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recent novelette “ Zarifa” on the Sudán with the interest that our brave enemies deserve. We certainly think that a coalition of Russia, France and Turkey would be injurious to British, and fatal to Muhammadan, interests, and we cannot too severely deprecate the unpatriotic conduct of any Administration in England that is anti-Muhammadan in policy. The “beating of niggers,” is, of course, unjustifiable, and may, at times, undo in a moment the good of years, whilst the impertinent curiosity of tourists, bent on book-making, has had something to do with the ill-feeling that undoubtedly exists in Egypt.
As regards the effect of the European Press on native culture it may be inferred from the following advertisement in the (English) Egyptian Gazette, where an interpreter professing to be well acquainted with English and Arabic calls himself, as he has no doubt been called, “ A single Egyptian fellow of 26 years wishes to get employment with an English family." The advertisers in French show more self-respect and a more graceful command of that language, but the French papers in Egypt seem to devote too much space to feuilletons and love-affairs. The Phare ď Alexandrie, however, points out in an able article how " Lord Cromer with a little tact could have avoided raising the thorny and delicate question ” of the continuance and popularity of the English occupation, for, as another French writer remarks, “whatever may happen, the fiction of the English being liked by any class of the Egyptian people is now at an end.” We have not seen what the Italian papers in Egypt have to say on the late crisis ; the Greek periodicals seem to confine themselves mainly to commerce, but in one, the Taxúdpouos, we find the following passage: “The victory of Lord Cromer has been Pyrrhic. The 10 years' British rule is shown to be a house of cards before the breath of European political complications. The main hope of Egypt is in its Khedive, who has shown manliness and tact in the most delicate circumstances.'
THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES AS A FIELD
· FOR RETIRED ANGLO-INDIANS.
BY AN ANGLO-INDIAN COLONIAL. Having been frequently asked when in India about the suitability of the Australian Colonies as a field for the settlement of retired Anglo-Indians, I here propose to set forth, very briefly, a few facts for the consideration of those who may have an idea of going there., after the completion of their service in India.
The first great obstacle that would be encountered is the extreme difficulty of getting good servants, or, indeed, any at all. The servants are mostly Irish girls, who are exceedingly rough and uncouth. Their knowledge of cooking is absolutely nil, and they spoil the simplest things, while their power of breaking the crockery is unlimited, and is simply ruinous to a family of small means, which in these days of the depreciated rupee, is unfortunately the condition of most Anglo-Indians. They tyrannise over their nominal masters and mistresses, who dare not reprove them, whatever their faults may be and however numerous. If one ventured on a mild remonstrance, he would be immediately overwhelmed by a torrent of shrill abuse, and the servant would probably depart without the formality of giving notice of her intention. They are generally wasteful, careless, and extravagant, while their power of making dastúri at the expense of their employers is unequalled by any báwarchi. The Germans make better servants, but they are very scarce, as they generally labour with their husbands, fathers and brothers on the farms, and take their share of the hard work equally with the men ; but even could one succeed in getting a German, she would require to be trained by her mistress, and when she got used to the ways of the house, she would probably go to someone else, who offered her more money ; or she would get married and all the work of training a servant would have to be gone through de novo.
In addition to these drawbacks, servants in the Australian Colonies command very high wages ; in some parts from £40 to £ 50 a year is, I believe, considered moderate.
Up country, the difficulty of getting servants would be greatly enhanced.
There are no suitable schools for the sons of gentlemen. Education in the State schools is free; but they are exactly the same class of schools as the Board School in England. In Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Brisbane, and some other large towns there are very good Grammar Schools ; but even these are very mixed, for although sons of squatters, merchants, bankers and others attend them, yet there are always a certain number who have won a Government scholarship at an ordinary State School. It is for every father to consider whether he would care to have his sons attend such schools.
Really good schools for young ladies are very rare indeed. There are Girls' Grammar Schools, as well as private schools; but I very much doubt whether an Anglo-Indian official would like his daughters to attend such schools, where they would meet girls of all classes. I consider that it is much more important for young ladies to go to schools where they would only mix with those of their own class, than it is for boys; for girls pick up many habits and manners from those of their schoolmates who are of a lower social class than themselves, which are extremely objectionable. In many of these schools it is impossible to avoid mixing up the young ladies with girls of an inferior class, with the result that they very often lose their refinement and good manners, and pick up all kinds of vulgarity and slang, which is by no means an improvement. The best schools in the Australian Colonies for young ladies are, undoubtedly, the Convent Schools. There they are given a good education, and their manners and deportment are also carefully attended to by the nuns, who are very often ladies by birth. I have never heard of their tampering with the religion of daughters of Protestants committed to their charge; but I
am well aware that many Protestants object to sending their daughters to these institutions.
The next point for consideration is, whether there be any congenial employment for Anglo-Indians and their capital, which is generally small.
I may begin by saying that Australia is most decidedly not the place for a gentleman without capital. The competition for employment out there is every bit as fierce as it is in England ; and all the large towns swarm with educated men, who have either no employment at all, or else are employed at a rate of remuneration such as barely suffices for a mere living. The ranks of the professional classes are all overcrowded ; and barristers, doctors, solicitors, surveyors, engineers and others, find it very difficult to make a living, unless they have sufficient capital to enable them to live for some years in comparative idleness, until they become known and trusted. A clever man in any of these professions, with sufficient capital to back him, would undoubtedly do well after a few years; but so he would in England. It is the long waiting for the chance to distinguish himself that is so terribly trying.
Should, however, an Anglo-Indian with a moderate capital decide on settling in Australia, it would be by far the best thing to let his capital remain in some thoroughly sound security for a year or two, until he had gained a certain amount of colonial experience and made some good colonial friends, who could advise him what to do. If he were to try to invest his capital at once, he would be alınost certain to fall into the hands of some plausible sharper, who would swindle him out of the whole. It is quite possible to get eight or ten per cent. on a good mortgage ; but it is a thing which no one should attempt without having at least a year's experience first ; for there are many things to be considered. For example, in the country districts, many of the farmers are in debt to the storekeeper in the local township, and he may have a bill of sale on the farm. Again, the land laws differ in all the colonies, and
it would be easy to lend money on a farm which the occupier held under certain conditions from the Government, to which, in case of his failure, it would revert.
I presume that no Anglo-Indian would think of farming on his own account, for he could never make it pay. The work is very hard, and no Anglo-Indian, even with grownup sons to help him, could work a farm himself. To hire labour would be ruinous. Even supposing he could do without hired labour, I do not see how he is to make it pay, for he has no previous experience, and to successfully manage a farm one must be thoroughly trained for it.
Living, in the up-country districts, is certainly much cheaper than in England; but it varies considerably in different places, while there are many drawbacks, some of which, viz., want of good servants and schools, I have already touched upon, while others I shall mention later on. In the large towns, living is very little, if anything, cheaper than it is in England for people of the same class; though there are, of course, more amusements than up country. In Sydney and Melbourne there are nearly always some good theatrical companies to be found; but the theatres are only possible at certain times of the year, and in the summer the heat would be unbearable.
The greater part of Australia is liable to prolonged drought, in which the price of all kinds of produce goes up to famine rates, while horses, cattle, and sheep are then almost unsaleable at any price. The unfortunate farmer has sometimes to send his stock many miles for water, or else every drop has to be brought in carts, and his whole time is taken up in fetching water for drinking and domestic purposes. If he is so fortunate as to have permanent water on his land, the cattle become so thin and weak that they are continually getting “bogged,” and then he has to spend hours in extricating them. As for buying food for them in time of drought, in many districts he would be unable to get it at any price ; and where it was possible to buy any, the price would be prohibitive. Of course, if the