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who is worshipped and deprived of the benefits of all the sanctions (rules, laws), and that he shall be considered as deserving the punishment of God, the High, may His mention be glorious! And that he, if he acknowledges that there is not to him in Heaven and not in the Earth an Imám in existence exçept our Maula Al-Hákim(this confession distinguishes the Druses of the Lebanon and the Muláis of the Hindukush from the orthodox Shiahs, who believe in the coming of the ever-present Mahdi, or the twelfth Imám, a view that had been fostered by us in the Sudán to our endless confusion by our inexcusable opposition to the Sultan of Turkey as the Khalifa of the Sunnis), “then will the mention of him (who only believes in Al-Hákim) become glorious, and he will be of the Muwahidîn (who profess the unity of God), who will (eventually) conquer.” (This appellation is common to the Druses and to the Muláis, but is not admitted as being applicable to them by orthodox Shiahs or Sunnis. In retaliation they call the Sunni a dog, and the Shiah an ass.) “And (the above) has been written * in the month so and so of the year (chronology) of the I'd (festival) of our Maula Al-Hákim, whose nation be glorious, whose Empire be strengthened to Him alone.” (The Maulái Chronology is said to begin with the special revelation of the Imám on the 17th Ramadán in the 559th year of the Hejira, at the castle of Alamût.)

The Special Recitation. The following is repeated by Druses at the conclusion of their prayers : “May God's blessing be upon him who speaks (confesses) the Lord of goodness and benefits. May God bless the Ruler of the Guidances (Hidāyā); to him be profit and sufficiency. May God's blessing be on our Lord the Hādi” (the Guide or “Mehdi” means one who is guided aright by God=the coming Messiah of the Shiah world,) “the Imám, the greatest of the perfect light” (this is an allusion to the 7th Imám, Ismail, descendant of the lightf

* The contract is thus repeated from a written document.
† Many Shiahs call A'li “the light” of God.

(Mohammed), “who is waiting for the refuge (salvation) of all living beings. On Him may be (our) trust, and from him (may be) the peace. May God bless him and them whatever passes of nights and of days and of months and of years, whenever flashes the dawn of morning or night remains in darkness may abundant peace and trust be for ever! O Allah-humma!" (the mystic Muhammadan remnant of Elohim = Lords, Gods) “provide us with Thy contentment" (this is a play of words implying that our best “ daily bread" is God's contentment with us) “and with Their contentment” (this is either a Trinitarian or Polytheistic invocation to “Elohim”) “and with their intercession and with Thy mercy and with their mercy in this world and in the next! O our Maula! and Lord of the Imám ” (this is indeed significant as to the pretensions of Al-Hákim to the godhead, or to some dignity very near it).

Now comes an ancient curse with a modern application and an appeal to arms (whispered along the line of assembled Druses) :

“Pray for the ornament of sons,

In the East the five * residing (compare also, the Shiah Panjtan’t and the five main Shiah sects) †

* There are five books of the Sheikh-ul-Aql, “or old man of the intelligence,” or of the "initiated,” and also apparently a book of investigation and of the unity of the Godhead for the “initiated of the retirement” = “U'qala al Khalwat." There are five “Maulas” or Mulas of "the initiated,” which I take to be the names of five books, namely: (1) the Mula of the A’ql, or Mind, or of the body-corporate of the “U'qalá” or “the initiated"; (2) the Mula of the Nafs, or Breath ; (3) the Mula of the Zeman, or the Age; (4) the Mula of the Kalima, or the Word; (5) the Mula of Al-Hakim, or the founder of the sect. Numbers 3 and 4 are probably the Kelám-iPir and other dicta of the Mulais of the Hindukush, to which I have already referred.

† This holy roll among extreme Shiahs has five names, namely, God, Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husain, which positively excludes the prophet Muhammad, but includes his son-in-law (Ali), his daughter, Fatima, and the martyred grandsons of Ali, namely Hasan and Husain. As a rule, however, the ordinary orthodox “Panjtan” among Shiahs (and even in some Sunni Mosque inscriptions) are: “Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain.” “Panjtan” means “the five (holy) bodies.”

There are five main sects among the Shiahs, or, rather, “Adelias,"

They say: Father Abraham has appeared, and they announce the good tidings to the worshippers of One (the Druses).

They say: With the sword has Father Abraham appeared ;

A violence to his enemies
O brethren! Prepare earnestly for the campaign,
Visiting the House of Mecca.
The House of Mecca and the sacred places,
On them has destruction been ordained.
Oh people of the Berbers! Extermination is lawful.
With the sword shall ye be sacrificed.
The French are coming with stealth.

The ‘A’ql' [or 'the body of the initiated '] will protect us with its sword.

Rejoice, people of China, in the hour of Thy arrival. Welcome to thee, city of Arin (?), oh my Lady !" [Fatima ?].

A Druse wedding-song may also be quoted here : (“ Allah, billáli, billáli.”) The Chorus : “O God, with the pearls, with the pearls,” “Sway on to me, oh mỳ Gazelle !" Song : “Thou maid who combest her (the bride's) tresses, comb them gently, and give her no pain ; for she is the daughter of nobles, accustomed to being a pet” [delláli]. Chorus : Allah, billáli, billáli ; wa tanaqqalí, ya Ghazali !

Another Song : “Sing the praises of the shore, oh daughters ; sing the praises of the daughters of the shore ; for we have passed by the pomegranate-tree bearing full fruit, and we have compared it with the cheeks of the daughters of the shore.”

or advocates of “the rightful” and hereditary succession to the Apostleship of Muhammad, in opposition to the elective principle by the consensus fidelium of the Sunnis. The two sects that now concern us are the African Ismailians, and the Ismailians of the Lebanon and of the Hindukush. The number of Shiah sects is estimated variously from 3 to 72.


THE DARDS. Herodotus (III. 102-105) is the first author who refers to the country of the Dards, placing it on the frontier of Kashmir and in the vicinity of Afghanistan. “Other Indians are those who reside on the frontiers of the town ‘Kaspatyros' and the Paktyan country; they dwell to the north of the other Indians and live like the Baktrians; they are also the most warlike of the Indians and are sent for the gold,” etc. Then follows the legend of the gold digging ants (which has been shown to have been the name of a tribe of Tibetans by Schiern), and on which, as an important side-issue, consult Strabo, Arrian, Dio Chrysostomus, Flavius Philostratus the elder, Clemens Alexandrinus, Ælian, Harpokration, Themistius Euphrades, Heliodorus of Emesa, Joannes Tzetzes, the Pseudo-Kallisthenes and the scholiast to the Antigone of Sophocles*—and among Romans, the poems of Propertius, the geography of Pomponius Mela, the natural history of the elder Pliny and the collections of Julius Solinus. † The Mahabharata also mentions the tribute of the ant-gold “paipilika” brought by the nations of the north to one of the Pandu sons, king Yudhisthira.

In another place Herodotus [IV. 13-27] again mentions the town of Kaspatyros and the Pakty:in country. This is where he refers to the anxiety of Darius to ascertain the flow of the Indus into the sea. He accordingly sent Skylax with vessels. “They started from the town of Κασπάτυρος and the Πακτυική χώρα towards the east to the sea.” I take this to be the point where the Indus river makes a sudden bend, and for the first time actually does lie between Kashmir and Pakhtu-land (for this, although long unknown, must be the country alluded to), # in other words, below the Makpon-i-Shang-Rong, and at Bunji, where the Indus becomes navigable. $ The Paktyes are also mentioned as one of the races that followed Xerxes in his invasion of Hellas (Herod. VII. 67-85). Like our own geographers till 1866, Herodotus thought that the Indus from that point flowed duly from north to south, and India being, according to his system of geography, the most easterly country, the flow of the Indus was accordingly described as being easterly. I, in 1866, and Hayward in 1870, described its flow from that point to be due west for a considerable distance (about one hundred miles). (The PAKTYES are, of course, the Afghans, called Patans, or more properly PAKHTUS, the very same Greek word). “Kaspatyros ” is evidently a mis-spelling for “Kaspapyros,” the form in which the name occurs in one of the most accurate codes of

* Strabo II. I., XV. I.- Arrian de Exped. Alex. V. 4 Indica c. 5.-Dio-Chrysos. Orat. XXXV.-Philostrat. de vitâ Apollon. Tyan. V. I.-Clem. Alex. Paed, II. 12.Aelian de Nat. An. XV. 14.-Harpokrat, s. v. Xpvooxoeiv, Themist. Orat. XXVII.-Heliodor. X. 26.—Tzetz. Chil. XII. 330-340.-Pseudo Kallisth. Il. 29.-Schol. ad Sophocl. Antig., v. 1,025.

† Propert. Éleg. III. 13.— Pomp. Mel. III. 7.—Plin. H. N. XI. 36, XXXIII. 21.Solin, c. 30.

Indeed, there is no other country between Kaspatyros and the Paktyan country excepting Dardistan.

$ This is the Bunji of recent Chilás fights (1893). NEW SERIES. VOL. V.


Herodotus which belonged to Archbishop Sancroft (the Codex Sancroftianus) and which is now preserved at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Stephanus Byzantianus (A. V.) also ascribes this spelling to Hekatæus of Miletus.*

Now Kaspapyros or Kaspapuros is evidently Kashmir or “Kasyapapura," the town of Kasyapa, the founder of Kashmir, and to the present day one may talk indifferently of the town of Kashmir, or of the country of Kashmir, when mentioning that name, so that there is no necessity to seek for the town of Srinagar when discussing the term Kaspatyrus, or, if corrected, Kaspapuros, of Herodotus.

Herodotus, although he thus mentions the people (of the Dards) as one neighbouring (ordinoioxópol) on Kashmir and residing between Kashmir and Afghanistan, and also refers to the invasions which (from time immemorial it may be supposed, and certainly within our own times) this people have made against Tibet for the purpose of devastating the goldfields of the so-called ants, does not use the name of “ Dard" in the above quotations, but Strabo and the elder Pliny, who repeat the legend, mention the very name of that people as Derdæ or Darda, Vide Strabo XV., év Aépdais ēOver Meyálw TỘv a poc eówv kài ópeivwv 'Ivdôv. Pliny, in his Natural History, XI. 36, refers to “in regione Septentrionalium Indorum, qui Darda vocantur.Both Pliny and Strabo refer to Megasthenes as their authority in Chapter VI., 22. Pliny again speaks of “ Fertilissimi sunt auri Darda." The Dards have still settlements in Tibet where they are called Brokhpa (vide Dardistan, Part III., page 46, etc.). The Dards are the “ Darada” of the Sanscrit writers. The “Darada” and the “Himavanta” were the regions to which Buddha sent his missionaries, and the Dards are finally the “ Dards, an independent people which plundered Dras in the last year, has its home in the mountains three or four days' journey distant, and talks the Pakhtu or Daradi language. Those, whom they take prisoners in these raids, they sell as slaves" (as they do still). (Voyage par Mir Izzetulla in 1812 in Klaproth's Magasin Asiatique, II., 3-5.) (The above arrangement of quotations is due to Schiern.)t


PARTICULAR. The most important contribution to this question, however, is Plutarch's Speech on Alexander's fortune and virtue (Tepi 'Alegávdpov rúxns kal åpetís), the keynote to which may be found in the passage which contains the assertion that he KateoTELDE TÌv 'Aglav endnrikois téleon, but the whole speech refers to that marvellous influence.

That this influence was at any rate believed in, may be also gathered from a passage in Aelian, in which he speaks of the Indians and Persian kings singing Homer in their own tongues. I owe the communication of this passage to Sir Edward Fry, Q.C., which runs as follows: 'OT. 'Ivdoi tû παρά σφίσιν επιχωριά φωνη τα Ομήρου μεταγράψαντες αδoυσιν ου μόνοι,

* General A. Cunningham very kindly sent me the quotation last year. It runs as follows : Kaotátupos módus ravdapinn, Ekvowy åkt.

+ Who refers to niy“Results of a Tour in Dardistan, Kashmir, Little Tibet, Ladak, etc., in 1867-70," and other papers in his pamphlet on the origin of that legend.

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