« 이전계속 »
THE PUTTING ASIDE OF ARMS.
"Ος δ' ότε δή β' εντοσθεν έσαν δόμου υψηλοίο
*Εγχε Οδυσσέoς ταλισίφρονος ίστατο πολλα,-(Od. A, 125-128.) placed it in the stand with the many spears of Odysseus. Thus Plutarch relates that before the feast at which Alexander killed Klitus, the weapons were put away.
This was clearly in order to avoid the danger of a broil, when the guests were “in potations pottle deep,” and quarrelled, as Albanians even now do, under similar circumstances. Hence even now the host receives and takes charge of the arms of his guests, lest a blood feud should arise from anyone being slain in a dispute. Thus the practice has .continued among the same people from the time of Telemachus till now.
REPASTS. The Homeric repasts exactly represent the Albanian feasts of the present day when in camp, or travelling, or on the hillside away from home. Nor were they much more barbarous than the latter, or, it may be added, than a true British feast of the lower classes,—showing that little or no progress has been made in civilization in this respect, in 4,000 years.
There are several accounts of these dinners, with all the minute details usual in the Homeric poems.
. The first is in the Iliad (1, 201), where Odysseus and his deputation are hospitably received by Achilles in his tent. Immediately on their arrival he directs Patroclos to mix the better wine in a bigger bowl, and to have drinking .cups ready for each. Then he himself places a big block near the fire on which he throws the forequarters of a sheep and of a fat goat, and the hindquarters of a stall-fed
hog, which he with the assistance of Automedon cuts into junks and spits,-thus combining the butcher and cook. Meanwhile Patroclos lights a great fire; and when it has burned down to embers, he places the spits over it on rocks, and throwing on salt, roasts them, making what now in Albania would be called kebab, or roast meat. This he places on rush or wicker platters, and hands round, while Patroclos serves the bread.
Having cast some into the fire as a sort of practical grace or offering to the gods, they fall to, while Phænix, the Herald, takes round the wine. Upon this Odysseus, at a hint from Ajax, drinks Achilles' health in a speech, beginning much as at present, “ Health to thee, Achilles " ! (1). A, 446).
Chryses' sacrifice and subsequent dinner is much the same, with a little more religious ceremony and a greater share to the gods, ---the entrails are reserved as a special delicacy, and a Paean to Apollo takes the place of the business-like bribery speech of Odysseus.
These two are typical of all similar festivities in the Iliad ; nor do they materially differ in the Odysseyexcept that those given in Penelope's palace and Laertes' house are not camp but domestic entertainments.
Alkinous slaughtered twelve sheep, eight swine and two oxen to entertain Odysseus (Od. 9, 59).
Eumaios prepares a 5-year old stall-fed sow for Odysseus, when he appears. as a stranger (Od. E, 419); and Antinoos sets a large paunch before him, filled with fat and blood — in fact a black pudding, by some supposed to have been a haggis. (Od. Y, 163, 250 : compare also for these feasts I, 455, T, 420, Y, 25, etc.) At the grand feast in Odysseus' palace were consumed three stall-fed swine, a heifer, fat goats, and a cow; and the mode of preparation was the same as in the Iliad.
The present Albanians, when travelling in the country, or in camp, disembowel a lamb, and stuffing it with thyme and other mountain herbs, skewer it by running a stake
through it, and lighting a fire just as is described in the Iliad, they set up two forked sticks, and turn it over the fire till done in the skin,-wool and all. However uninviting the carbonized mass may appear, the burnt wool and skin are easily peeled off, leaving the meat quite tender and succulent. The host, leaning the spit against a tree or stone, slices off portions with his yatagan and hands them round.
Whoever has witnessed that most repulsive spectaclean ox roasted whole on the coming of age
of some territorial noble in England-must admit that, in matters of cookery, the peasants of Britain, who enjoy this holocaust, are not a whit more civilized in their feeding than the heroes before Troy. In fact there is no difference, save that the master of the house does not act as butcher and cook, and that ale takes the place of wine. Nor can much more be said for a Christmas dinner with its underdone beef, blood puddings, and the plum pudding abomination.
Gifts. The system of exchanging presents on all occasions of visits is equally practised by the modern Albanians. Though they be not so valuable as those of the Achaian chiefs, yet no guest ever leaves an Albanian house without some token. The Phaeacians gave splendid presents to Odysseus. (Od. N, 10-15; compare 0), 445 and 4, 130 and 615.)
games performed at Phaeacia much resemble those of the present Albanians running, leaping, throwing the quoit, wrestling, and the like; the same are recorded at the funerals of Patroklos and Hector. (11. Y, 263 ; xxiv, 800 ; Od. O, 15, 75, 106.)
CATTLE-LIFTING was as much a custom among the Homeric heroes as with the modern Albanians. Odysseus went to demand compensation for cattle stolen. (Od. O, 19.) The occupations of HUSBANDRY were not below the dignity of Chiefs. Eumaios states that he was of gentle birth, yet he tended swine; Laertes cultivated his orchard and vineyard ; Odysseus himself yoked a bull and a horse and ploughed the seashore to feign madness, sowing salt. The dogs of the Molossi are a large breed resembling the Esquimaux type. When the Albanians wish to keep them off, they sit down and throw stones, as Odysseus did. (Od. E, 29; 2, 105.)
The Pelasgi were an architectural people, for they fortified Athens and the Acropolis before it could be considered Greek. The remains of their stupendous structures termed Kyklopian or gigantic are to be found all over Epeiros, in Ithaka, and even in Italy. While the beautiful temples, built 3,000 years later by the same race when civilized, have barely remained as ruins to excite the wonder of succeeding architects of all nations, the rougher Kyklopian remains of a far anterior period have defied time.
Arms were so highly prized that the manufacture of the best kind was attributed to the god, Hephaistos, who twice supplies Achilles. So with the Epeirots, arms are the most valued of possessions. The arms were inlaid with precious metals. An instance of the high consideration in which arms were held is found in Mediæval Britain, in the Heriot or Heregut-war-goods--that is arms lent to tenants, and on their death returnable to the Lord.
(Continued from Vol. VI., page 201.)
NOTES ON THE DISEASE CALLED CHOLERA MORBUS,
OR CHOLERA ASPHYXIA.
Appearance of Cholera in 1787 at Arcot.
The following notice is from the proceedings of the Medical Board of the Madras Presidency, dated the 29th November 1787 : “A disease having prevailed in October last at Arcot similar to an Endemic that raged amongst the natives about Paliconda in the Ambore valley in 1769-1770, in an army of observation in January 1783, and in the Bengal Detachment at Ganjam in 1781, and several other places at different times, as well as Epidemic over the whole coast in 1783, under the appearance of Dysentery, Cholera Morbus, or Mordyscim, but attended with spasms at the præcordia and sudden prostration of strength as characteristic marks ; seeing that this Board is ordered to make a record, the Physician General recommends as a guide to future practitioners, that a letter from Mr. Thompson, Surgeon of the 4th Regiment, containing an account of the dissection of one of the patients who died of the disease, and describing the state of the viscera, may be entered on the face of the proceedings, together with two letters from Mr. Duffin, Head Surgeon at Vellore, and one from Mr. Davis, Member of the Hospital Board, containing an account of the causes, symptoms and successful treatment of the sick by the use of the hot bath and fomentations, supporting the vis vitæ with wine, &c., and removing the putrid colluvies from the intestines. The Hospital Board sensible of the advantages that may result to the service from the mode proposed by the Physician