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been overstepped.” This is distinctly incorrect, now, when most Native States are as well governed as our own territories. To note a few-what fault can he find with Baroda or Bhaonagar,- Indore, Jeypore, or Mysore? Though Persia is comparatively old ground, Mr. Biddulph gives several new items, as, e.g., the great Salt Plain; and his geographical and ethnological remarks are interesting. In Trans-Caspia, however, he touches a country but little known, and regarding which the desire for information is not quenched by over abundance of material. Hence the greater importance of this part of our author's book, which gives the actual state of affairs, as far as Bokhara. Mr. Biddulph declares the country incapable of acting as a base of military operation against India ; but he looks habitually through a pair of strong Russophile spectacles. We recommend his book of travels as extremely interesting and pleasant to read.

13. The Tel-el-Amarna Tablets, translated by Major C. R. CONDER. (London : Palestine Exploration Fund, published by A. P. Watt, 1893 ; 55.) The full historical importance of the 320 clay tablets found at Telel-Amarna in 1887 is only now brought fully home to the general reader by Major Conder's translation. These letters addressed to 2 Egyptian Kings, by their allies and officers in Asia, under various circumstances, date from about 1480 B.C. Perhaps the deepest impression they leave on the mind is the early and persistent adoption of oriental flattery and hyperbolic exaggeration. A more important matter, however, is the direct confirmation they give to the historical narratives of Scripture, in their few points of contact. Numerous geographical identifications form another important result. A few of the letters treat of events that seem to square with the invasion of southern Palestine by the Hebrews, whom Major Conder identifies with the 'Abiri ; and various Biblical names certainly occur in them. The point lies in the coincidence of these letters with the time given in Scripture. Major Conder thinks they also prove that the Hittites were Mongols, a conclusion from which many will differ. A deeper study, when Egyptologists have become more reasonable in their chronology, may yield even more important results; for this translation, though executed with Major Conder's well-known painstaking scholarship, is not, as he himself says, final. Though rather dry reading in their style and monotonous in their expressions, the importance of these ancient records should secure them the patient study of both Egyptologists and Biblical scholars. Every page is elucidated by the author with erudite notes.

14. National Life and Character, by C. H. PEARSON. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1893 ; 1os.) This bulky volume, the title of which is somewhat a misnomer, shows in every page the Professor's wide reading, deep thought, and versatile powers. Everywhere too are visible an antagonistic bias against religion and Christianity, together with assumption of principles by no means universally recognised. The learned author, with much patient investigation, reviews the present state of the world in general, as the battle-ground of the various races of mankind; and with the light of present and past history, tries to forecast the future, as to the social, religious, political and intellectual condition of the world and mankind, in some unspecified but not very remote future. His views, which are very

well stated, merit all the attention due to the writings of a deep scholar and a clever man of the world, and as such we heartily recommend them to the perusal of our readers. We disagree with him on many important points, fundamental to his views; as, e.g., that Christianity is played out, that Divorce is necessary, that religion must yield its place as a motive power to lower considerations, that the Hindu is an “inferior race,” that the last half century rush of the human race in so-called progress, is the measure of the future, or that the future is to be on the same lines as this past. When Professor Pearson has said his say, we are left without definite conclusions, to which a short chapter might with advantage have been devoted. Prophesies of the future are not, of course, to be judged by the same standard as the teaching of the past. All the more is it necessary to formularize what one prophecies, so as to give a picture of what the future is supposed to be. We have no such picture in these 350 pages; but we have some powerful drawing. The conclusion is characteristic of the whole: “Even so, there will still remain to us ourselves. Simply to do our work in life, and to abide the issue, if we stand erect before the eternal calm, as cheerfully as our fathers faced the eternal unrest, may be nobler training for our souls than the faith in progress."

15. Western Australia and its Gold Fields, by Albert F. CALVERT. (London: George Philip and Son, 1893 ; is.) This is a complete guide to the resources of Western Australia, the least populated, as yet, of the Australian Colonies. Beginning with a short historical sketch of its discovery, it is not till p. 22, that Mr. Calvert gets on to the gold deposits of the colony, of most of which he speaks from personal knowledge. A great part of the following 30 pages are devoted to the gold fields; and the remaining 20 to other not less important industries open to the enterprising in this colony. The vastness and comparative facility of working the deposits of gold described by Mr. Calvert make it all the more strange that they have not yet been exploited to any appreciable extent. This fact he explains by the want of capital in the colony itself and by the vexatious regulations, not to call them restrictions, which are imposed on the working of the gold fields by the Government. Our readers are not likely to join in a rush for gold in any diggings; but we are sure they will derive much pleasure and interesting information from reading this little book. It gives a “Government map" of the colony ; but this is the only failure in the book. This map, as its chief defect, marks all mountains with o, the usual sign for towns. The ranges are not shaded off, as is generally done on maps ; and one is left to conjecture whether these o mountains, by some freak of nature, rise up isolated and suddenly, from the plains, like so many sugar loaves on a table.

16. The Golden Book of India, by Sir ROPER LETHBRIDGE, K.C.I.E. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1893; 40s.) This carefully compiled and splendidly got up volume supplies a long-felt want—that of a reliable “Debrett” or “Burke " for India ; and although the first issue of such a work must necessarily contain matter for correction and amendment, we can sincerely congratulate both author and publishers on the excellent results which they have achieved. Sir Roper Lethbridge seems to anticipate some criticism ; but he disarms much of it in his candid preface, as useful, nay necessary, as it is concise and to the point. As he himself seems to think, the work would undoubtedly be improved by a subdivision into parts, which should successively give, always in alphabetical order, the ruling chiefs separated from the courtesy and personal titles, those from the knights of our Indian orders, and those in turn from the minor honorific titles (when they are not applied to princes) of Sardar, Khan and Rao, simply or with the additions of Bahadur or Sahib. The notable and innate distinction between these classes seems to require a division of the book into so many parts. Sir Roper's remarks on the absence of any regular Heralds' College for India are valuable; and we hope soon to see this matter, as important as it is interesting, put into competent hands: it would certainly add a good sum to the revenue. Returning to the book itself, we find it both full and complete, its lists being brought down to the latest honours conferred, in January, 1893. It seems a defect, though done intentionally, that Europeans enjoying Indian titles should be omitted from the Golden Book of India. In future editions, too, some biographical details of minor personages should be cut down to smaller limits, being at present out of all proportion to their importance. There is somewhat of a lack of coats of arms,- very few being given. In one of them (Murshidabad) the cheval passant of the shield is improperly blazoned as regardant in the text. We find one man's address given as “Punjab” p. 161. Some names entitled to a place on these pages are omitted. But in spite of these slight blemishes, inseparable from the preparation of so extensive a work, the book is sure to have a wide reception and to be a general favourite : even a Spaniard with his 16 quarterings is dwarfed into littleness by the side, say, of Udaipur's ancient and noble descent.

17. Nilus, da due Signore. (London : Truslove and Shirley.) The only defect of this small book is its smallness. It is a simple tale, on which the two authoresses have cleverly strung the account of their visit to Egypt, as far as the 2nd Cataract, under Mr. Cook's wing. The lovemaking of the tale is rather slow work, and not enlivening; and it somewhat interferes with the descriptions given, of scenery and ruins. A capital ghost-story runs through the whole. Even in a tale which does not pretend to any depth, such an utter absurdity should have been avoided as that of making a Muhammadan water-carrier serve water to Muhammadans out of a pig-skin! The book is pleasant to read, and interesting.

18. Sir Henry Maine : his Life, by Sir M. E. GRANT-DUFF, G.C.S.I., and Selected Speeches and Minutes, by Whitley Stokes, D.C.L. (London: John Murray, 1892 ; 145.) Our readers will welcome, with as great pleasure as ourselves, this goodly book, sketching the life and labours of a good and great man, whose work has left a deep and useful impress not only in India, where, as Legislative Meniber of Council under two Viceroys, he did so much in improving the law, but wherever the English language is spoken; for he left behind him legal and other works, published at various times, which are of the utmost value. His talent of grasping principles and applying them to what was before him, his deep reading and versatile powers, his clearness of idea and facility of language, his fearless criticism of what was bad and unflinching support of what was good, are all well seen in this book. Sir M. E. Grant-Duff takes the first 83 pages for his biographical memoir, which is very fully detailed, well written, and interesting. The next 217 pages give a select number of Sir Henry's speeches, which are all characteristic of the man, and though mostly on technical subjects, are, for clearness of idea and diction, of interest also to the general reader. His remarks on juries (pp. 179-192) will be found very pertinent to the present question of their restriction. His minutes, which form the remaining 133 pages of the book, are of greater variety, and show a rare grasp of circumstances and details in more general matters. We may note his comparison of the relative value of some railway lines (p. 348), his remarks on Indian Universities, and especially his scathing criticism of Mr. Caird's report made aíter only a four months' stay in India. Speeches and minutes both evince a knowledge of India and a breadth of treatment that show the statesman. “He seemed to see things in their quiddity,' and to reconstitute them from fragments with the genius of Owen or Cuvier. . . . Sir A. Lyall found in Rajputana the precise practices which Sir Henry Maine had suggested as a possible explanation of some scattered facts which he had noticed in his reading” (p. 81).

19. The Rauzat-us-Safá; or, The Garden of Purity, translated from the Persian of Mirkhond, by the late E. REHATSEK, and edited by F. F. ARBUTHNOT. (London: Royal Asiatic Society, 1893.) Part II., in 2 vols.

This work, produced under the auspices of the Oriental Translation Fund, gives the life of Muhammad, translated by the lamented scholar E. Rehatsek with his wonted fidelity and correctness. The historical value of such a life written in Persian in the XVth Century is very small; but it has a special merit of its own. Amid many narratives which may not stand the test of historical criticism, it exposes to the eyes of the careful reader the inner feelings and workings of the Muhammadan mind; and it is these which the western student generally fails to grasp, and consequently finds himself out of sympathy with. It is impossible to form a correct judgment of the influence of Islam on its numerous votaries, or to gauge what they profess, feel and live for, without studying, in their own native garb, books like this now presented to the public, and others like it which will, we trust follow in rapid succession. Mr. Arbuthnot's editing seems to make an occasional slip, and it is vexing to find him call the naming of Muhammad, a “Christening.” The merits of the work, however, for the purpose we have indicated, and of the translator and editor are quite sufficient to ensure for this book a welcome and careful study.

20. The Indian Empire, its Peoples, History, and Products, by Sir W. W. HUNTER, K.C.S.I. (London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1893 ; 28s.) Sir W. Hunter's painstaking and carefully compiled work, which is too well known and justly appreciated to need more than a mere announcement of the fact, has now reached its third edition, and is rendered even more useful by being brought down to date, especially in the matter of the census returns of 1891-92. It in no way detracts from the general usefulness and accuracy of what for its size is the best History of India procurable at present, to say that there are occasional slips. E.g., at p. 294 Jacobite Christians admittedly praying for the dead are erroneously said to deny Purgatory—the one supposes the other; and the King of Portugal is said to have had only a “pretended right” (p. 308) in ecclesiastical matters in India, when every tyro in Canon Law knows that it was a perfectly formed and indefeasible right, which as the jus tertii, not the Pope even could abolish. There seems an injustice at p. 279 in excluding Burma, when needlessly comparing Christianity and Buddhism, yet including Burma, when stating the proportionate increase of Christians since the previous census. The erudite twaddle about Josaphat = Buddha (pp. 195 to 197) has no connection with Indian history. While the actual history of India, so admirably told by Sir William, might perhaps be hunted up with labour in other works, the student who wishes to combine Historical reading with a knowledge about the peoples, religions, languages, products and statistics of India, must fall back upon this book, which should have a place in every library.

21. Kypros, the Bible and Homer, by Max Ohnefalsch-Richter, Ph.D. (London: Asher and Co., 1893; £9.) In two 4to volumes, of which the get-up, except the binding, reflects the utmost credit on the publishers, Dr. Richter gives here the results of his 12 years' work in Cyprus. He has been a successful explorer, though as he was not rich and had often to work for others, there are accounts as vexing as they are amusing of the difficulties which he encountered. One volume contains plates giving illustrations of Dr. Richter's discoveries; but many more such are interspersed in the pages of the other volume also-forming thus one of the most profusely illustrated works that we have lately seen. In the volume containing the text

-530 pages—190 are devoted to explanations of the plates. The other 340 pages treat of ancient places of worship in Kypros, of tree worship and its transition into anthropomorphic image worship, of Imageless worship and that of fabulous beings. We have received the book too late for a full review, such as its interest and importance demand : our space moreover for each review is strictly limited. Numerous elucidations are the result of the author's discoveries, not the least important of which are some bilingual inscriptions. A wide reading and deep erudition enable Dr. Richter to connect the art, worship and civilization of Kypros, which he says must have been extremely early owing to the favourable situation of the island, with Egypt, Greece, Babylon, Assyria, Syria and the yet only too little known Hittites. He traces Adonis-Thammuz and Astoreth-Aphrodite to tree worship, and finds that this and other parts throw much light on various passages of the Bible ; e.g., on the High places, and in i Kings XX. 23, on the gods of the valleys and those of the hills. The Homeric Greek gods he traces also to their Kyprian sources. It is interesting to find the Fish as a religious symbol centuries before its adoption by Christians as a representation of our Lord, from the letters of its Greek name. Dr. Richter, with much ingenuity and learning, traces the connection of Kyprian art with that of Egypt, and the East ; and mentions among other things the peculiar pottery which he attributes to Kypros, but which

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