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OBITUARY.—The deaths have been announced during the quarter of: Lt.-Gen. W. G. Gordon, B.S.C., who served in the Sonthal, Mutiny, Bhootan, Assam and Cuttack Campaigns ; Major W. T. Johnson (Crimea, Persia, and Mutiny); Jehangirshaw Erakshaw Kohiyar, Assistant Secretary to the Bombay Government, distinguished for scientific, literary, and administrative ability; General Sir Lothian Nicholson, R.E., K.C.B. (Crimea and Mutiny), Governor of Gibraltar ; Gen. H. Pritchard (Goomsur 1835 and Kolapur 1845); H. H. Ali Kemal Pasha, cousin of H. H. the Khedive; J. G. Grant, C.M.G., sometime Speaker of the Barbados House of Legislature; Sir Charles P. Layard, K.C.M.G. of the Ceylon Service; Madame Lenormand, widow of the eminent Orientalist ; Dr. John Rae of Arctic Exploration fame; Count Terashima, a leading Japanese nobleman and politician; Captn. Raymond Portal, who died on duty in Uganda ; Gen. Sir Edward Hamley, R.A., K.C.B., K.C.M.G., Grand Officer of the Medjidieh, equally distinguished for military and literary work; Col. G. N. Greene, (Maharajpur, 2nd Punjáb and China wars) ; H. G. G. Cadogan, 2nd Secretary of Legation at Teheran ; W. Holloway of the E. India Co., for 14 years Judge of the High Court, Madras; Sir R. Price Pulleston, Bart. (Kaffir war); Col. F. C. H. Clarke, C.M.G. Bombay Artillery, Surveyor-General of Ceylon, who had helped in the delimitation of Bulgaria in 1878 and of Turkey in Asia in 1879; Lt. Gen. J. R. Gibbon (Crimea and Mutiny); Major-Genl. C. C. Johnston, R.E. ; Gen. the Hon. Sir A. A. Spencer, G.C.B. (Portugal and Crimea), Commander-in-Chief at Bombay, 1869-74; Col. A. G. B. Ternan (Manipur 1891), Maj.-Gen. W. Ramsay, Madras S.C. ; Sir J. Russell, C.M.G., Chief Justice of Hong Kong ; Genl. W. Arbuthnot, C.B.; General J. Daubeny, C.B.; Sir J. P. B. Walsh, Bo.S.C. (Mutiny), author of several works on India; Surgeon-Major T. H. Parke, of the Stanley-Emin expedition ; Gen. Sir Arthur Borton, G.C.B., G.C.M.G. (1st Afghan, Sutlej and Crimean wars), Governor of Malta, 1878-84; General Purwana Khan, Deputy Commander-in-Chief (Naib Sipah Salar) of Afghanistan, who rose to that office from being a slave ; the Rev. Dr. H. Gundert of the Basel Mission, sometime Inspector of Schools in Malabar, and author of an Encyclopædic Dictionary of Malayalim-English, published at Bangalore in 1892 ; the Nawab Abdul Latif Khan Bahadur, C.I.E., a leading Muhammadan gentleman of Calcutta ; Senator Donald Montgomery of Halifax, N. Scotia; the Hon. Mr. Justice Telang, C.I.E., of Bombay, a well-known Sanskrit scholar and jurist; Sir A. Tilloch Galt, G.C.M.G., a leading Canadian statesman ; Col. T. B. Kennion, R.A. (Sutlej and Mutiny); Dr. Daniel Jerome MacGowan, the oldest Foreign resident in China, - unequalled for his knowledge of the people and their ways; the Hon. W. Pearson, of Melbourne. 21st September, 1893.
P.S.--The INDIAN BUDGET, most culpably delayed, was introduced in the House of Commons on the 21st September. A motion was made to allow all officials an appeal to the Home Government, now restricted to the higher grades. The Under-Secretary said it would only cause an enormous increase of work, but he was willing to consider any practical plan. The motion was negatived without a division. Another motion was then made, for a Royal Commission to investigate the condition of India. It was seconded by Mr. D. Naoroji who dwelt on the poverty of India and the evils of a foreign administration. This motiou became merged in the general discussion of the Budget on the 22nd, after being opposed by Sir G. Chesney who showed the incompetency of Mr. Naoroji to pose as a representative of India, from want of general experience of the country, by Sir J. Gorst who defended the Indian Services, by Sir W. Harcourt who dwelt on the unmerited slur to the Indian Government, citing Lord Beaconsfield who declined to entrust the British Empire to select committees and commissions; and by Mr. Goschen who endorsed that view. Sir W. Wedderburn supported Mr. Naoroji and, when challenged as to what practical good the Congress party had done, attributed to it his own life-long labours for the relief of agricultural distress in the Deccan, a remarkable instance of self-effacement for party purposes !
The Under-Secretary for India then made the Budget statement, which we condense. The surplus in 1891-2 had been Rx. 467,000 or Rx. 113,435 over the estimate. In. 1892-3, the net revenue had increased by Rx. 1,891,600,- net expenditure by Rx 3,120,000,--and the anticipated surplus had been changed into a deficit of 1,081,900. Half the increase of revenue had been owing to reduced sales of opium causing increased prices; the remainder, from Land, salt, Excise, stamps, etc. or this increase, Rx. 451,000 were credited to the Provincial Governments, and Rx. 1,440,600 to the Imperial: Government. The chief increase of expenditure was due to forestalling some of the fol. lowing year's expenses, in (1) the conversion of 4 per cents.-(2) changing Forloughsand Pensions to monthly payments,—(3) Settlement of accounts with the War Office (£175,000=Rx. 280,000). Exchange, calculated at 1s. 4d. ; had been just under Is. 3d. ; and the fall of a penny on the net expenditure in England meant Rx. 2,055,500.
The increase in military expenditure was Rx. 464,400. The calculations for 1893-4 were : Receipts. Rx.
Expenditure. Rx. Departmental Receipts 29,500,000 Army
23,000,000 Land 25,200,000 Railways
21,500,000 Salt 8,600,000 Civil Governments
14,500,000 Opium ... 7,300,000 Buildings and Roads
6,100,000 Excise 5,200,000 Interest on debt
2,900,000 Provincial Rates
3,700,000 Post Office and Telegraphs ... 2,600,000 Minor Sources 6,100,000 Miscellaneous
Rx. 1,600,000. “ The Home Charges” had increased from Rx. 3,000,000 in 1891•2, to Rx. 10,500,000, in 1893-4!!! The Under Secretary then went into a commonplace statement of the question of exchange and the closing of the Indian mints to free coinage of silver, and mentioned, but gave no justification of, the extraordinary sale of Council Bills just in the nick of time to smother the rising exchange at the close of last June. The official exchange for remittances had been fixed at is. 6d. at a cost of Rx. 480,000. The estimates revised to date gave an increase in revenue of Rx. 1,640,000 and in expenditure of Rx. 13,500, leaving a clear improvement of Rx. 290,000 and reducing the estimated deficit to Rx. 1,305,100. The opium outlook was bad.
From 1891-2 to 1893-4, Rx. 19,850,000 had been sanctioned for railways and irrigation, with an addition of only Rx. 3,406,000 to the debt ; and Rx. 5,500,000 had been spent by companies, the interest being guaranteed by government. The present value of the assets of public works covered ihe debt of India, except about Rx. 28,000,000, or half a year's net revenue ; 45 and 33 per cent. loans and debentures had been and were still being converted to 3 per cents. at favourable rates ; 490 miles of railway had been opened during the year,--the total mileage on 31st March being 18,042. Evidence of the prosperity of India was found in the increase of imports and exports, in accumulation of treasure, in enhanced material comforts, art and ornaments in houses, the greater quantities of food and salt consumed and in the higher prices paid for land. Much remained to be done for education and hygiene, and the Government were sincerely desirous to do everything possible for India.
Sir R. Temple pointed out the fallacy of the alleged depreciation of silver hoarded by the people of India and their asserted misery. Mr. Keay spoke about ruin to India from the closing of its mints to free coinage. Mr. Goschen stated that the Indian Government were very careful not to be overcharged by the British Government, that India did not pay its due share for its protection by the Imperial navy, and that the Colonies ought also to pay more, not India less. He approved of the closing of the mints as there was no alternative, but doubted if unmixed good would result. Mr. Everett spoke about the closing of the mints having contracted the currency of India ; and Mr. Montagu refutet him. The Chancellor of the Exchequer said that the Government had acted on tl.e best advice possible ; and Sir J. Gorst approved of that action. Mr. Egerton Allen complained of the inadequate machinery for administering justice in Burma. Mr. Russell summed up and said that this point would be considered ; and the resolution accepting the Budget was passed. The formal report was brought up and agreed to, on the 23rd September.
REVIEWS AND NOTICES.
1. Our Indian Protectorate, by C. L. TUPPER, I.C.S. (London: Longmans and Co., 1893 ; 16s.). This bulky book is none too large for the very important question which it treats. Mr. Tupper is master of his subject, and he discusses, with great knowledge and marked ability, the relations between the British Government in India and the Feudatory Indian Chiefs. The progress of time, developing and consolidating what had already been achieved, must render more close and intimate the present bond of union between us and these Chiefs, if India is to be made a peaceful, prosperous, contented and powerful Empire. On what lines shall this intimate union be established ? Arbitrary interference and domineering high-handedness must have no part in our dealings. We must study history, and the texts of our treaties with these Chiefs, and the advantage of both rulers and ruled, in order to establish the principles on which we are to deal with our feudatories. This is what Mr. Tupper has ably tried to do; and considering that his is almost the first attempt to do justice to this vast and important subject, he has done his work excellently and thoroughly. He touches on International Law, as connected with this matter ; he glances at the history of the protectorate—including (at greater length) the annexation of Oudh; he treats of Lapse and Adoption; and he gives clearly our present policy and mode of dealing with native States. The nature of sovereignty and feudalism in India is next given at length, with its difference in various parts of India. Chapter XVII states very fairly some of the advantages of native rule ; and Chapter XX is on India in relation to Imperial Federation. Many things laid down by Mr. Tupper are simply applications of Western legal ideas to the special circumstances of India ; and these, though sound enough in themselves, must rather rank as what should be than as what actually is the law at present. We have the power to lay down laws; and so long as we do this with due .consideration for the rights, feelings and susceptibilities of our Indian feudatories and subjects, they will accept our regulations willingly, act up to them honestly, and be loyal to our paramount power.
But we must be just and prudent. Mr. Tupper tells us plainly that his book is unofficial. It is a "study” to help towards the settlement of a question as important an I complicated as it is difficult and delicate. As a help to this desirable conclusion, his work is invaluable to British and Indian politicians; and we congratulate Mr. Tupper on having written with much pains a book deserving of deep and careful study, free from serious blemishes, and stating his case ably and clearly. We hope that he will be followed by other writers, on the lines which he has here opened out and made practicable for them, with one strong, admirable effort.*
2. Ceylon in 1893, by John FERGUSSON (London : John Hadden and Co., 1893; 7s. 6d.) is a well-illustrated Handbook to Ceylon, brought up to date from former editions, and enlarged by the addition of the statistics of the census of 1891. The appendices which form the bulk of this stout
* We have just received an article on the above work which, with every appreciation of its able writer, differs from the opinion of its reviewer in this issue in pointing out that it will lead to the still further lowering of the status of our Indian Feudatories. We propose to examine this subject in our next issue.—ED.
volume, deal, at length, with many matters concerning Ceylon, its products, sports and resources, and they are generally very interesting reading. Appendix VII, where under the title of Christianity and Missions in Ceylon, we had expected to find much interesting detail, gives little beyond a panegyric of the author's own sect and his efforts at disestablishment. There is a rather long drawn description of an "Elephant Kraal,” by which we suppose he means a Keddah ; but he errs in saying that it is peculiar to the Island. Appendix VI, on Anarudhapura is the most interesting part of the book. There is too much tendency to giving a couleur de rose view of things; and those who have been in the island, will hardly agree that there are no leeches or snakes in Ceylon.
3. Round the Black Man's Garden, by ZÉLIE COLVILLE, F.R.G.S. (Edinburgh and London : W. Blackwood and Sons, 1893 ; 16s.). This book is excellently got up by the publishers ; it is well-written and well-illustrated by the authoress; and it has two good maps,-one of Africa and the other, on a larger scale, of Central Madagascar. The accidental spoiling of many of the negatives taken by the authoress of typical natives in various places, was a serious loss, with which the reader will sympathize. She gives us a personal account, interspersed with good descriptions of places and peoples, of a journey from Alexandria, via Suez, Mombasa and the inevitable Zanzibar, to Madagascar, which she traversed from East to West. This is the most interesting part of the book, because it deals with an almost unattempted country; and in the lively pages describing her journey, some space is occupied by M. Myre de Vilers, who, transferred from Madagascar for no special qualification as far as our authoress can tell us, is now engaged in trying to bully and outwit Siam. From Madagascar our authoress and her husband went to Mozambique, Quilimané, Lourenço Marques and Durban, whence they visited Pretoria, Joannesburg, Kimberley and Cape Town. Thence going by steamer to the Canaries, they proceeded to Senegambia, and visited Bathhurst, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Accra, Bonny and Libreville, and ended their long and eventful journey at Lisbon. Mrs. Colville writes well and pleasantly, and is a good observer and a plucky traveller ; and her book will be read with great pleasure by the general reader, who besides the entertainment provided by the varied incidents depicted in its pages will find no small amount of knowledge of the lands and peoples visited by the authoress.
4. Lord Auckland, by Captain L. J. TROTTER (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 2s. 60: Rulers of India Series). The different volumes of a Series like this are necessarily of varying merit, according to the capacity of each individual author. In the volume here noticed, Captain Trotter maintains the high position secured to him as an author by his previous works. As a biography, however, it is decidedly wanting. We are told little regarding Lord Auckland himself, either before, during or after his Governor-Generalship; and even the sketch of his character is brief, fragmentary and incomplete : we have the right to expect, in such a work, a good deal more regarding both the man and the ruler. Captain Trotter gives us, in fact, little beyond a history of the first Afghan war, with its fortuitous concourse of singularly blundering and incapable actors.
our author has told in an excellent manner-clearly, boldly and truthfully, though the share of the blame deserved by Lord Auckland himself is rather minimized. The story is very opportune in the present year, when the same "Forward Policy” is being again advocated and pursued, notwithstanding the warning voices of numerous able and experienced men; and when young politicals eager for distinction and ignorantly earnest for the security of our North-western Frontier, are again being allowed to nieddle and muddle, and to worry and harry on our extreme frontiers in that direction, while the Amir of Afghanistan is being needlessly interfered with and abused. Among some other defects of Captain Trotter's book, we note his having taken, at full value, Broadfoot's Career of Major George Broadfoot, which thrusts the latter gentleman into an undeserved promi
We would recommend the reading of Sir A. Lyall's just strictures on that work and his remarks on the proved character of its hero. The attempt to damage the reputation of Sale should not have found a place in this account of the Afghan war.
5. Lord Clive, by Col. G. B. MALLESON, C.S.I. (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 25. 6d.). This other volume of the Rulers of India Series, more than maintains the high character of its predecessors; and nothing less could be expected from the talented author, who is so thoroughly at home in every part of Indian History. He throws new light on Clive's history from some documents lately published by Dr. Forrest. The account of the battle of Plassey is of deep interest : Col. Malleson shows clearly how little of real fighting settled the already arranged fate of the betrayed ruler of Bengal; and how, for once in his life, Clive, utterly unnerved, simply drifted into safety on a tide of events over which, after he had started them, he was unable to exercise any control. Other parts of the book are equally well done. But the defect, which we have pointed out in other volumes of the series is not absent from this; we see Clive beautifully delineated as the dashing soldier, the daring leader, the inflexible governor, and the prudent reformer ; but of Clive as a husband, a father, a friend, as a man in one word, little or nothing is given except what one may read between the lines of the history. His private domestic life remains so much under a veil, thåt Lady Clive is barely mentioned; and here at least we have no hint how many children they had, when she died, and how they lived together. There are some blemishes of diction. One cannot gather who murdered Chanda Sahib (p. 73), or what was “the insidious disease which rarely left him " (p. 142), what it was he proposed to do with his jaghir, nor how the Clive fund in 1858 came to Clive's descendants (p. 178). There are some peculiar and faulty constructions as at pp. 40, 65, 153. The "stiver” at p. 173 may pass; but a grove cannot be correctly described as diagonal to a river (p. 95) nor a man as “resolving to act in petto,” (p. 66); and to sue in forma pauperis (p. 118) is quite a different thing from being merely a humble suppliant. Surely it was not the Subahdar but the Subah which was put up for sale (p. 162). There are misprints as 111 for 113 (page 87), Doh for Dah at p. 118, India Office for India House, several times. But what becomes of Sir W. Hunter's transliteration, when Shah 'Alam (King of the World) is changed passim,