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The fact that the above is not a correct rendering of the original, will, I submit, appear from the following retranslation :

May God protect the Cæsar (Kaisar).
May He increase Kaisar infinitely.
May God be Kaisar's companion (friend or lover), or “May He be

the friend of Kaisar's right.” 1. The word "save" is mistranslated ; its sense is not covered by the word “bachawe,” which really means “save from trouble or danger," or “rescue from danger.” The phrase "salámat rakhé” would have been better, and is the “save ” of the Persian Anthem in “Salámat Shah." “Kaisar” is used too vaguely. It does not show whatCæsar” is meant. There is nothing to indicate that the translator means “Kaisar-i-Hind.” It might be a reference to “ Kaisar-i-Rûm,” which would render it inapplicable to India. “Kaisar” or “Cæsar” for Her Imperial Majesty of India is quite correct, but it would be well to state the whole title of “Kaisar-iHind”; otherwise “Kaisar” might stand in Muhammadan eyes for the Sultan, one of whose designations is “ Kaisar-i-Rûm” = Kaisar of (Eastern) Rome or Constantinople, if not for “ Kaisar-i-Rûs” = the “Czar of Russia" or the Kaisar of Central Asia.

2. The whole of the 2nd line is devoid of sense ; if it means anything at all, it means what I have sought to convey, i.e., “May He increase Kaisar infinitely.” It should have been translated “hamari mehrban Malka ki u'mar ziada ho "* or, in the metre of the translator, “barí úmar de Kaisar ko.”

3. The word "yár" is vulgar; "yáwar ” would have been better. The whole line is not a proper rendering of the original. “Haqq”="the Right,” is certainly one of the 99 epithets of the Deity, and is specially used by the mystic Sûfis for “God.” The word “Khudá " is less distinctively Muhammadan than “Haqg."

First verseLine 4.—Bhej deve us ko ba zafar. 5.-Saida kar hamida far.

4. Send Her victorious,

5. Happy and glorious, 6.-Farmandeh ham par hayat

6. Long to reign over us ; bhar.

7. GOD SAVE THE QUEEN. 7.-. Haqq Kaisar ká yar ho. The above Urdu version may be re-translated as follows :

May He send her with victory.
(She being of auspicious and laudable splendour.)
On us as a ruler for life.

May God be companion or (friend) of Kaisar. 4. “ Bhej deve” is unidiomatic ; “Bhej dé," would have been more correct. The second object of the verb “ Bhej de " is too distant from its verb. Besides, where is the Kaisar to be sent ? The meaning obviously is that “God may send Her Victory.”

* "May the Life of our Gracious Queen be long,” or “great Life give to the Kaisar." 5. “Saida kar hamida far" is very incorrect. The translation should have been “Khush aur Zî-shán.” The words “ kar” and “far" are never used in Urdu separately. They are used as one word “kar-o-far” meaning "splendour." .

6. "Hayat bhar” is an altogether unidiomatic as well as incorrect rendering of “long,” which is “buhut muddat tak” and, if it be intended to express this more emphatically, the word “sadá” or “abad ul-abád ” would have been appropriate.


Second Verse

1.—Yá rabb, hamara Kirdgár.
2.–Kar Dushman uske taro-

3.—Gir parnedé unko.

1. O LORD, Our GOD I arise ;
2. Scatter Her enemies,
3. And make them fall.

1. “Ya” is wrong; it should have been “ Ai” in this case, when the word “rabb” has the next phrase in apposition to it. Had it been only “yá rabb,” it would have been more correct than “ai rabb." “ Hamara” is granımatically wrong; it should be “Hamáre Kirdgár.” The word “arise” has been left out in the translation.

2. “Taromar" is a strange word to Urdu and is never used in that language. It appears that the translator meant "Tittar bittar” or “ paráganda.”

3. “Gir parnede unko" may be translated : “Allow them to fall ” which is quite different from the original “make them fall ” which should be translated “unko girá.”

The remaining four lines of that verse, whether those of the original Anthem or of the London Society, have not been translated at all, but the four last lines of the “special second verse“for Her Majesty's Armies in time of War" have been substituted for them. The original 4 lines of the 2nd verse and those of the London Society are as follows :

Confound their politics,
Frustrate their knavish tricks.
On Thee our hopes we fix,

God save us all.

For these verses the London Society

substitute :
Bid strife and discord cease-
Wisdom and arts increase-
Filling our homes with peace,

Blessing us all.

III. (original).
Thy choicest gifts in store,
On her be pleased to pour,-

Long may she reign,
May she defend our laws,
And ever give us cause,
To sing with heart and voice

God save the Queen.
The following is the verse adopted, instead of the above, by the London
National Anthem Society. I venture to think that Indian loyalty would
be more stimulated by the translation of the original verse.

Thy choicest gifts in store
Still on Victoria pour,-
Health, Might, and Fame.
While peasant, Prince and peer
Proudly Her sway revere,
Nations, afar and near,

Honour Her Name.

Special second verse—(four last lines).
4.—Mubarak hon jo larte hain.

Bless Thou the brave that fight
5.—Upar amr us ke parte hain. Sworn to defend Her right,
6.-Izz teri se ham darte hain. Bending before Thy might,

RULER of all. 7.—Bacha ham sabhon ko. These lines are really the 2nd part of the marginal verse (No. 2) " for Her Majesty's armies in time of War,” where they are more appropriate. In addition to this transposition, the above rendering is wholly incorrect and unidiomatic; the second line especially "upar amr us ke parte hain" is wholly devoid of sense, besides being against Urdu grammar and syntax. It may be retranslated as "fall on her command” whilst the original means “unhonne uske haqúq ki hifázát karne ká half utháya hai.” “Upar amr us ke” is ungrammatical. It should be "uske amar par.”

6. “Izz teri se ham darte hain ” may be retranslated as we are afraid of Thy Might” whilst the original “ bending before Thy might,” means “tere Jalál ke samne sar-ba-sujúd hain.” The word " Might,” is rendered by “izz," but there is no such word as “izz” in Urdu. In classical Arabic “izzat,” not “izz,” means “Might” but in Urdu the word is used only in one sense, i.e., “honor." “Izz teri se” is a wrong construction ; it should

tere izz se." 7. Bacha ham sabhonko” means “protect us all ” while the original is “Ruler of all ” which should be translated “Ai, sabki Hákim Tu" or "Ai 'álam ke Shahan-Shah.” There ought to be no “h” after “sab.” Another rendering of the second "special verse" is as follows: 1.-Khuda hamara rab tu kar.


O Lord, our God ! arise, 2.--Dushman us ke tittar bittar.

Scatter our enemies, 3.-Girparne de unko.

And make them fall! “Hamara” is wrong ; it should be “ hamare "; as to line 2, see remarks on line 2 verse II.

The following four lines are nowhere to be found, either in the original Anthem or in the suggested verses of the London Society:

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Urdu rendering and its literal retranslation into English. 4.--Tor janam se tughian ka

Tear from its birth the wing or hair of

mutiny. bal.

When revolt rises kill its fling ; 5.-Jab ghadr uthe mar use dal.

King of Kings art Thou, possessor of 6.—Shahanshah hai tu zuljalal. splendour, 7.-Apne kar sabhon ko.

Make us all Thine.

Line No. 4 means nothing; it may be translated in English as “break the wing of mutiny from its birth.” The London Society's “ordinary” second verse had “bid strife and discord cease,” which, translated, should be: “ Jhagre fasád band kar-dé.”

The word “bál” is used by the translator in the sense of “wing” but it is never used in Urdu in that sense. The Urdu word “bál” means "hair.” “Tughián” has the meaning of mutiny or rebellion in Arabic or Persian only.

Line 5 “ Jab ghadr uthe mar use dal” may be translated “when rebellion breaks out kill it forthwith.”

“Ghadr uthe" is unidiomatic; it should be “ghadr ho.”
The lines-
“Wisdom and Arts increase.
Filling our homes with peace.

Blessing us all,” have been entirely left out. Line 7 "apná kar sabhonko " is wrong; it should be “apná kar sabko” which means “make all of us yours ” whilst the original is "blessing us


The omitted lines should be rendered as follows into Urdu :
Akl our fanún ko barhá.

Wisdom and Arts increase-
Hamare gharon ko aman se

Filling our homes with peace,

Blessing us all.
Ham sab-ko barkat de.

Special Second Verse. Urdu translation of the London (In time of Famine or Pestilence.) Anthem Society.

O LORD, our GOD! arise

Help, while Destruction flies, Special Second verse

Swift o'er us all ! 1.-Khuda hamara rab tu kar.

Stay now THY chastening hand; 2.—Madad jab ur uqab-i-shar. Heal THOU our stricken Land, 3.-Uchhále sabhon ko.

FATHER! in grief we stand

On THEE we call. 4.- Báz rakh yad apne azab ká. 5.-Dekh rahmat se hal turáb ká. 6.—Bap chhor yeh saif atáb ká. 7.— Jud se sun hamon ko. The above lines may thus be retranslated into English : “O God our Lord ! Help us when mischief's eagle flies and causes all to jump (or tosses all in the air).

Withdraw hand of thy punishment.
Look at dust with compassion (or pity).
Father! sheath this sword of wrath,

Listen to us with generosity.”
1. “Hamara” should be “hamare.”
2. “Ur” is cut short; it should be “uré.”


"Uqab i shar" may be rendered in English as “mischief's Eagle.” The original is Destruction (personified) or, translated, “Barbádi ká Farishta.”

4. “Yadd” means “hand” in Arabic but it is never so used in Urdu ; the word "hath" is more common and correct.

5. The same remark applies to the word “turáb ” for “land,” which really means “dust” in Arabic. “ Land” should be rendered by “zamîn " or "mulk.”

6. “Yeh " is redundant

“Saif atáb ka" should be “saif atab ki.” “Saif” is always used with the feminine gender.

7. “Hamon ko" is incorrect; it should be “ham ko” “ham” (we) is the plural itself—“hamon” is a double plural and quite unidiomatic. The correct translation of the last 4 lines should be as follows:

Ab apne 'aqubat ke hath ko tham.
Hamari musibat-zada zamin ko taskîn a'tá kar.
Ai Bap! ham maghmum khare hain.

Aur tujh-se dua' karte hain.
Third verse-

1.--Khazane se zubde nawal. 2.–Victoria-par phir bhi dál.

THY choicest gists in store

Still on VICTORIA pour,-3.-Sihat salamat sit.

Health, Might and Fame. 4.—Chhoti wajhen sal pe masrur.

While peasant, Prince and peer, 5.–Uth dil us ka karen masrur.

Proudly Her sway revere, 6.—Wajd ki awaz nazdiko dúr.

Nations, afar and near, 7.-Nam us ka howe git.

Honour Her Name. The whole verse as it stands above, especially the last 4 lines, are meaningless and ungrammatical. An idea of the nonsense of the above may be obtained from the following retranslation : “From the treasure choicest gifts.

Pour on Victoria once more again.
Health, Peace and Voice.
Small reasons on year transit.
May rise and gladden her heart.
Ecstasy's Voice, far and near.

May her name be a song.” 1. “Zubde nawal” is unidiomatic—" Zubdá ” in Arabic means choicest, cream, &c. ; “Nawal," means gift ; but both of them are never used in Urdu in any sense.“ Zubde” is a wrong plural of “Zubda ;” this word should never be in the plural. “ Choicest gift ” means in Urdu “umda-siumda nia’mat.” The word “khazana" is used vaguely ; it does not show whose treasure is meant.

2. “ Phir bhi ” is an incorrect rendering of “still ” which means here " sada."

“ dál” is vulgar-indeed, the whole sentence may so be called.

3. “Sit ” literally means voice-figuratively in Arabic and Persian it is used in the sense of fame, reputation ; but certainly not in Urdu.

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