« 이전계속 »
the Shiah adds under his breath, “A'li is the Deputy (Governor) of God and the heir of the prophet of God.” Now this word for “ Deputy” is “vali," "to be close to," whether it be to God, a king, a priest, a master, or other position of eminence in Arabian belief, society, history, or intellectual creations. * Maula” or “ Mulá” comes from the same root and is generally applied to a spiritual master, but, among the Shiahs, specially to their “Lord" A'li. . Therefore, “Mulais" are the special followers of the “Lord A’li,” just as the Jesuits claim to be a fraternity of special followers of “the Lord Jesus” When, then, the term “Mauláná” or our “Master or Lord” is specially used in the Druse Covenant of Initiation (see further on), there is not far to seek for the meaning of the appellation “ Mulai,” though it was left for me to find it out from the A'liite songs of the Muláis of the Hindukush. Whatever the innermost coterie of the “initiated may practise or believe, a connecting link of the sect with some existing creed is necessary for their safety or respectability. Thus, the Ismailians might call themselves “Sadiqis” or “the righteous,” in order to spread the belief of their being special adherents of the 6th Imám, (in the order of descent from A'li), the Imám Ja'far Sadiq (the righteous), without entering into the vexed question as to whether his son
Ismåîl” was the real “seventh ” Imám or his other son, Mûsa (through whom the bulk of Shiahs look for their Mahdi or Messiah, the 12th Imám). Nor would any
such special fervour in revering a particular phase or man be necessarily deemed to be heretical, even among Sunnis. I have often heard a Sunni, especially if he was a Persian scholar and the strange magic of that language had subdued him, admit the impeachment of having “a particular love
Many words denoting proximity, become honorifics, such as “Sherif” (Shereef), "Hazrat," " Jenáb," etc. “ Khalifah" is one who succeeds, or follows, or is a deputy. Strictly speaking, this title refers to the Sultan of Turkey as the successor of the Prophet Muhammad in the temporal headship of the Sunnis, but even the successor of the heretical Mahdi in the Sudán calls himself “Khalifa."
for the house of A’li,” and the numerous class of Sayads, who claim to be descendants of the Prophet, is respected, if not venerated, among Sunnis, who, in theory, oppose the “ hereditary” claims of Shiahs. * The Máulais, therefore, of the Hindukush, being, consciously or not, a sub-sect of Shiahs, can make friends with the main body of Shiahs, and yet pretend to the Sunnis as being, in many respects, with them. Normally, the Mauláis would profess to be good Muhammadans of the Shiah persuasion, leaning, however, to the 7th Imám ; if surrounded by, or in danger of, Sunnis, they would outwardly “conform” (which is all that the Sunnis require), and, at home, practise their own rites. The Khojas of Bombay, who had been converted from Hinduism, but whose very name is Ismailian, used to read the “ Dasawtar” or “ten incarnations,” in which “A'li” is made out to be the “Tenth Incarnation,” thus rendering their step from Wishnu Hinduism to Shiah Muhammadanism an easy
“ All things to all men” is the dictum of the Muláis, without, thereby, sacrificing their own convictions. The more a Mulái knows, the more he acts on Disraeli's sneer that all sensible men are of one religion, but do not tell what that religion is. The less a Mulai knows, the more fanatically is he an A’liite, centreing however his faith on the living descendant of the 7th Imám. “ Nothing is a crime that is not found out” may, or may not be, the theory among the Druses, or the practice all over the world ; the fact remains that neither the Druses nor the Muláis, whatever their belief, are worse than their neighbours. Even the odious signification that attaches to the term “Assassin ” has been a calumny against those misguided Ismailians who sought to rid the world of tyrants
* The “Sherifs” or “Shereefs," in a special, princely or official sense, are lineal descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima who was married to A'li, and have, perhaps, even a higher claim to the respect of the Faithful, than ordinary descendants or “Sayads." The Grand Shereef of Mecca, the Shereefian dynasty of Morocco, the Shereef of Wazan, who also bears the title, like the Emperor of Marocco, of “ Muláy,” or “Maulái,” show the great extent of the “House of A’li.”
who had ordered the general massacre of the sect or who sacrificed one man in order to save a whole people.
In 1866 I discovered the languages and races of “ Dardistan” and gave that name to the countries between Kashmir and Kabul, including Hunza in them. In 1886 I was again on a special mission regarding the language of Hunza-Nagyr and a part of Yasin. I had already pointed out in 1867 the importance which our good friend, His Highness Agha Khan of Bombay, the Head of the Khojas in that city, enjoyed in those, then nearly inaccessible, regions, as also in Wakhan, Zebak, Shignán, Raushan, Koláb and Derwáz, where the Muláis predominate and are governed by hereditary Pirs or ancient sages of their own choice,* to whom they yield implicit obedience, as do also the covenanters with “Al-Hákim” among the “initiated” of the Druses. Of these Pirs, Agha Khan is Chief, and any command by him would be obeyed in some of the most dangerous parts of the Hindukush. Advantage was only taken in 1886 of this hint, when Colonel Lockhart's mission was supplied with letters of recommendation by His Highness to the Mulais. My identification of their mysterious rites with those of the Druses connects the Lebanon with the Hindukush through the Ismailia sect, which under the name of the “Assassins” enjoyed such an unenviable notoriety during the Crusades and establishes a link among the nations of Richard Cour de Lion,t of Palestine and of the Pamirs. The connection of Hunza with the Huns or Hunas and the relations between the “ Old Man of the Mountain " and our own Richard may be the subject of a future article. At present, I will confine myself to translating from the Persian original a Pythian utterance out of the “ Kelám-i-Pir” or “the Word of the ancient Sage,” which takes the place of the Korán among Mauláis,
* Among these Pîrs each Mulái chooses his own, of course, under the supreme headship of Agha Khan.
† Who has been accused of instigating the “Old Man of the Mountain " to send his emissaries to murder Conrad of Montferrat, titular King of Jerusalem. The Ismailian “Assassins” are also accused of an attempt to murder Prince Edward of England at Acre.
and of which the following is the first extract ever given from that hidden book. It was partly dictated to me and partly written out on the occasion of His Highness. the present Agha Khan, paying me a visit, by the leader of some Muláis, who had fled, first from Russian tyranny, and then from the still heavier Afghan oppression in the border-countries of Central Asia, my own Hunza man also being present on the occasion.* The extract was called the Mulái “Mukti” or “Salvation ” Cry of the Muláis. It may be incidentally mentioned that Shah Abdurrahim in Zeibak was (and perhaps still is) the greatest Pîr in Central Asia. He controls Hunza, so far as that God-forsaken country can be controlled. In Wakhan, Khwaja Ibrahim Husain was the Mulái leader, and in Sarikul, Shahzada Makin. Sayad Jafar Khan ruled what there is of the sect in Bokhara, Balkh, Kabul and Kunduz. “ The Pir” or “ancient sage,” however, was the historical Shah Nasir Khosrô, who is styled “a missionary of H. H. Aga Khan's ancestor." He is said to have had the complete “ Kelám-i-Pir,” a book of which I have for so many years in vain tried to get a copy, although assisted by my friend, the Mihtar Nizam-ul-Mulk of Yasin and Chitrál. The following extract from it, in one and the same breath, affirms and denies the special doctrine of metempsychosis and other notions opposed to the professed Muhammadanism of the Muláis :
The Mukti or“ SALVATION.' ”
The Mulai · Á QIL” or “intelligent" = " initiated ” (the singular of the Druse “ U'qalá” or “initiated "] first asks, in inelegant and enigmatical Persian :
“ Ala! In what I say, can I remain knowingly an Á’qil ?" or "initiated” or “ I remain knowingly an A’qil, although what I say
1. “Come, solve for me a difficult story (or conjecture] * Whom I took to England and whose name, curiously enough, was Matavali,” which is also a derivative of “vali.”
Come, tell me the Light which the spirit from the worldshape [this world of Phenomena]
When it becomes [gets) beyond [of] this shape, where [is] its abode and station ? [place of descent =“manzil”]
Is its place [of existence] in plants or in the Higher Universe (the world above ?]
Or in the Lower Universe between water, dust and clay” [or stone]? (the strata between the centre and the surface of the earth]
2. “If, knowingly, that secret, come and tell me : Light'
And, if not, away ! not knowing, without head-wandering, careless (care not]
Dear ones! The spirit of the knowing when it departs from these chains,
Does it become [wend) towards the skies [heavens]? Is that its Station obtaining ?*
Or why in the shape of man [anthropomorphic shape] is the Adamite created ?+
Nay (?) the perfect man [ko-burd] cultured perfect, or 'the ruling man [if] persect, develops perfect culture'
But they who are not wanted [the useless] are ignorant doubters"
3. “Let me tell its Commentary; every one, Come! in the ear make it acceptable.
The present is one stride (or state of a man]
They bind him in chains; he becomes with cow or ass entering
Another time his place (of staying] is the [world of] plants. They hold him (there]
* Also, “Does it rise in the direction of heavens, or is its descent in vegetation ?" (taking “Hásil ” = obtaining for “Mehásil” = vegetation), reproduction (?)
+ Also, “Or in the form of Man how does it again rotate into being born an Adamite ?” or, “Why is man created in the form of a human being ?”
Also, “Nay, but the perfect man, the seemly, the all-perfect wins the prize."