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I.

2.

2.

The remaining 4 lines are entirely devoid of any sense, as appears from
the re-translation which we have given above.
Fourth verse-
Bache hath se har ghaddár ke.

IV.
Usé, ya rab! dafai azrar ke.

Guard Her beneath THY Wings, 3 Tū phir junna-dár ho!

Almighty KING of Kings,

SOV'REIGN unseen ! 4. Farishte pas uske hifz par.

Long may our prayer be blest, 5. Rahen yonhin rát din bashar.

Rising from East and West 6. Dua karen ba sozbarr.

As from one loyal breast : 7. Haqq Kaisar-ka yar ho !

"GOD SAVE The Queen." This will, if re-translated in English, stand thus : “May She be protected from the hands of every traitor. Be, O God! again the shield-possessor for putting away mischiefs from Her. May the angels be near Her for her protection day and night. In the same way may the people. Pray for Her (on the tongue breasts). O Righteous (God)! be Thou the companion of the Kaisar !"

“ Usé" is wrong; the translator perhaps means “usko.” In “ dafai azrár ke," wáste” is left out; without this word the lines become nonsense.

Azrár” means “losses ” in Arabic; it is never used in Urdu without prejudice to idiomatic accuracy. 3. Phir is redundant.

“Junna-dár” is an incorrect phrase.
"Junna” in Arabic means “shield”; it is never so used in Urdu, the

Urdu equivalent for “shield” being “dhál” or “sipar.” 6. “Soz-i-barr” means “fervour of chest,” “ bár” is never used even figuratively in the sense of “heart."

The whole of this verse does not correspond either in sense or words to the original.

Before concluding, it niay be well to mention that the greatest defects in the above translation are due to the fact that the translator is under the wrong impression that every Arabic or Persian word can be used in Urdu in its original sense. It is evident from the above criticism that the translator has not even a fair acquaintance with the Urdu language. As to the metre, it is enough to say that it is not any of the metres used in Urdu Prosody.

CORRECT RENDERINGS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEM. I now give various renderings, which are all infinitely superior to the "official " version, and which practically cost nothing. They possess both rhyme and reason, which the official version does not. The first correct translation is by Maulvi Fázil Ghulam Qádir:

FIRST Metrical TRANSLATIONS INTO URDU OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEM. (With a rough retranslation into English by Maulvi Inám Ali, B.A.)

I. Malka salamat ho sadá,
Zinda use rakhe Khudá,

Háfiz haq ho Qaisar ka !
NEW SERIES, VOL. V.

BB

Ho wuh muzaffar aur mansur,
Ba shaukat-o-hashmat masrur,
Ham pe rahe hukm uska zurur,

Hafiz Haq ho Qaisar ka ! (1). May the Queen be ever safe, may God keep her alive, may The True One be the guardian of the Qaisar ; may she be victorious, delighted in the possession of majesty and grandeur! may her rule continue over us! (may The True One be the guardian of the Qaisar.)

II. A'rz sun ab hamare Khudá,
Kar muntashir uske a'dá,

Aur unko markar girá.
Jang-o-jadal sabhi mithé,
Hikmat-o-fan barhá karé,
Hon amán-o-sulh se ghar bharé,

Barkat hamen tu kar 'atá ! (2). O our God, hear now (our) prayer, scatter her enemies, and beat them down, may discord and strife be entirely effaced, may wisdom and art continue to grow, may houses be full of peace and comfort, bless us all. (In time of war).

A’rz tu sun ai Parwardigár,
Uske husud hon beqarár,

Aur unko tu már kar gira.
Barkat unpar larte hain jo
Qaisar ka haq bacháne ko,
Ate hain ran men half utha.
Robaru tere jalal ke,
Sijde men unke Sar jhuke,

Ai sab ke Farmanrawá. (2) Hear (our) prayer, O Lord! May Her enemies be harassed, and beat them down; bless those who fight in the cause of Qaisar, (and) come in the field, sworn (to fight in her cause); before thy glory their heads bow in thy worship, ( Ruler of all. (In famine and pestilence)

Arz sun ab hamare Khuda,
Hamko madad se tu bachá,
Qahr ka jab Farishta ure,
Dast-i-uqubat ko rok le,
Afat Zada hai yih mulk sab,
Is ko bahal kar de tu ab,
Gam men khare hain ai Pidar,

Karte dua hain sar basar. (2) O God, hear now our prayer, protect us with thy help ; when the angel of wrath flies, stay thy chastening hand; afflicted is this whole land, restore it now (to its former condition); in grief we stand, O Father, and pray all along.

III. Umda se umda ni'maten,
Qaisar-i-Hind ko sab milen,

Sihbat, Quwat, namwari.

Dihqan-o-amir-o-badshá,
Fakhr se hukm ko laen bajá,
Dur aur qarib ke log sadá,

Izzat karen is nam ki. (3). May, all the choicest gifts be granted to the Qaisar of India-health, strength and fame, may peasants, peers and princes, proudly obey her com mand, may the people living afar and near, always honor her name.

IV. Ranj-o-khushi men, ai Khudá,

Us ka rahe tu rahnumá,
Raushan Kurah-j-charkh ko,
Hukm tera nafiz ho,
Us ka jahan qadam pare,
Raushan us ko wuhin karé,
Fazl ki teri kiran sadá,

Chamke bas uspe ai Khudá. (4). In grief and pleasure, O God, Thou wast her guide, to the bright sphere of the sky may thy order be issued, (requiring it) to brighten every spot where her foot may fall, may the ray of thy grace ever shine over her, O God.

V. Apne bazuon ke tale,
Rakh apne hifzmen tu use,

Qadir Mutlaq Badsha.
Sada du'á men barkat de,
Jo sharq aur magrib se uthe,
Khas dil se namak halal ke,

Hafiz Haq ho Qaisar ka. (5) Beneath thy wings keep her under thy protection, O Almighty King; ever bless (our) prayer, when from East and West rises out of every loyal breast the voice, may the True One be the guardian of the Qaisar.

SECOND VERSION.
I. Qaisar salamat ho,
Haq zinda rakh usko,

Malka ki khair.
Kar us ko zafarmand,
Khushhal aur iqbalmand,

Hukm uska sar buland.

Qaisar ki Khair. (1). May Qaisar be safe ; God, keep her alive, Prosperity to the Queen! make her victorious, happy and glorious ! Exalt her command, Prosperity to the Qaisar

II. Uth, ai Khudawand, ab,
Mar uske dushman sab,

Khwar kar unko,
Jang aur nifaq ho dur,
Hikmat aur fann wafur,
Hon chain se ghar ma'mur,

Fazl tera ho.

(2). Rise now, O Lord, kill all her enemies—make them contemptible, may war and dissension be far, may wisdom and arts abound, may houses be full of comfort, may Thine be the grace !

III. Teri khub ni'maten,
Qaisar-i-Hind ko milen,

Zar, sihhat, nam,
Dihqan, Amir, Badshah,
Fakhr se hukm laen baja,
Dur aur pas ke log sada,

Qadr karen tam. (3). May Thy choice gifts, be granted to the Qaisar of India—wealth, health and fame; may the peasants, the Noble, the king, proudly obey her command. May the people living afar and near, ever respect her implicitly.

IV. Khushi ranj men Khuda,

Us ka rahbar raha,
Raushan kureh-i-charkh ko,
Hukm tera nafiz ho,
Us ka jab qadam pare,
Raushan us ko wuh kare,
Fazl ki kiran sada,

Chamke uspe, Khuda. (4). In grief and pleasure, O God, Thou wast her guide ; to the bright sphere of the sky may thy order be issued (requiring it) to brighten every spot where her foot may fall, may the ray of grace ever shine over her, O God.

V. Khas bàzu ke tale,

Rakh tu hifz men use,

| Haq lá sảni.
Is dua men barket de,
Jo sharq-garh se uthe,
Dil se wafadar ke.

Khair Qaisar ki. (5). Beneath thy wings keep her safe, O Matchless God! Bless this prayer, which froin East and West rises out of every loyal breast, God save the Qaisar. (Weal to the Qaisar!)

THIRD VERSION.
I. Malka Muazzima ko salamat Khuda rakhe,

Zinda hamare mihrban Malka sada rahe,
Hifz-i-Khuda men Hind ki Qaisar rahe sada,
(Afat musibton se bachawe use Khudá),
Fateh-o-zafar ho Hind ki Qaisar ke ham qadam,
Jis ja rabe wuh khush rahe bá jáh-o-bá hasham,
Sar par hamáre uski hukumat rahe sada,

Malka Muazma ko salámat rakhe Khuda. (1). May God save the Great Queen, may our gracious Queen be ever alive. May the Qaisar of India ever remain under the protection of God, may God protect her from unhappiness and misfortunes ; may victory and

triumph accompany the Qaisar of India, wherever She live, may She live happy, majestic, glorious. May her rule ever remain over us, may God save the Great Queen !

II. Ham sab ki Arz sun tu Khudawand ai Khudá,

Kar dushmanon ko uske paraganda aur girá,
Jhagre miten, nifaq mite aur hasad mite,
Ilm-o-hunar firasat-o-hikmat barha kare,
Ham sab ke ghar bhi sulh-o-aman se bhare rahen,

Barkat tere karam se Ilahi mile hamen. (2). O Lord God hear our prayer, scatter her enemies ; and make them fall; may strife, hatred and envy cease; may wisdom, art and learning increase ; may the houses of all of us remain full of peace and comfort ; may we get blessings through Thy divine grace !

(In war)
Ham sab ki Arz sun tu Khudawand, ai Khuda,
Kar uske dushmanon ko paraganda aur gira,
Barkat tere ho un pe jo larte hain, ai Khuda,
Qaisar ke haq bachane ko ate hain half utha,
Age tere jalal ke rakhte hain sar jhuka,

Ai hakimon ke Hakimo, ai Shah-i do sara. (2). O Thou Lord, O God, hear our prayer, scatter her enemies and make them fall, O God, bless those who fight, having sworn to defend Qaisar's right. Who bow their heads before thy glory, O Ruler of rulers and king of both worlds.

(In time of famine and pestilence)
Ham sab ki a'rz sun tu Khudawand, ai Khuda,
Kar apni tu madad hamen is qahar se bacha,
Jab urta hai farishta tabahi ka tez par,
Ham par se-apne dast i-u'qûbat ko band kar,
Afat-zada hai mulk, tu us ko bahal kar.
(Ujra hai mulk logon ko uske nihál kar,)
Gam men khare hain rubaru tere ham ai Pidar,

Karte hain a'jzi se du'a ham pukar kar. (2). O Lord, God, hear our prayer, help and save us from this wrath ; when the swift-winged angel of Destruction flies over us, stay thy chastening hand from us ; afflicted is this land, restore it thou (to its former state); desolate is the country-make its people happy; in grief we stand before thee, O Father, and loudly, but humbly, we pray to Thee.

III. Tere khazáne men se pasandida ni'maten,

Victoria ko fazl-o-karam se sada milen,
Tere karam se uske yih sab hamrahi karen,
Sihhat, khushi-o-quwwat-o nam aur shuhraten,
Dihqan bhi, amir bhi aur badshah bhi,
Izzat karen wuh sakhr se sab uske hukm ki,
Nazdik-o-dur mulk men qaumen jahan ki,

Izzat karen ba jan-o-dil us khas nám ki.

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