in 1829. 1829.-Suleyman Shah, head of the Khushwaktia family of Yasin, dies. 1833.–Gauhar Amán turns his uncle, Azmat Shah, out of Yasin. 1834.—Azad Khan is attacked by Tahir Shah of Nagyr and killed. Tahir

Shah, a Shiah, treats his subjects well. Dies 1839. Vigne visits Astór in 1835, but Tahir Shah will not allow him to cross over to Gilgit. At that time the Sikhs had not conquered any Dard country. Ahmad Shah was independent ruler of Little Tibet (Baltistan) and under him was Jabar Khan, chief of Astór (whose descendants,* like those of Ahmad Shah himself and of the Ladak rulers are now petty pensioners under Kashmir surveillance). (The Little Tibet dynasty had once, under Shah Murad, about 1660, conquered Hunza, Nagyr, Gilgit and Chitral, where that ruler built a bridge near the fort.) Zorawar Singh conquers Little Tibet in 1840, but no interference in Dard affairs takes place till 1841 when the Sikhs are called in as temporary allies

by the Gilgit ruler against Gauhar Amán of Yasin. 1840.-Sakandar Khan, son of Tahir Shah, succeeds to the throne of

Gilgit and rules the country-with his brothers, Kerim Khan and
Suleyman Khan.

* Abbas Khan (?) now at Srinagur and Bahadur Khan (?).

1841.--Gauhar Amán of Yasin conquers Gilgit. Its ruler, Sikandar Khan,

asks Sheikh Ghulam Muhi-ud-din, Governor of Kashmir on behalf

of the Sikhs, for help. 1842. — 1,000 Kashmir troops sent under Nathe Shah, a Panjabi. 1843.—Sikandar Khan is murdered at Bakrôt at the instigation of Gauhar

Amán. 1844.—Gauhar Amán of Yasin re-conquers the whole country, selling

many of its inhabitants into slavery. Nathe Shah, joined by Kerim Khan, younger brother of Sikandar

Khan and 4,000 reinforcements, takes Numal Fort, but his subordinate Mathra Das is met at Sher Kila (20 miles from

Gilgit) by Gauhar Amán and defeated. 1845.- Karim Khan succeeds his brother as ruler (called “Raja," although

a Muhammadan) of Gilgit and pays a small sum for the retention of sonne Kashmir troops in the Gilgit Fort under Nathe Shah. The Rajas of Hunza, Nagyr and Yasin (Gauhar Amán sending his brother Khalil Amán to Sheikh Iman-ud-din) now seek to be on good terms with Kashmir, especially as its representatives, the tyrannical Nathe Shah and his equally unpopular successor, Atar

Singh, are removed by its Muhammadan Governor. 1846.–Karim Khan, Raja of Gor, another son of Tahir Shah, calls in

Nathe Shah and defeats Gauhar Amán at Basin, close to Gilgit.
A succession of officers of Ghulab Singh then administer the
country in connexion with the Raja of Gilgit (Wazir Singh, Ranjit
Rai, Bakhshu, Ali Bakhsh and Ahmad Ali Shah, brother or

cousin of Nathe Shah).
“KASHMIR AND ITS DEPENDENCIES EASTWARD OF THE INDUS”
are made over by the British to the Hindu Ghulab Sirgh. Gilgit,
which lies to the westward of the Inaus, is thus excluded from
the dominions of that Maharaja. Gilgit was also, strictly speak-

ing, not a dependency of Kashmir. 1847.-The Maharaja restores Nathe Shah, whilst confirming his cousin

Nazar Ali Shah as Military Commandant of Gilgit. Raja Kerim
Khan sends his brother Suleyman Khan on a friendly mission to
Srinagar, where he dies. Vans Agnew arrives at Chalt on the
Gilgit frontier towards Nagyr and makes friends with the people,

who at first thought that he came accompanied by troops. 1848.—Isa Bahadur, the half-brother of Gauhar Amán by a concubine of

Malik Amán Shah, is expelled from Sher Kila, a Fort belonging to Punyal, a dependency of Yasin, and finds refuge with the Maharaja, who refuses to give him up. Gauhar Amán accordingly sends troops under his brother Akbar Amán and captures the Bargu and Shukayôt Forts in Gilgit territory. The Rajas of Hunza and Nagyr combine with Gauhar Amán and assisted by the Gilgit people, with whom Kerim Khan was unpopular because of his friendship for Kashmir, defeat and kill Nathe Shah and Kerim Khan. Gauhar Amán captures the Gilgit and Chaprôt Forts. The Kashmir troops re-invade the country and

at the beginning of NEW SERIES. VOL. V.

M

1849.—Wrest all the forts in Gilgit territory from Gauhar Amán, and make

over the rule of that country to Raja Muhammad Khan, son of Kerim Khan, assisted by the Kashmir representative, Aman Ali

Shah as Thanadar, soon removed for oppression. 1850.—The raids of the Chilâsis on Astór is made the occasion for invading

the country of Chilâs, which, not being a dependency of Kashmir, is not included in the treaty of 1846. The Maharaja gives out that he is acting under orders of the British Government. Great consternation among petty chiefs about Muzaffarabad, regarding ulterior plans of the Maharaja. The Sikhs send a large army,

which is defeated before the Fort of Chilâs. 1851.-Bakhshi Hari Singh and Dewan Hari Chand are sent with 10,000

men against Chilâs and succeed in destroying the fort and

scattering the hostile hill tribes which assisted the Chilâsis. 1852.- The Maharaja's head officers, Santu Singh and Ramdhan, are

murdered by the people of Gilgit whom they oppressed. The people again assist Gauhar Amán, who defeats and kills Bhup Singh and Ruknuddin (for details vide Appendix, and drives the

Kashmir troops across the Indus to Astór. 1853.—The Maharaja now confines himself to the frontier, assigned to

him by nature as well as the treaty, at Bunji, on the east of the Indus, but sends agents to sow discord in the family of Gauhar Amán. In addition to Isa Bahadur, he gained over two other brothers, Khalil Amán and Akbar Amán, but failed with Mahtar Sakhi, although an exile. He also attracted to his side Azmat

Shah, Gauhar Anán's uncle. 1854.—The Maharaja instigated Shah Afzal of Chitral to attack Gauhar

Amán, and accordingly in 1855.—Adam Khor, son of Shah Afzal of Chitral, drove Gauhar Amán from

the possession of Mistuch and Yasin and restricted him to Punyal

and Gilgit. 1856.—The Maharaja sends a force across the Indus under Wazir Zora

weru and Atar Singh assisted by Raja Zahid Jafar of Nagyr,* and Gauhar Amán thus attacked in front and flank, retreats from

Gilgit and dispossesses Adam Khor from Yasin and Mistuch. 1857.-Gauhar Amán again conquers Gilgit and drives out Isa Bahadur,

officiating Thanadar of that place. Gauhar Amán and the Maha

raja intrigue against each other in Chitral, Nagyr, Hunza, etc. 1858.-Shah Afzal of the Shah Kathor branch, ruler of Chitral, dies.

Intrigues in Gilgit against Gauhar Amán, by Muhammad Khan, son of Raja Karim Khan, assisted by Kashmir. Muhammad Khan is conciliated by marrying the daughter of Gauhar Amán. The Sai District of Gilgit beyond the Niludar range is still held by the Sikhs.

I believe that Raja Zahid Jafar's wife was a sister of Raja Keiîm Khan and Sakandar Khan of Gilgit (also of Nagyr descent). Vide page 63 and Heading V. on page 65.

This connexion might account for Jafar helping the Dogras, who had reinstated Kerîm Khan in Gilgit.

1859.-Mir Shah of Badakhshan and Raja Ghazanfar of Hunza assist

Gauhar Amán in attacking Nagyr, which is under the friendly Raja Zahid Jafar, and in trying to turn out the Sikhs from Sai and even Bunji. Azmat Shah, uncle of Gauhar Amán, is expelled

from Chitral where he had sought resuge. Aman-ul-Mulk, King of Chitral, dispossesses his younger brother, Adam Khor, who had usurped the throne, from the rule of Chitral

and joins Gauhar Amán against Kashmir. 1860.—The Maharaja instigates Adam Khor and Azmat Shah, who were

in the country of Dir with Ghazan Khan, a friendly chief to Kashmir, to fight Gauhar Amán-Adam Khor was to have Yasin. Azmat Shah was to take Mistuch and Sher Kila (Payal) was to be given to Isa Bahadur, the Maharaja to have Gilgit. Intrigues

of the Maharaja with the Chiefs of Dir, Badakhshan, etc. Gauhar Amán dies, which is the signal for an attack by the Maha

raja co-operating with the sons of Raja Kerim Khan of Gilgit. Gilgit falls easily to Lochan Singh, who murders Bahadur Khan, brother of Gauhar Amán, who was sent with presents from Malik Amán, also called Mulk Amán, son of Gauhar Amán. The Sikhs, under Colonels Devi Singh and Hushiara and Radha Kishen, march to Yasin expelling Mulk Amán from that country (which is made over to Azmat Shah) as also from Mistuch. Isa Bahadur is reinstated as ruler of Payal, but Mulk Amán returns and drives hini and Azmat Shah out. The Kashmir troops fail in their counter-attacks on Yasin, but capture some prisoners, including

Mulk Amán's wife. 1861.--Malik Amán murders his uncle, Akbar Aman, a partisan of Kashmir.

Badakhshan, Chitral and Dir ask the Maharaja to assist them against the dreaded invasion of the Kabul Amirs, Afzal Khan and Azim Khan. Amán-ul-Mulk tries to get up a religious war (Jehád) among all the Muhammadan Chiefs. Hunza and Nagyr make friends. Both Adam Khor and Amán-ul-Mulk, who have again become reconciled, send conciliatory messages to the Maharaja, who frustrates their designs, as they are secretly

conspiring against him.

Even Mulk Amán makes overtures, but unsuccessfully. 1862.-Kashmir troops take the Fort of Roshan. A combination is made

against Mulk Amán, whose uncle Gulsher and brother Mir Ghazi

go over to the Maharaja. 1863.—Mulk Amán advancing on Gilgit is defeated in a very bloody battle

at the Yasin Fort of Shamîr. Massacre of women and children

by the Kashmir troops at Yasin. 1864.- Mir Vali and his Vazir Rahmat become partisans of the Maharaja. 1865.—Ghazanfar, the Raja of Hunza and father-in-law of Mulk-Amán,

dies, which causes Mirza Bahadur of the rival Nagyr to combine for an attack on Hunza with Kashmir. Adam Khor murders his uncle, Tajammul Shah, whose son, Malik Shah, murders

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