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Father de Cara has traced to the Hittites, in mentioning whom, we may add, we have noticed among Dr. Richter's illustrations, several statues with the oblique Mongol eyes, that would show an early settlement in Syria and Asia Minor of a race to which some have traced the Hittites. Dr. Richter promises further results of his discoveries; and while we congratulate him on his splendid book, which is as interesting to the Biblical scholar as it is to the Hellenist, and especially to the Archæologist, we shall look with eagerness for the completion of his work.
22. Buddha Charita of Ashva Ghosha, edited by E B. Cowell, M.A. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 12.) This work is known only from three copies of a manuscript which is inaccessible in Nepal. It was translated into Chinese early in the fifth century of our era, whence Professor Cowell infers that it then enjoyed a great reputation among the Buddhists of India, and that the date of its composition must be fixed at least one or two centuries earlier. A Thibetan translation, dating from the seventh or eighth century, and marked by great faithfulness to the original, gives us a valuable means of checking the modern manuscripts of the poem. A comparison of the Thibetan and Chinese versions shows that Books XV., XVI., XVII. in our Sanskrit manuscripts do not belong to the original text of the Buddha Charita. Professor Cowell shows that this fact is probably explained in two Shlokas added to the colophon of the last book, in the Cambridge manuscript ; the concluding Shloka is :
“Sarvatrânvishya no labdhvå chatuh sargam cha nirmitam,
Chaturdasham panchadasham shodasham saptadasham tatha." _"Having sought everywhere and not found them, four cantos have been made by me, the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth.” The date of these Shlokas, is A.D. 1830 ; and they are to be attributed, probably, to the Amrtânanda mentioned in Rajendralâl Mitra's “ Nepalese Buddhist Literature.” Only the first thirteen and part of the fourteenth books belong, therefore, to Ashvaghosha. Professor Cowell points to the fact that “a peculiar interest attaches to them for their importance in establishing Professor Bühler's views as to the successful cultivation, in Northern India, of artificial poetry and rhetoric in the early centuries of our era :" thus rendering untenable the theory which brought Kâlidâsa and Vikrâmaditiya to a period only twelve centuries ago. The Buddha Charita, as we have seen, cannot be later than the third century of our era, and may be several centuries earlier ; it, nevertheless, contains as Professor Cowell shows, the peculiar qualities of style characteristic of the poetry of the Sanskrit “Renaissance.” The parallels between Ashvaghosha and Kalidasa (Raghuvansha, Kumâra Sambhava,) are full of interest, and form, perhaps, the most valuable part of Professor Cowell's preface. An English translation of the Buddha Charita will shortly appear in the “Sacred Books of the East " Series.
23. An English-Telugu Dictionary, by P. SANKARANARAYANA, M.A., Madras, 1891. (London : Luzac and Co.) We may say, at the outset, that this seems a thoroughly practical and accurate book, well adapted to the needs of native students, and of the few Europeans who desire to translate from English into the “Italian of India.” The printing is better than
Indian printing often is, though it still leaves much to wish for. The paging, however (between the two words “Damn” and “ Damnable,”) is defective, but the author is careful to point out that no matter is missed between these two words. The very long and needlessly discursive Introduction has some suggestive sentences. We learn, not without apprehension, that "we have already ceased to have our communication with friends and relations in Telugu, wherever the alternative of English is in the least possible. We have almost given up conversing in Telugu, or at all events in unmixed Telugu, whenever we meet English-knowing friends." This calls to our memory a conversation we once over-heard in a railway-slation in Bengal. Said the first Babu : “Amrå Congress-ete giyâ, fighting-for-the-common-cause hoibo !” His fellow replied : “Ha! Amâder deshe Conshtitushun karite hoibe !” Need we say that sentiments like this do not call up the unmixed admiration that real sturdy patriotism and self-respect might command.
24. The “Vidyodaya”; a Sanscrit Critical Monthly. Annual subscription, 8s. ; post free. Edited by PANDIT HRISHI KESH SHASTRI, and published by the Oriental University Institute, Woking.
Vidyodaya (October, 1892). The contents of this number are: (1) A part of the Lingaviveka, a useful list of doubtful and irregular Sanskrit Genders. (2) An instalinent of the Paribhashendushekhara—The Moongarland of Grammatical Technicalities. (3) The concluding thirty stanzas of Pâdäravindashatakam, a poem on the goddess Durgâ's foot. (4) Kalimáhâtmyaprahasanam, a farce on the Iron Age.
Vidyodaya (November, 1892). Contents : (1) The Lingaviveka, continued. (2) A part of the Alankâra Sútram, a Sanskrit Ars Poetica, of the artificial school. (3) A biography of Pandit Premachandra Tarkavâgisha, in Sanskrit. “As a Sanskrit journalist,” says the writer, “we feel our earnest duty to give a biographical sketch in Sanskrit of the late Pandit Premachandra Tarkarâgisha.” (4) Advaitaprakaranam, a treatise of the school of “Unity” (Adrâita) of the Vedânta.
Vidyodaya (December, 1892). Contents : Lingaviveka, continued. (2) Kalimâhâtmyaprahasanam. (3) Mahâranyaparyavekshanam, a journey through the great Forest. (4) Paribhashendushekhara, continued. (5) Alankâra Sútram, continued.
Vidyodaya (January, 1893). Contents: (1) Atmatatwaviveka, or a discourse on the existence of the soul, by Udayanacharya, with commentary. (2) A treatise on Adwaitabada of the Vedanta Philosophy. (3) Aphorisms on Sanskrit rhetoric. (4) Rules on the use of genders in Sanskrit. (5) New Year. (6) Kusumanjali, or a treatise on the existence of God, with commentary.
The printing and press-work being done in India leave much to be desired ; the scholarship, however, is accurate and reliable; and the whole work is a very interesting illustration of the class of studies which chiefly occupy the pandits.
25. Adzuma ; or, The Japanese Wife, by Sir Edwin ARNOLD. (Longmans and Co., 1893; 6s. 6d.) Sir Edwin Arnold has secured so high a place for himself as the writer of “The Light of Asia” that it would seem
to be difficult even for him to ever again reach the same heights, though his present Idyll, ending in tragedy, is as perfect in its gentleness as is his Epic in its sublimity. In the book before us the reader is transported into the midst of old Japan, and told the tale of sweet, patient, faithful Adzuma, and of her noble, loving Lord Wataru Watanabe. It is a play in four acts, and many a pretty scene fascinates the reader as he turns page upon page. I may mention the following in Act III. It is the celebration of the there popular Autumn festival, when all the folks gather under the many-coloured maple-trees.
“ The great feast in the groves of momiji,
Scarlet and purple, saffron, russet, rose."
“ Oya ! my maids ! I gave you leave to match
Your prettiest gowns with Autumn's dying dress,
Yet she outglories you." Her attendants follow her strains in praising Spring and Summer which they like best. The whole scene and many others are full of charm and delicacy, containing passages of great beauty which would be effective on the stage, on which it is to be hoped the piece will shortly appear.
The IV. Act is very touching, and centres in Adzuma's self-sacrifice, who cuts the fatal knot of intrigues instituted for her and her husband's destruction by the only escape possible in her eyes-namely, by skilfully contriving that she shall be murdered by mistake instead of her husband.
26. Diary of an Idle Woman in Constantinople, by FRANCES Elliot (London: John Murray), with Map and Illustrations ; 145.
It is very much to be regretted that the idle author was not too idle to write at all, for with Mr. Murray's own Handbook, the busy traveller to Turkey does not also want a “ Diary” which teaches him what he has to unlearn. Arriving at Constantinople by land, the author missed the beauty of its scenery as it rises in terraces, which can only be fully enjoyed in a Kayik boat from the sea. She, apparently, put herself into the hands of a Greek interpreter, and imbibed from him all the misconceptions of ordinary Greeks regarding everything Turkish. The book has been made up by historical after-thoughts, which, however, do not correct the errors at the beginning, but there are stories of the love and murder of the late Sultan, that are sure “ to sell” the hasty compilation to which we refer.
27. L'Insurrection Algérienne de 1871 dans les chansons populaires Kabyles, par RENÉ BASSET. (Louvain : J. B. Istas, 1892.) This learned Professor of the École Superieure des Lettres of Algiers here gives a very interesting pamphlet of 60 pages, one-third of which is devoted to indices of French words adopted into the Kabile language, and of Berber roots, while the other two-thirds give on opposite pages the Kabyle songs with a well-executed translation into French. The part on Berber roots is of very deep philological interest. The notes added by the learned professor are characteristic of his wide reading and profound erudition.
28. Les Bas-fonds de Constantinople, by Paul DE RÉGLA. (Paris : Tresse and Stock, 3rd Edition.)
This author certainly knows what he writes about. We prefer, however, his amusing account of the autonomy of the dogs, the scavengers of, Stamboul, to that of the intrigues-political and social-of men, whom, association with Europeans appears to have deprived of the dignity which, used to accompany even Oriental vice. Those who wish to know what passes behind the scenes of the Turkish Capital, cannot do better than peruse the pages of this book. M. Paul de Régla, however, renders justice to the “true Turk,” than whom we ourselves have seen fewer better specimens of piety, honesty and capacity for Government—witness the condition of Servia, before and after, its complete emancipation from Turkish rule.
29. Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition, by CHARLES G. LELAND. (London: Fisher Unwin.)
The saying of Dionysius of Halicarnassus with reference to the Etruscans, namely that they are unlike any other nation as regards language and customs, still holds good, as far as the language is concerned ; Prof. Krall's discovery, however, of an Etruscan “linnen book” folded round a mummy in an Egyptian tomb, may give reasonable hope that the time is not far distant when important clues to the ultimate decipherment of the language will be available. Old Etruria was a veritable home of augury and divination. Spirits and ghosts played a prominent role in the Etruscan religion. In the liber linteus we frequently meet the word “Hinthu ”—a ghostwhich is one of the few Etruscan words that can be translated. (See Krall, die Etruskishen Mumienbinden des Agramer National Museums, 1892.) It is Mr. Leland's merit to have devoted many years of untiring research to the task of throwing light on the old religion and sorcery which is still alive among the peasantry of the Tuscan mountains. The author's remarkable gift for eliciting the secrets of the "old faith” from his informants, who appear to hold it in even greater reverence than they do the saints of their churches, renders him pre-eminently successful in these and similar researches; as much of this strange traditional creed is on the verge of dying out Mr. Leland's labours were most opportune and deserve our thanks. It appears that this Etruscan witchcraft—"stregeria ” though less than what might be termed a faith, is certainly something more than a mere system of sorcery; Mr. Leland has even rediscovered the names of the old Etruscan gods, such as Tinia or Jupiter, Faflau or Bacchus and Terams or Tunus (Mercury) as we read them on the Etruscan mirrors, and abundant proof is produced that these ancient deities yet live in the memories of the Tuscan peasantry. The mass of material collected by the author, consisting of invocations, legends, incantations and the like, reproduced in the original Italian and in translation, is really astounding. Mr. Leland's statement that the difficulties of “extracting” witchcraft from the Italian Strege far surpass those he experienced in collecting “volumes of folk-lore among very reticent Red Indians and reserved Romanys” is fully credited by us ; we have good reason not to doubt it.
The distinguished compiler's descriptions and quotations leave the impression of being derived from original sources and in the preparation of the work he had moreover the advantage of advice from Senatore Comparetti, one of the greatest living Italian scholars. To judge from the
comments, notes and explanatory passages generally, Mr. Leland is thoroughly acquainted with the existing literature on the subject of Etruria, in Latin, Italian, German and English. The only thing which we do not like in the book are the illustrations of ancient monuments of figures; they are so carelessly done as actually to give the impression of being reproductions from clumsy forgeries.
OUR LIBRARY TABLE. We beg to acknowledge with thanks the receipt of: 1. Kossovo, by Madame Elodie L. Mijatovich (London: W. Isbister, Ltd.). 2. The History of Modern Serbia, by the same authoress (London: W. Tweedie). 3. Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien. 4. La Revue des Revues, Paris. 5. The Contemporary Review (Isbister and Sons, London). 6. The American Journal of Philology (Johns Hopkins University Press, Boston, U.S.). 7. La Civiltà Cattolica (Rome). 8. Lucifer (Theosophical Publishing Company, London). 9. The Scottish Geographical Society's Magazine (Edinburgh). 10. The American Antiquarian (S. D. Peet, Chicago, U.S.). 11. The Review of Reviews (London). 12. Le Bulletin des Sommaires (Paris). 13. Biblia (Boston, U.S.), an American Journal of Biblical and Oriental Research. 14. Le Polybiblion (Paris). 15. The Journal of the Society of Arts (London). 16. La Révue Générale (Brussels). 17. Tung Pao (E. J. Brill, Leyden). 18. Publications of the Geographical Society of Paris. 19. Public Opinion (Washington and New York, U.S.). 20. The Journal of the United Service Association (Simla, India). 21. The Missionary Review of Reviews (New York, U.S.). 22. The Indo-Chinese Opium Question, by R. N. Cust, LL.D). (Hertford : S. Austin and Sons).
We regret that owing to want of space we are obliged to postpone the following articles :
A. Rogers, C.S. (late of the Bombay Council): “A reply to Sir W. Wedderburn's article on “Russianized Officialism in India.'”
F. Ongley: “The History of Pious Foundations in the Ottoman Dominions."
His Exc. Ched. Mijatovitch: "A chapter in the History of British policy in the Balkan Peninsula."
A. H. Ellis : “The Amaxosa Káfirs," and other interesting articles.
We also trust to be able to give, in an early issue, an illustrated history of the Shawl Manufacture and its Alphabets, of Græco-Buddhistic Sculptures, and of the various classes of Fakirs and other religious wanderers or squatters in India and Central Asia, as soon as the illustrations to accompany the text can be reproduced.
For several issues past we have been obliged, in order to do justice to current topics and inquiries, to increase the usual number of pages of this Review (224 to 240) to 272 pages (as in this issue). As there, however, is a limit to the space at our disposal, we are constantly compelled to postpone the publication of articles as important, if not so urgent, as those immediately published.-ED.