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has adhered to his decision. There has been some serious fighting between the Sultan's troops and the Himaleen and Sarasheen tribes, the former proving victorious, though suffering heavy loss. The country is still in an unsettled state. Captain Binger has been appointed French governor on the Ivory Coast, and General Dodds, after a hearty reception in
has returned to Dahomey, where Behanzin has not yet submitted. The French have got behind Sierra Leone, and are preventing caravans from coming to British territory from the interior, compelling them to go round to French territory.
From the Congo STATE, it is said that Tippu's sons have been defeated at the Stanley Falls and driven from the fortress of Issangi at the mouth of the Lomani; Captn. Jacques at Albertville has been reinforced by Lt. Long from Tabora, and has driven back the Arabs beyond the Lukuga ; and Capt. Decamp is conveying 2 artillery guns, via the Shiré, to Tanganyika. Captain Dhanis has succeeded Van Kerckhoven, and has fixed England's sphere of influences at the 24° to 31° degrees, and is about to extend his own operations up to Wadalai, an expedition sent to his aid under Capt. Baert having enabled him to repulse those who barred his way. Emin Pasha, reported to have started for the Congo State direct in October 1892, is at length definitely pronounced to have been slain by the Arabs. Captn. Dhanis has found a box full of interesting documents left by Emin.
At the CAPE the revenue for the year is given at £5,008,241, and the expenditure at £ 4,689,424 ; the surplus will be used to extinguish the balance of the 5 % debt of 1883. For the ensuing year the revenue is estimated at £5,600,000 and the expenditure at £4,874,071. The anticipated surplus will be used for railways and local expenditure. A joan is proposed of £100,000 for railway betterment. No additional taxes are needed. Diamond stones to the amount of £1,000,000 have been sold by the De Beer's mine to a stone Syndicate in London.
In NATAL Responsible government was proclaimed on 4th July, and came into operation on the 20th, after a general election. The SWAZILAND convention continues to hang fire, but President Kruger is said to be dissatisfied with the action of the British government. Lobenguela's impis have been raiding in Mashonaland, and approaching Victoria. On being warned, they refused to retire, and were chased out. Lobenguela himself continued friendly and declared it had been done without his orders; but the situation continues serious. The South Africa Co. who were responsible for the peace, were quite alive to the circumstances. At Lourenço Marques, the greater part of the Postal, Customs, and Railway officials had been dismissed, and traffic was suspended, leading to an acute crisis. The German E. Africa Co. shows a profit of 205,560 mks., for which 117,154 were carried over from last year : the dividend was 5%; and the coffee plantations are prospering. The German Anti-slavery Committee at the request of Major Wissmann have sent presents to the British officers who had helped him in the expedition for the conveyance of their steamers to the Nyassa lake. The Anglo-German delimitation has been ended satisfactorily.
In UGANDA, Sir Gerald Porial has given back to the Catholics some
territory of which they had been deprived by Captn. Lugard, and a kind of modus vivendi has been established. While on his way back to the coast, he was suddenly recalled to re-establish order which had been seriously threatened by the Muhammadans. The Muhammadans are said to number 20,000; the Protestants about 200,000 ; and the Catholics about 50,000, of whom about 10,000 have been baptized. The total population is given as 500,000 but is said to be more probably only 300,000. Our government still await Sir Gerald's report, before deciding what they will finally do regarding Uganda.
MAURITIUS has suffered from a severe fire.
The late financial crisis in AUSTRALIA has resulted in the prosecution of several Bank officials and in the reconstruction of several of the collapsed Banks. The last measure is partly to be regretted, as there are far too many Banks for the requirements of the colonies. Retrenchments are being made all round, education and public works both suffering heavily on this score. The gross public debt at the close of 1891 was £ 192,000,000; of which £131,000,000 had been spent in productive works, £116,000,000 being for railways. The Colonies have objected strongly against the proposed occupation by France of the New Hebrides. Two or three artillery officers are to be sent each year to India to attend the winter camps of exercise of their arm of the service. Australian wines last year were 260,231 gallons against 177,346 last year.
In West AUSTRALIA the new Constitution Bill has granted virtual manhood suffrage. The gold product of last year is given at £277,000. A new loan is proposed of £540,000 for completing public works, but will not be floated at once. Though an unfortunate outbreak of small-pox diminished the Customs' receipts, the total revenue increased 10 per cent., and was £205,000, expenditure £142,000—credit balance £63,000.
In South AUSTRALIA, notwithstanding new taxation, the revenue was only £2,500,000 being a decrease of £280,000. Customs fell off £41,000, railway revenue £56,000 and Land £61,000. The estimate for the coming year is to show a surplus of £6,000. The total deficit which in 1887 was £1,000,000, had by 1893 been reduced to £680,000, but has now increased again.
VICTORIA has reduced its Governor's salary from £10,000 to £7,000 a year, and also the salaries of her ministers, members of parliament and other officials. The financial statement shows a deficit of £960,188; this is to be met by retrenchments, an income tax graduated from 3d. to 6d., a dividend tax and other imposts—3 per cent. on all foreign produce which does not actually pay 4 per cent. The retrenchments are believed to save £175,000; the new primage duty to bring in £100,000. If the estimates prove correct, there will be a balance to the good next year. The income tax was carried after violent opposition, by a majority of 7. The revised estimates just received promise a clear surplus of £471,000 towards reducing the estimated deficit of £1,250,000.
NEW SOUTH WALES has been very indignant at the apathy of the Home government in not insisting on full redress in the matter of the Costa Rica ship detained by the Dutch East Indian authorities; and say that the indemnity of £ 2,500 paid to the Captain is insufficient. A seamen's strike has collapsed after doing some damage to trade as a matter of course. Additional taxation has been imposed to about £250,000 on wealth and property. The revenue shows a decrease of £497,000.
In QUEENSLAND, Sir T. Mac Ilwraith, escaping defeat by the casting vote of the Speaker, wished to resign ; but his resignation was not accepted, as it was felt that in the present financial situation any dislocation in the government would be a positive calamity. Retrenchments have been made to the amount of £300,000, and 600 officials have been dismissed. The revenue was £3,446,000, or £220,000 below the estimates ; expenditure £3,473,716; the deficit was £27,716 ; making a total debit of £287,000, mostly covered by recent Treasury Bills. The estimates for this year are, revenue £3,375,000 and expenditure £3,378,000. Salaries of Civil Servants over £150 are reduced by 10 per cent. ; but salaries fixed by parliament (especially of ministers) remain intact. The creation of North Queensland into a separate colony was rejected by the Legislative Assembly by 31 to 16 votes.
New ZEALAND continues her prosperous career, and naturally objects to being federated with Australia—at least just now. She has a surplus of £130,000 to put to that of £ 283,000 from last year. Of this £250,000 are to be devoted to public works, and a small reduction will be made in taxation. The Bill for Woman's Suffrage has passed.
TASMANIA is still under her financial depression, and her deficit in December will be £30,000. It will be met by increased customs and probate duties, a land tax and a graduated income tax, Sir E. Braddon retires from the office of Agent of the Colony, and his successor is to receive only £500 a year.
The SOLOMON ISLANDS group, which was already under our protection, is now formally annexed.
The most important event of the quarter regarding CANADA is the Award of the Behring Sea Arbitrators. The court consisted of seven members, 2 for America, 2 for Great Britain (one a Canadian), and one each from France, Italy, and Sweden and Norway. Of these, one American sided throughout with the American claims, the other only on one point, while on all the rest, the decisions were given by 6 to 1. These were :1. that though Russia had claimed jurisdiction over the Behring Sea up to 100 Italian miles off its coasts and islands, she had subsequently admitted both to the United States in 1824, and to Great Britain in 1825, that her rights were restricted to a cannon shot" from the shore, and since then, till the cession of Alaska, had exercised no greater powers ;—2. that Great Britain never recognized nor ceded any exclusive jurisdiction of Russia beyond the ordinary 3 mile limit; 3. that the Behring Sea was included in the term Pacific Ocean in the treaty of 1825 between Russia and Great Britain and that no exclusive rights beyond territorial waters were held or exercised by Russia ;-4. that all Russian rights did pass unimpaired to the United States by the treaty of March 1867 (unanimous);5. that the United States have no right of protection or property in the seals frequenting the islands belonging to the United States when such seals are found
outside the 3 mile limit (both the American delegates dissenting). The arbitrators continued that these decisions having left it necessary that the British Government should concur for the establishment of any regulations for preserving and protecting the seals frequenting the Behring Sea, they (by 4 votes to 3, the Canadian and the 2 Americans dissenting) agreed to the following articles : 1. Both Governments to forbid sealing within a zone of 60 geographical miles around the Prityloff Islands ;-2. to have a close season from 1st May to 31st July on all the high seas north of 35° N. Lat., and 183° E. (Greenwich) Long. till this meridian strikes the water boundary described in Art. I. of the 1867 Treaty, and following that boundary up to Behring Straits ;-3. steam vessels to be forbidden to engage in sealing ;-4. all sealing vessels to have a special licence from their respective Governments and a special flag ;-5. their log is to contain the exact date and place of each sealing operation, and the number and sex of the seals caught each day; and these entries are to be exchanged between the Governments at the close of each sealing season ;—6. nets, firearms and explosives to be forbidden, but shot guns may be used outside the Behring Sea at lawful times;—7. the two Governments are to test the fitness and skill of all sealers ;-8. these regulations are not to apply to Indians inhabiting the coast, and sealing in open canoes carrying not more than 5 persons, provided they seal for themselves and are not employed by other persons; and this exemption does not extend to the waters of the Behring Sea and the Aleutian Passes ;—and 9. this concurrent regulation, which will continue in force till abolished by mutual consent, shall be subjected to examination of its working every 5 years, for the purpose of revision or modification. The award on matters of fact, concerning the seizure and warning off of vessels was also given in favour of England. Finally, the minority (while not withdrawing their recorded negative votes in detail) accepted the whole of the award as decided by the majority, and thus formally constituted it a unanimous award. They added, 1. that Article VII. should be supplemented by detailed regulations by each of the two Governments and be settled by mutual agreement ;—2. that they should try to agree to prohibit all killing of seals on land or sea for 3, 2 or at least 1 year, and should repeat such prohibition from time to time ;3. that the mode of carrying out these awards must be settled by the two Powers. The result has given general satisfaction to Great Britain, the United States and the Canadian Government; but the Canadians interested in sealing naturally object to it as restricting their former liberty of action. May all future difficulties between Great Britain and the United States be solved with equal ease, good-will and satisfaction !
Esquimault is at length to be fortified by the Royal Engineers and to be garrisoned by the Royal Marines. The Canadian Militia is also being reorganized, with 38,000 men, while Halifax remains the only place held by the Imperial troops, in number 1,500. Martini-Metford rifles have been received for the Canadian service. The Intercolonial Railway, owing to the introduction of reforms, has succeeded in wiping out its annual lossthe average for 6 years being $440,000,--and has shown a small surplus : Income $3,065,499, and Expenditure $3,045,317. A strike on the ManiNEW SERIES. VOL. VI.
toba and North Western Railway had injured trade a good deal. Messrs. Huddart and Ward's line of steamers between Canada and Australia has secured a contract for 10 years: a third vessel is to be added at once and the number to be gradually increased. Keppel Bay in Queensland is to be the last Australian point of departure, subject to the payment of a subsidy by the Brisbane government; and the Canadian Pacific Railway officials are to act as Agents for the line in Canada, the United States and England. Messrs. Napier and Sons of Glasgow are treating with Canada for a service of fast steamers across the Atlantic. A great fire at Gibson, N. Brunswick, has destroyed half the town, causing damage valued at $200,000, but luckily without loss of life; and a great hurricane swept over the maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, with great loss in shipping, forests and crops. The total deposits in the Dominion Postal Savings Banks on the 30th June were $24.153,193, an increase of nearly $2,000,000. The number of Chinese immigrants was 2,258 against 1,024 last year, giving a Poll tax of $113,491. It is stated that in future Yokohama, on account of the cheapness of outfitting, will be the new headquarters of the sealing fleets, vice Victoria, British Columbia. The crops have been the best since 1882. The revenue for the year ending 30th June shows an increase of $1,250,000, and the expenditure was reduced by $600,000, leaving a surplus of $1,500,000. The Fisheries' report gives the total at $18,941,171, of which exports were $9,675,396; the capital invested is $7,500,000, and employs 63,000 men. The failure of the Commercial Bank of Manitoba will injure only the shareholders, as the depositors are paid in full. There was some religious rioting at Montreal, but luckily not of a serious nature. An American fishing schooner was seized at Cape Egmont, Prince Edward's Island, and admitted poaching, paying $500, and costs.
At NEWFOUNDLAND the French persist in giving more and more trouble, and pretend to the right of exemption from duty for all things imported for them. The Newfoundland Government object; and having seized some provisions which had not paid duty, they declared that they were treating the French vessels exactly as they treated British vessels. The French, however, were not satisfied; and their admiral, in a childish huff, declined the civilities offered him, and blustered a good deal. The matter is still pending.
From the WEST INDIES, the TRINIDAD Report for 1892 shows an increase of exports and a larger number of visitors and tourists, and of depositors in the Savings Banks. Its revenue was £563,984, and expenditure £554,390, showing a surplus for the first time-£9,793. The public debt was £608,820. The population was 214,496—an increase of 8,787 during the year. Imports were £1,861,027, and Exports £2,005,277. The Pitch lake revenue was £37,232 ; and is estimated for 1893 at £42,500. Roads are still much wanted. In BARBADOS, the receipts with the surplus in hand covered the expenditure, leaving £10,000 to be carried forward. In both islands the McKinley Tariff Act has failed to injure exports. In Tobago there was a deficit of £1,551 ; and at the end of the year, the assets were £962 and the liabilities £2,596. The population was 19,534.