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SIX PERSIAN CHRONOGRAMS.*
By G. W. L.
(The numerical value of the letters of each line give the date marked at its side.]
(1893) (1893) (1892)
(۱۸۹۳) بيا شيخ كبيرعصر یگانه مردان * در عقلت پیر در عمل هستي جوان
(1893.) Ism turá musamma bá“ Khúsh-Sang”
(1891.) Durri Yatîmi tabán hazár rang birang.
(1893.) Khúsh-Sang! Miládat mubárek badAmin! (1892.) Bar-at, Bar-ál, bar-i'lm, bar-A'lam mubarek bádá ! Amin! (1892.)
Literal Translation. Come! Grand Old Man of the Age, The One among
men !+ (ävač avdpür) In Las far) Thy Mind an ancient sage, in action Thou art
young The name to Thee is an epithet (explaining itself) for it is
“ Glad-stone" [Since it is] the unique precious stone and star [“the orphan
pearl” or star of the age] shining a thousand colours
in colour. Glad-stone! May Thy birthday be blessed! Amen! On Thee, on Thine, on Learning, on the World may it indeed be blessed! Amen!
Remarks. The combined letters of the ist, 2nd and 4th lines being descriptive of a fact or appellation on the day of their com
* This is, probably, the only instance in an Oriental Language, in which a Chronogram extends to more than one line or is found in each of the six lines of a composition.—ED.
† This suggests that the words “ avaš úvopwv " are etymologically and philologically connected with the "One" or "unique" of men, and not with either an Egyptian tribal appellation or the “ Anakim.”—ED.
position—the ist January, 1893—form the date 1893 [each line]. The third line refers to the date 1891, when Mr. Gladstone was out of office, and, therefore, alone with his name and intrinsic merit without external adjuncts. The two last lines have each the numerical value of 1892, that being the date of Mr. Gladstone's last Birthday in connection with which a blessing is invoked. The versatility as also uniqueness of Mr. Gladstone's disposition and attainments are indicated by the variety of the colours thrown out by "the orphan pearl of the age”-an Arabic simile of rare endowments—as also by the apparent inconsistency in the name which combines the “suaviter” of “ Glad” with the * fortiter” of “stone ” [in its Persian Translation, or as the name would be popularly understood in English without reference to its forgotten etymology)
. P.S.—This view may be further carried out in the following additional lines — not Chronograms -- that may be inserted between the 4th and 5th lines of the first page. They rhyme with “ Khûsh-Sang,” thus :
اگر دنیا صلع خواهد نمي کني جبک
Agr dunyá sulha kháhàd, na-mî-kuni jang
not make War. If Faith (or religious matters) wants War, Thou dost not
make Peace (put a delay or obstacle to War). The following lines in Urdu are intended to express the sorrow of departure after a short acquaintance.
آپکا شان سنکر ازاد ایا مین آپکا سمان دیکھ کر پابند رها مین کاینکه ازاد رهتا نھین انا کانکه پانبد رهتا نهین جاتا
* These lines may indicate alike the peaceful policy and the controversial gifts of the great statesman.—ED.
Turkish (Death and Love).
a's' et beni!
Forgive Thou me!
I did love Thee !
Forget not me!
An Oriental Echo.
THE REVOLUTION IN HAWAII.
By His Exc. A. HOFFNUNG,
To trace the causes and the probable results of the revolution which has recently taken place in the Hawaiian Islands, it is necessary first to examine, as briefly as possible, some of the salient points connected with the development of the country in its political and material aspect. These have been sufficiently remarkable and interesting to deserve attention.
It is but little more than one hundred years, since that adventurous Englishman, Captain Cook, discovered and made known to the world the existence of the Sandwich Islands. These were thickly peopled by natives of the Polynesian race, primitive if not savage in their habits, and quite unconscious of the forms of civilization known to their discoverers.
Some thirty years later, that is in October, 1819, the first company of missionaries to these islands sailed from Boston-two schoolmasters and their wives, two ministers of religion, a farmer and a planter. They landed at Kailua, on the Island of Hawaii, and there inaugurated the missionary work which they had undertaken : that they were successful is beyond all question.
King Kamehameha II., who reigned over his native subjects at that time, was reading the English Testament in three months. His instructor was the Rev. Asa Thurston, one of the missionaries above mentioned. The object of these good people was to rescue the natives from the darkness of superstition, and to teach them the Gospel of Christianity and the arts of peace, civilization, and selfgovernment.
It stands to the undoubted credit of this devoted little band, and of the brave men and women who subsequently joined them in their noble work, that they were successful almost beyond the dream of hope. For in less than 75 years (which is but an atom of time in the life of a nation) a miniature kingdom has arisen, so perfect in all its details that it has been the admiration of all who have come in contact with it, and have had the opportunity to examine its workings.
A Queen and Court, whose distinguishing characteristics have been gracious and lavish hospitality, a government able and intelligent, with its diplomatic and consular representatives in every important part of the world, an incorruptible bench and an honest judiciary, a native race, happy and contented, wholly converted to the great truths of consistent religion, a school system as perfect as any that exists, so that illiteracy, even amongst the natives, is practically unknown, laws wisely framed and justly administered, and a legislature composed both of natives and white settlers not more susceptible to unwise influences than similar institutions in much older communities—all these have been the results of valuable work by the heroic people above mentioned.
It is impossible not to honour the memory of the brave persons who first undertook, and who carried out with rare patience, self-denial and credit, the transformation of the untutored natives of the Hawaiian Islands into a civilized nation, developing in an incredibly short space of time all the attributes of a people capable of the highest forms of self-government and civilization. If the American missionaries had nothing else to be proud of—and they have much-the splendid work they have accomplished in the Hawaiian Islands reflects upon them imperishable glory. Turning now from this moral and political retrospect, let us examine for a moment the material advance of these highly-favoured islands. In 1850, the total imports were $1,035,000 ; in 1890, they were $6,962,000 ; in 1850, the exports were $783,000 ; in 1890, they were $13,282,729, giving a total export per capita greater than that of any other country, and exceeding even that of the Australian colonies during the flower of the gold discoveries. In 1856, the revenue of the kingdom was $419,228 ; in 1890, it was $3,632,190.