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(3). May the choicest gifts of thy store be ever liberally granted to Victoria; may health, happiness, strength and fame attend her ; may peasant, peer and king proudly respect her command, may the nations of the world living in far and near countries, heartily honour this particular name (Victoria).

IV. Ranj-o-khushi ke mukhtalif auqat men sada,

Ai Rab hamare hami tu uska bana raha,
Raushan kurah ko hukm kar is asman ke,
Raushan jagah wuh ho jahan uska qadam pare,
Fazl-o-karam ka nur Khudawand ai Khuda,

Malka Mu'azma ko i’nyat se kar a’ta. (4) In times of grief and pleasure, O our Lord, Thou hast been always her helper. Order the bright sphere of this sky to brighten every spot where her footstep may fall, graciously grant the light of Thy grace, O Lord God, to the Great Queen.

V. Tu apne bazuon ke tale rakh use Khuda,

Malik-ul-mulûk Qadir-i-mutlaq use bacha,
Ai Badsha ! jo logon ki nazron se hai chhipa,
Amn-o-aman-o-hifz men rakh usko daima,
Barkat tu de hamari dua'on men, ai Khuda,
Mashraq se leke Garb tak uthti hai jo sada,
Misl us ke jo uthe hai wafadar qalb se,
Ba i'jz-o-inkisar hai maqbul kar use,
Malka Muazzima ko salámat rakhe Khudá,

Mashhûr nam uska mubarak rahe sadá. (5). Keep her ever beneath Thy wings, O God; save her, O king of kings, Almighty Being, O king who art invisible to men, keep her ever in peace, comfort and safety ; Bless our prayers, O God, as a voice rises from East to West, like that rising out of a loyal breast, it is offered with humility, accept it ; God save the Great Queen, may her renowned name ever be blessed.

There are many lines of exquisite beauty in the above versions, which are also of value as a study of idiomatic Urdu. I have several other versions, which I have not yet carefully examined; but none of them, from a cursory perusal, seem to be open to any objection on the ground of style, sentiment or sense. The great fact, however, that in a comparatively short time and at, practically, no expense, so many poetical renderings of “the National Anthem” could nave been elicited in the frontier province of India, is a remarkable proof of the loyal spontaneity of the people of the Panjab. I circulated a large number of these versions in Urdu, Persian and other languages at the Rawalpindi Assemblage, where they were exceedingly well received by the assembled Chiefs and Visitors.

THE TWO STAGES IN BUDDHA'S TEACHING. The following is an epitome of the teachings of Gôtama* The Buddha.” I have culled these treasures from the sacred Buddhist books and the conversations of pious monks, especially during a seven years' residence in various parts of Upper and Lower Burma.

Every line can be traced to the early writings of the Faith, or the direct teachings of the great Mūni, or the detached discourses and writings of his immediate followers.

The textual teaching is strictly adhered to, though a line may often give the substance of a long passage.

Like most religious men Sākya Mūni passed through divers emotional stages, awakening from “a worldly” life to a pious sense of sin, but also to a pessimistic belief in the vanity of all things. His were also stirring times, not only in India but everywhere-one of those cyclic periods so prominent in my Chart of “ Rivers of Life.” The sixth century B.c. had at Buddha's birth opened with the Agnostic “Six Darsanas” or philosophies of the schools of the great metaphysician and Rishi Kapila, the neighbour and probable tutor of the rising Buddhist Avatāra.

Rishi Kapila had then been long writing and teachinginspired it was believed by Vishnu-in the revered groves on the Banks of the sacred Rohini, our Kohānā, by the waters of which, in a lovely garden, Māyā had given birth to a greater than even the aged philosopher of Kapila


As Gôtama grew up, his thoughtful nature became greatly touched by life's miseries, and by the atheistic heresies of the philosophers. In vain did his anxious Father Sud-dhodana try to overcome the fears and resolves of his Sid-dhārtha, or the “ one in whom all the aims ” of his kingdom were centred.

Gôtama refrained from all independent action until he was of age, had married, and had a son ; when, like many pious Brâhmans, he became a Vāna-prastha, or “ Forest recluse.” It was then he forsook the Court of Oudh, and retired to the Forest of Rāja-griha, in the kingdom of Behār, by paths still everywhere marked in the memories of half Asia. He settled at Bôdha Gayā, some 120 miles easterly from Banāres and 200 from his home.

Here he strove for several years to follow in the faith of his Fathers and to suppress the ever disturbing truths which the Vedānta and Nyāyā, or logical schools, but especially the Sānkhya philosophy of Kapila, had brought home to him. Believing that the flesh was the destroying element of our higher nature, he would have perished in his ascetic life but for Hindus going about feeding such hermits.

So Buddha lived for about five or seven years as did his Western counterpart Pythagoras (another “Pūtha-gūrū”) Apollonius of Tyana and others.

Under the sacred Bo-tree at Gayā, Gôtama studied and taught all comers, until “ he obtained enlightenment" and became famous in his small circle as “ The Buddha" or “Wise One”; and this is what we call his FIRST STAGE, the 2nd being that of an active learned man, ever going about doing good. Then it was that he thrust aside all egoistic thoughts, and leaving his Forest retreat, started for the great world of Banāres, determined to do his best to regenerate mankind. Then, as now, there was endless speculation regarding the existence and nature of a soul, but on such dark points Buddha ever refused to deliver judgment where proof was, he said, impossible.

His decision to forsake the Forest life horrified his still orthodox disciples, who forsook him, probably fearing a cruel martyrdom at Banāres. Buddha however hesitated not, but wended his lone way, and encamped by the sacred Kund or well of Sār-nāth two or three miles N.E. of the city.

Here it was he opened the campaign-one brave man against the surrounding millions, who clung to their ancient superstitions.

What had he to offer in opposition to the wishes of all these nations ? Nought, than simple Common-sense, or as he named it, “ Right Doing and Right Thinking”; that which Buddhists called Dharma or “ The Wheel of the Law”—the Evolution of Bhāvana or Existence.

Within half a life time—the Hindu Rome-Banāres itself, and great kings and peoples owned his reasonable, kindly sway; and before he had passed away (or as they said “attained Nirvāna”), many millions worshipped the very ground wherever his weary steps had trodden, and hailed him as the only one who had ever brought home to them enlightenment and peace such as they had never before experienced.


Come unto me all ye who are bowed down
With the sorrows and evils of a weary life
And I will show unto thee the way of Peace.*
Remember that the fesh ever tries to rule the Spirit,
Set therefore before thee good laws and precepts.
Begin by controlling the body by a strict regimen
Abstaining from rich foods, and eating only at stated periods.
Art thou young? shun dances, songs and gaieties,
For they corrupt the heart, and make thee frivolous. .
Avoid ornaments, perfumes and soft couches
And touch not money—the root of most evils.
The good man obeys the following primary laws
I. He covets nought which is another's, nor touches it.
II. He drinks not, nor associates with a drunkard.
III. He speaks no falsehood, be it to save his life.
IV. He neither destroys nor injures the life of animal or insect.
V. And looks not on another woman than his wife.
Wouldst thou excel in righteousness ?
Then part with all thou hast and wear
The rags which others have cast away.
Live but on alms, and take one meal daily ;

* The sage's words were “ draw nigh unto me ye wounded ones, afflicted and distressed, and I will fold you in my arms. My religion is a path wide as the heavens, where the highest and lowest caste, rich and poor, young and old, can walk and dwell together."

Reside in solitary places apart from men,
And seek only their haunts for thy morning alms.
Let the trunk of the tree be thy pillow
And only its foliage, thy garment of sleep.

Take no thought for the morrow
But amid the Tombstones of Men

Do thou nightly meditate
On the transitoriness of all human things.

BUDDHA'S 2ND STAGE ON LEAVING GAYĀ. Be up and doing, work for the good of all mankind, Regarding not thine own comfort, or salvation. Put away covetousness, self-seeking and sloth ; . Be energetic in mind as well as in body, tho' meek in heart and word, Seek contemplation, so that thou mayest be full of wisdom, And seek learning in order to know and practise every virtue. Entertain no evil desires, nor think wrong of any one, Modestly regard thyself, and be fearful of sinning. Persevere in goodness however thou mayest be opposed, And forgive injuries however oft persisted in. Be willing to receive, and profit by reproof ; Have contentment and gratitude with sympathy for all ; Moderation in prosperity, submission in affliction And cheerfulness at all times. He who can act thus, will enjoy the perfection of happiness And perhaps hereafter supreme reward. Yet, having done all, count not thyself good, Nor seek a return, even in personal happiness, Virtue indeed has its own reward here and hereafter ;

For that is no true virtue which seeketh reward,
Which crieth “Give and it shall be given unto thee"
But that which uninfluenced by any creed or Faith
Or hopes, or fears ; giveth, expecting no return.
He truly is Divine who is pure in heart and life,
Fearing only that he does not sufficiently show this
By unselfish actions, sympathy, and kind words
And full faith in the regeneration of his race.
Not by birth art thou lowered, nor by birth does the
Wise Man esteem thee, but by thy words and deeds
Dost thou fall and rise in his just estimation.
Folly and ignorance is common among all ranks,
Yea the Ascetic's garb oft covers the irreligious mind
As does a humble as well as lordly guise, a Celestial heart.
Encourage learning everywhere and at all times, for
Ignorance is the chief cause of Evils and Superstitions.

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