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REVIEWS AND NOTICES. 1. Our Indian Protectorate, by C. L. TUPPER, I.C.S. (London: Longmans and Co., 1893 ; 16s.). This bulky book is none too large for the very important question which it treats. Mr. Tupper is master of his subject, and he discusses, with great knowledge and marked ability, the relations between the British Government in India and the Feudatory Indian Chiefs. The progress of time, developing and consolidating what had already been achieved, must render more close and intimate the present bond of union between us and these Chiefs, if India is to be made a peaceful, prosperous, contented and powerful Empire. On what lines shall this intimate union be established ? Arbitrary interference and domineering high-handedness must have no part in our dealings. We must study history, and the texts of our treaties with these Chiefs, and the advantage of both rulers and ruled, in order to establish the principles on which we are to deal with our feudatories. This is what Mr. Tupper has ably tried to do; and considering that his is almost the first attempt to do justice to this vast and important subject, he has done his work excellently and thoroughly. He touches on International Law, as connected with this matter ; he glances at the history of the protectorate—including (at greater length) the annexation of Oudh; he treats of Lapse and Adoption ; and he gives clearly our present policy and mode of dealing with native States. The nature of sovereignty and feudalism in India is next given at length, with its difference in various parts of India. Chapter XVII states very fairly -some of the advantages of native rule ; and Chapter XX is on India in relation to Imperial Federation. Many things laid down by Mr. Tupper are simply applications of Western legal ideas to the special circumstances of India ; and these, though sound enough in themselves, must rather tank as what should be than as what actually is the law at present. We have the power to lay down laws; and so long as we do this with due .consideration for the rights, feelings and susceptibilities of our Indian feudatories and subjects, they will accept our regulations willingly, act up to them honestly, and be loyal to our paramount power. But we must be just and prudent. Mr. Tupper tells us plainly that his book is unofficial. It is a “study” to help towards the settlement of a question as important anil complicated as it is difficult and delicate. As a help to this desirable conclusion, his work is invaluable to British and Indian politicians; and we congratulate Mr. Tupper on having written with much pains a book deserving of deep and careful study, free from serious blemishes, and stating his case ably and clearly. We hope that he will be followed by other writers, on the lines which he has here opened out and made practicable for them, with one strong, admirable effort. *
2. Ceylon in 1893, by John FERGUSSON (London : John Hadden and Co., 1893; 75. 6d.) is a well-illustrated Handbook to Ceylon, brought up to date from former editions, and enlarged by the addition of the statistics of the census of 1891. The appendices which form the bulk of this stout volume, deal, at length, with many matters concerning Ceylon, its products, sports and resources, and they are generally very interesting reading. Appendix VII, where under the title of Christianity and Missions in Ceylon, we had expected to find much interesting detail, gives little beyond a panegyric of the author's own sect and his efforts at disestablishment. There is a rather long drawn description of an “Elephant Kraal,” by which we suppose he means a Keddah ; but he errs in saying that it is peculiar to the Island. Appendix VI, on Anarudhapura is the most interesting part of the book. There is too much tendency to giving a couleur de rose view of things; and those who have been in the island, will hardly agree that there are no leeches or snakes in Ceylon.
* We have just received an article on the above work which, with every appreciation of its able writer, differs from the opinion of its reviewer in this issue in pointing out that it will lead to the still further lowering of the status of our Indian Feudatories. We propose to examine this subject in our next issue.—ED.
3. Round the Black Man's Garden, by ZÉLIE Colville, F.R.G.S. (Edinburgh and London : W. Blackwood and Sons, 1893 ; 16s.). This book is excellently got up by the publishers; it is well-written and well-illustrated by the authoress; and it has two good maps,—one of Africa and the other, on a larger scale, of Central Madagascar. The accidental spoiling of many of the negatives taken by the authoress of typical natives in various places, was a serious loss, with which the reader will sympathize. She gives us a personal account, interspersed with good descriptions of places and peoples, of a journey from Alexandria, viâ Suez, Mombasa and the inevitable Zanzibar, to Madagascar, which she traversed from East to West. This is the most interesting part of the book, because it deals with an almost unattempted country; and in the lively pages describing lier journey, some space is occupied by M. Myre de Vilers, who, transferred from Madagascar for no special qualification as far as our authoress can tell us, is now engaged in trying to bully and outwit Siam. From Madagascar our authoress and her husband went to Mozambique, Quilimané, Lourenço Marques and Durban, whence they visited Pretoria, Joannesburg, Kimberley and Cape Town. Thence going by steamer to the Canaries, they proceeded to Senegambia, and visited Bathhurst, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Accra, Bonny and Libreville, and ended their long and eventful journey at Lisbon. Mrs. Colville writes well and pleasantly, and is a good observer and a plucky traveller ; and her book will be read with great pleasure by the general reader, who besides the entertainment provided by the varied incidents depicted in its pages will find no small amount of knowledge of the lands and peoples visited by the authoress.
4. Lord Auckland, by CAPTAIN L. J. TROTTER (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 25. 6d : Rulers of India Series). The different volumes of a Series like this are necessarily of varying merit, according to the capacity of each individual author. In the volume here noticed, Captain Trotter maintains the high position secured to him as an author by his previous works. As a biography, however, it is decidedly wanting. We are told little regarding Lord Auckland himself, either before, during or after his Governor-Generalship, and even the sketch of his character is brief, fragmentary and incomplete : we have the right to expect, in such a work, a good deal more regarding both the man and the ruler. Captain Trotter gives us, in fact, little beyond a history of the first Afghan war, with its fortuitous concourse of singularly blundering and incapable actors. This our author has told in an excellent manner-clearly, boldly and truthfully, though the share of the blame deserved by Lord Auckland himself is rather minimized. The story is very opportune in the present year, when the same “Forward Policy” is being again advocated and pursued, notwithstanding the warning voices of numerous able and experienced men; and when young politicals eager for distinction and ignorantly earnest for the security of our North-western Frontier, are again being allowed to nieddle and muddle, and to worry and harry on our extreme frontiers in that direction, while the Amir of Afghanistan is being needlessly interfered with and abused. Among some other defects of Captain Trotter's book, we note his having taken, at full value, Broadfoot's Career of Major George Broadfoot, which thrusts the latter gentleman into an undeserved prominence. We would recommend the reading of Sir A. Lyall's just strictures on that work and his remarks on the proved character of its hero. The attempt to damage the reputation of Sale should not have found a place in this account of the Afghan war.
5. Lord Clive, by Col. G. B. MALLESON, C.S.I. (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 25. 6d.). This other volume of the Rulers of India Series, more than maintains the high character of its predecessors; and nothing less could be expected from the talented author, who is so thoroughly at home in every part of Indian History. He throws new light on Clive's history from some documents lately published by Dr. Forrest. The account of the battle of Plassey is of deep interest : Col. Malleson shows clearly how little of real fighting settled the already arranged fate of the betrayed ruler of Bengal ; and how, for once in his life, Clive, utterly unnerved, simply drifted into safety on a tide of events over which, after he had started them, he was unable to exercise any control. Other parts of the book are equally well done. But the defect, which we have pointed out in other volumes of the series is not absent from this ; we see Clive beautifully delineated as the dashing soldier, the daring leader, the inflexible governor, and the prudent reformer; but of Clive as a husband, a father, a friend, as a man in one word, little or nothing is given except what one may read between the lines of the history. His private domestic life remains so much under a veil, thắt Lady Clive is barely mentioned; and here at least we have no hint how many children they had, when she died, and how they lived together. There are some blemishes of diction. One cannot gather who murdered Chanda Sahib (p. 73), or what was “the insidious disease which rarely left him” (p. 142), what it was he proposed to do with his jaghir, nor how the Clive fund in 1858 came to Clive's descendants (p. 178). There are some peculiar and faulty constructions as at pp. 40, 65, 153. The" stiver” at p. 173 may pass; but a grove cannot be correctly described as diagonal to a river (p. 95) nor a man as “resolving to act in petto,” (p. 66); and to sue in forma pauperis (p. 118) is quite a different thing from being merely a humble suppliant. Surely it was not the Subahdar but the Subah which was put up for sale (p. 162). There are misprints as in for 113 (page 87), Doh for Dah at p. 118, India Office for India House, several times. But what becomes of Sir W. Hunter's transliteration, when Shah 'Alam (King of the World) is changed passim,
into Shah Alim (Learned King); and the Mogul Emperor, well known as Aurungzebe becomes Aurungzib under Col. Malleson's pen and Aurungzib under that of Captain Trotter. These are, however, minor defects, which we point out rather for the sake of correction by the gifted author in subsequent editions of the book, which are sure to be called for, as new documents are unearthed. We have to thank Col. Malleson for a book as delightful to read as it is correct and exact.
6. Aurungzib, by STANLEY LANE POOLE, B.A. (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 25. 6d.). In this work, another of the Rulers of India Series, the author gives us an excellent portrait of the great Imperial bigot, who though not the greatest of the Mogul Emperors reigned over a larger extent of Indian territory than did any of his race. Yet amid the glory of his surroundings and the amount of his revenues, the star of Mogul domination had already passed the zenith. Our author believes in the entire sincerity of Aurungzib's bigotry and religiousness, and he certainly presents strong arguments for it; but they are not absolutely convincing, and we still feel that a certain amount of hypocrisy was not absent from the character of the “Namazi” as Dara called him. The word-portrait of the man and ruler given us by our author is as excellent as the engraving from an Indian artist's pencil which forms the frontispiece of the volume. There is an opportune disquisition at p. 120 proving that the Rupee of Aurungzib’s time was fully from 25. 3d. to 25. 6d. Not only the Emperor himself, but the circumstances of his times and the changes then taking place in India are clearly given, making the whole a very readable volume of this excellent series. We object, however, to the by no means proved charge of inimorality against Jehanara Begum, whose loyal filial devotion during her unfortunate father's captivity ought to have ensured the veiling of this irrelevant scandal. The mention, too, of bhang (p. 49 and elsewhere) in connexion with deeds of Rajput valour is historically incorrect and calumnious. Rajput chivalry needs no stimulant beyond its own high sense of honour, and to say that they need intoxicants is as untrue as the assertion that the French charge on Champagne, or the British resist to the death on Whisky or Beer. But the most serious blot in Mr. Poole's work is his description of Delhi and of the Mogul's palace, where, while professing to follow the generally accurate Bernier, there is no excuse for his placing the Chandni Chauk (Silver Street) inside the Fort, any more than for placing on the wrong walls the “ Agar firdous bar ru-i samin ast, Hamin ast, o hamin ast, o hamin ast.” It would be well for Mr. Poole to correct his pages of description of the great Imperial city with the help of someand there are still a few alive-who knew Delhi and especially the Imperial palace before the time of the Indian mutiny.
7. Lord Wellesley, by the Rev. W. A. HUTTON, M.A. (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1893; 25. 6d.). This—the last issued volume of the Rulers of India Series—is superior to several of its companions in giving us a better biography of its hero, and thus placing before the reader not only Wellesley the Ruler, but also Wellesley the man. Mr. Hutton had to contend not with the want but with the exuberance of the materials for his work; but the selections already published—and these he candidly acknowledges-placed valuable matter ready to his hands, and he has used it skilfully and ably. Wellesley's great qualities are impartially noted with all his little foibles; his accomplished services and his proposed reforms--especially for the eduction of officers—are well shown; the circumstances of the times are carefully delineated, their difficulties clearly stated, and the vexatious action of the Court of Directors, hampering him as they hampered others both before and after him, are duly dwelt upon. That Wellesley did really found the British Indian Enpire and thus did an inestimable service to England, and by no means a less one for India itself, is an admitted fact; the justification of his predetermined scheme of aggrandizement at the expense of Indian states is by no means an easy task. It may be said that if he had not founded the British Indian Empire someone else would have established a French one, may make his action politically justifiable; but we must distinguish between his case and that of some of his compeers who acted under the necessity of self-preservation, whereas he deliberately planned and perseveringly executed an aggressive system of extension, which, whatever its innate worth and resulting benefits, began and ended with many acts of questionable justice :6.g. his action towards the Nizam. But apart from this consideration, which is not inopportune amid the present craze for another “Forward Policy,” he certainly was a great man, who achieved a great work, and left to his followers, despite themselves, the task of consolidating and extending it. It logically resulted in the present developed state of this great dependency of the British Empire. Lord Wellesley and his work have found a good historian in Mr. Hutton. We must, however, note, as usual, a few defects. The dates at p. 44 are incorrect and confused ; Madhava Rao becomes Mahadaji and Nana is used as a name instead of being a title, at p. 83 ; we have Jadhpur at p. 98; and Omdal ul Onirah for Omdat ul Omrah in several places. We hope to see these and similar blemishes eliminated in future editions ; for one of the services rendered by this Rulers of India Series is the stimulating of a taste for Indian literature which is proved by the call for successive editions of most of the volumes of the series, already published.
8. The Book of Enoch, by R. H. CHARLES, M.A. (Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1893 ; 16s.). Mr. Charles has given us a most valuable work, the knowledge of which is necessary to all students of the Bible ; for the ideas in it must have existed in the minds of the writers of the New Testament, and of both Jewish and Christian writers down to the fourth century. Our translator has been preceded by several and notably by Professor Dillmann, whose learned and exhaustive work, indispensable to all who succeed him, Mr. Charles has mainly followed, supplementing it by the many discoveries since made. Mr. Charles gives the text of Dillmann's translation, adding, in notes, his own corrections from the Æthiopian MS. discovered by him in the British Museum. This modest plan is by no means good, and we should have preferred Mr. Charles' continuous translation from the British Museum MS., with Dillmann's variations in the notes ; and we hope this will be done in any future editions that may be called for. Fragments of the Greek and Latin versions, also recently discovered,