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REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
1. Memoirs of my Indian Career, by Sir GEORGE CAMPBELL, K.C.S.I. (London: Macmillan and Co., 1893, 2 vols. ; 21s.) Sir George Campbell's long and meritorious service in India, in both the Judicial and Administrative Departments, has left distinct marks in more than one part of that country, all of which he travelled over if he did not live in : he even visited Singapore, Hong-Kong and Canton. A Haileybury man, of the old type, he understood the people over whom he ruled, sympathized with them, and was generally understood by them. He was distinctly conservative in India, whatever he may have been in Parliament; and his object was to improve on the old native institutions rather than to abolish them in favour of our newer civilization. He read much, thought soundly as a rule, and wrote well. These memoirs, which he did not live to complete, end with the Bengal famine of 1876; and his style is familiar and clear, sometimes witty, often humorous, always pleasant to read. They are not full of himself, as such memoirs usually are; but in tracing his own career he furnishes a fund of information on India. He has a thorough command of his subject. He discusses the Mutiny, successive viceroys, Lord Clyde and Sir C. Napier, native character and ethnology, judicial systems and codes, a proposed new Metropolis for India, the village communities :—but he is particularly interested in what concerns the land and its cultivators. His thorough knowledge of India, both from experience and reading, enables him to treat his numerous subjects with exactness and correctness,-even though we have gaolies for gwalas and Chuddahs for Chuddars. Space forbids our saying much in detail of this interesting book which should be read by all who wish to extend their knowledge of India—for it is a country that requires much study. Excellent, each in its way, are, a comparison between village communities and our own municipalities (p. 81), a sad and over-true tale (p. 85), a touch on the jury system (p. 136), the Edlingham Burglary with reference to India (p. 158), Sir H. Ramsay of Kumaon and the Exchange (p. 169), a sound policy about native States (p. 180), the proposed abandonment of Peshawur (p. 237) where he does justice to Lord Lawrence for what we have always considered a parallel to Napoleon at Mantua. In vol. 2, he touches on “European-educated rulers” (p. 86), on the chronic absence up to his time of statesmen in Madras (p. 114); on Ethnology (p. 130 and seq.). Good instances of Sir George's outspoken criticism are at p. 130 : “The Sonthal rebellions were not without much provocation,” at p. 157 and seq., on the Orissa famine, and on "Eye-wash" at p. 172. Clyde, Napier, Nicholson, Edwardes, Hodson, Broadfoot and some others get some sound knocks, but neither malicious nor undeserved; Lawrence, Thomason, Colvin, Mayo and others have new and favourable light cast upon them ; Kaye, Malleson and Canning come in for good criticism. We conclude with a characteristic anecdote. In Kashmir, “I had occasion to say to a man Are
you the head man of the village ?' ! Well,' he NEW SERIES. VOL. VI.
said, “if there is any one to be beaten for anything, I am the man : if you call that being headman, I am,'” (ii. 122)—which tells a tale.
2. The Oxford Teachers' Bible, with Helps to the Study of the Bible, as an appendix. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1893.)
3. Helps to the Study of the Bible (as a separate volume). (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 45. 6d.)
4. The Cambridge Teachers' Bible, with The Cambridge Companion to the Bible, as an appendix. (Cambridge and London : C. J. Clay and Sons.) The Companion (as a separate vol.), 3s. 6d.
These new editions of the Bible, according to the Authorized Version, are splendid specimens of the printing and binding of the great Universities' presses. Our copies are 8vo, minion type; and the paper though thin is so good in quality that the type does not show through. Each Bible (the Oxford of 1,000 pages, the Cambridge of 998) has, as an appendix, what would form a goodly volume in itself: and indeed each is printed also separately. Both the Oxford Helps (pages 378 +6+15) and the Cambridge Companion (405+6+9) contain a good concordance, indexes of subjects and proper names, with the Natural History and antiquities of the Bible and Biblical History and its connections. The two books, however, are not the same, but are similar or parallel works, of recognized value. Helps has a Harmony of the Gospels, the Companion is rich in Introductions to separate books; each has a good atlas and geographical index ; both contain much common matter, given in different form ; but each has its specialities. The Helps has more maps and illustrations, the Companion treats the text more fully. There is not much to choose when both works are, in every respect, excellent. Students of the Bible should provide themselves with both.
5. Comparative Philology of the Old and New Worlds in relation to Archaic Speech, by R. P. GREG, F.S.A., etc. (London : Kegan Paul and Co., 1893; 31s.), indicates wide reading, deep research and close attention, and is of the highest importance to both the student and the proficient in Comparative Philology. The author modestly puts it forward as an attempt to show that an archaic substratum underlies all languages now in existence, and is also visible, therefore, in the hitherto little considered languages of America. Accordances had already been long known between certain languages ; and later researches by Dr. Edkins, Professor Abel and others had shown their existence where they had not been generally suspected. Mr. Greg carries the matter a long step further, by his extensive and classified tables of accordances, which include African and American languages. He advocates the comparison of words, and especially of roots and cognate meanings, in preference to that of sentences and grammatical niceties, in spite of Prof. Sayce's paradoxical statement that language consisted of sentences before it did of words. The author's erudite introduction naturally includes disquisitions in anthropology and ethnology, besides philology; and Mr. Greg thinks that all these tend to show a common origin of the human race.
Our limits preclude any detailed analysis of the contents of this large 4to volume of over 400 pages, of which the Introduction-a mine of information, taking 73 pages of rather small print, is followed by a table of accordances for African, English, Accadian, Chinese and American, with a separate column for “Sundry” languages. An accordance between Chinese and Accadian is then given from the Rev. C. J. Ball. Next we have Aryan and Semitic accordances, with American and “Sundry”; some from the Basque; and others between Ancient Mexican and Aryan, from Biondelli. The next part deals with accordances between Turanian and American languages. The last part consists of comparative philological tables of certain selected class words representing such primitive notions as must have formed part of the earliest archaic languages, -under the supposition that speech is a gradually developed attribute of the savage man. The author does not give any definite conclusions; but he has with infinite pains and great skill put together the materials which, with additions by himself and other hands, will enable scholars to arrive, in course of time, at something even more conclusive than comparative philology has already set forth. The study of archaic speech is only in its infancy; but the infant promises well for the future.*
6. James Thomason, by Sir RICHARD TEMPLE, Bart. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 35. 6d.) Uniform with the lives of the “Rulers of India,” though not itself forming one of that excellent series, we have here the biography of an estimable man and a good governor, from the ready and graceful pen of Sir Richard Temple. His materials are carefully collected from the oral and written reminiscences of many who knew James Thomason intimately and had worked with him, including Sir Richard himself. The book is eminently pleasing; for it not only gives a full portrait of the man, but presents also a carefully filled in background of the work he did and the circumstances of the times. The land settlement, the Ganges Canal, the efforts for elementary vernacular education, the founding of the Rurki College are among the deeds which have cast around Mr. Thomason's career a halo of well-merited renown; and Sir Richard, like a good biographer, carefully and accurately details all this, with the incidents of his hero's life, without prolixity or undue partiality. Men of James Thomason's stamp are sadly needed in India, instead of the present root-and-branch reformers ; and our author quotes a passage at p. 174, which many in India should study: “I want to do something in a manner consonant with Native institutions and ideas, and also to induce the people to work with me and exert themselves in the cause.” Of Thomason, Sir Charles Napier wrote--and he was not apt to praise Civilians-“He is an able and good man, but wants to polish and clean without change.” Many think that is just all that should be done. The problems of Indian statesmanship are by no means yet solved; and the study of lives and of sayings like these of James Thomason are useful to read for their solution. We heartily recommend the book to our readers.
7. Philistines and Israelites, by H. MARTYN KENNARD. (London: Chapman and Hall, 1893 ; 6s.) It really is a long while since we saw so wonderful a book, in which one knows not what most to admire—the
Especially if it were to really study what has already been done on the field of IndoGermanic research.-ED.
author's astute detection of a most fearful conspiracy against truth, or his astounding discovery of hitherto unknown facts, or bis marvellous powers of making things “massively evident.” As by a touch of Ithuriel's spear, he transforms what mankind have hitherto blindly accepted as history, into mere sophistry. He exposes the horrible system of priestcraft, which, by wholesale, continuous and subtle falsifications, had corrupted every source of information; but Mr. Kennard, carefully “reading between the lines," succeeds in sifting out truth in spite of such books as Smith's “Bible Dictionary, which may be regarded as the concentrated essence of sacerdotal sophistry” (p. 198). We can note only a few of these disinterred “truths.” All history merely reports the struggle between only two races—the Cushite and the Elamite ;—wherever there is a fight, it can be between these two only, for of course civil wars are impossible ;—Abraham, who is also Father Ham, was a Cushite, ruling from the Euphrates to Thebes, and was a Pharaoh ;-so was Moses (Apepi) ;-0 was Joseph (Aohmes, who is an Elamite, by the way, though his great-grandfather was a Cushite) ;—50 was David (Horor); so was Solomon; so was nearly everybody that was anybody, including “The Lord" and "God” of the Bible. There were two Josephuses, and two Exoduses; and Saul, son of Kish, was Rameses XII. ;-Solomon accepted office under Shishak, who is also Sargon. Jesus Christ was the head of a rebellion of the Elamites against the Cushites: “He undoubtedly led a large and organized party; and we might conjecture that the Lord's prayer was a prayer for his restoration"; p. 253
"Peter succeeded Jesus as the recognised head of the house of Elam. It therefore follows that the present Pope Leo XIII. represents the same flag"; p. 254. Punch and Ally Sloper pale before Mr. Kennard as a source of amusement.
8. Social Life among the Assyrians and Babylonians, by A. H. Sayce, LL.D. (London : The Religious Tract Society, 1893 ; 25. 6d.) This small book, forming No. xviii. of the series styled By-paths of Bible Knowledge, is a reprint of articles contributed by the learned Professor to The Sunday at Home. That they are the result of long, deep, and varied studies goes without saying. With many details taken from the cuneiform inscriptions and other archæological data, Prof. Sayce professed to give a picture, popular and exact, of the peoples of Assyria and Babylon, of their ways of living, their surroundings and their civilization. He has succeeded admirably in enabling the reader to form as clear an idea of those remote times, as a good traveller can give us of distant regions which he has visited. Among others we may point out here data proving the falsity of the modern theory that all mankind have risen gradually from a savage state. As early as 3,700 years B.C., civilization is found existing in the East; and many things supposed to be modern are seen in an advanced stage of progress in the early history of the human race. Among these are, the spread of general education, the study of languages, the elaboration of legal documents, the cultivation of many other sciences besides astronomy, the advanced state of working in metals and the thorough development of trading and banking operations. We are able even to calculate the wages of labour, the fluctuation in price of most articles, and the value of lands, houses and rents. There is a chapter, full of interest, on the condition of slaves. The conclusion, dealing with the religions of the people, is perhaps somewhat vague ; but the book gives otherwise a very ample account of the people, clearly and well told.
9. New Lights on the Bible and the Holy Land, by B. T. A. EVETTS, M.A. (London: Cassell and Co., 1892.) Mr. Evetts' goodly and wellillustrated 8vo. is meant to give to the general reader a detailed yet brief history of recent discoveries in the East, shorn of mere technicalities interesting only to learned Orientalists. The remains of the Empires of Assyria and Babylon form the subject of his work, to which he has brought a deep knowledge, clear ideas, good method and a plain style. He records the discoveries and decipherment of ancient monuments and inscriptions and the difficulties which attended both operations. By the information which they convey, he illustrates many passages of Scripture, which are thus placed in a clearer though perhaps not quite a new light. Two points stand out prominently. One is the utter absence of proof of any savage state in Assyria and Babylon : when those empires first come before us, they are already in an advanced stage of civilization. The other point is that whenever the history of these states comes in contact with the Bible narratives, these are confirmed and illustrated. Even the defeat of Sennacherib is indicated, if not by the admission, at least by the very reticence of the usually boastful Assyrian inscriptions, to a greater extent than Mr. Evetts has here shown. His book is of importance to Biblical students and readers; and it should suggest to some one, who has the leisure, the yet unaccomplished task of illustrating, one by one, all the passages of Scripture which the present stage of discoveries—Accadian and Sumurian, Assyrian and Babylonian, Egyptian and Hittite-has touched. In face of the confirmations already furnished-many of them unexpected and startling in their clearness,—we may confidently anticipate that future discoveries also will but increase, externally, the trustworthiness of the inspired narratives. 10. The Influence of Buddhism on Primitive Christianity, by ARTHUR
(London : Swan Sonnenschein and Co. 1893 ; 25. 6d.) The author's attempt to prove that Christianity is nothing but a modified and plagiarized Buddhism and our Lord only an Essene=a Buddhist monk, has not even the merit of novelty. Ogre-like, Mr. Lillie begins with the “cracked human bones, 240,000 years ” old ; and having disposed of the old Testament by making Yahveh out to be a ghost, and trotting out Totems, he draws "parallels” in the events of the lives respectively of Buddha and our Lord. Many of these parallels exist only in a vivid imagination; as when at p. 61 a terrible bandit confronted and converted by Buddha in his mountain retreat is given as the prototype of the Penitent thief. When again, at p. 64, the Buddhist false disciple, carried down to hell without accomplishing his meditated treachery, is compared to Judas, most human beings will fail to see any resemblance. Mr. Lillie next gives his own peculiar version of the origins of Christianity and its sacred books
- very different from what history tells-and gets hopelessly lost in Apocryphal writings and Gnostic teachings, while he persistently disregards