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have helped to make the result of Mr. Charles' learned labours more satisfactory ; and his book is a complete exposition of all that we yet know regarding the Book of Enoch. His introductions, general and special, his notes and critical apparatus, his excursus and appendices are all valuable contributions both to philology and Exegesis ; and we recommend it warmly to our readers. A very interesting study is that of the origin of evil spirits from the souls of the slaughtered giants, the descendants of the angels and of the daughters of men—which seems to constitute a link between demons, Jinns and Devs.

9. The Story of Abibal the Tsourian, by Val C. PRINSEP, A.R.A. (London : Smith Elder and Co., 1893 ; 25. 6d.), has eighty pages of an insipid story of the imaginary find by the pretended translator of the false papyrus of a pointless story of Abibal; a Phænician supposed to be shipwrecked and offered as a sacrifice to the gods in ancient Britain. There is nothing novel or interesting in either the plots or the results of the two stories, or parts of one story. Historical fiction is all right, when the author avows his literary offspring; but the staiements of giving pretended translations from imaginary ancient documents goes beyond fiction ; and as it may misguide the general reader, it approaches dangerously near becoming a falsehood.

10. The Life and Enterprise of Ferdinand de Lesseps, by G. BARNETT SMITH (London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1893 ; 75. 6d.). The sad darkness enveloping the evening of the life of this truly grand Frenchman gives to this book a deep and melancholy interest. The author begins with an account of the distinguished family of which Ferdinand has been the most distinguished. He then relates Ferdinand's successful and brilliant diplomatic career, in which his tact, energy, honesty and kind-heartedness are conspicuous in a remarkable degree. That career closed with an undeserved censure by a Ministerial Court who were really the parties meriting blame. It drove Ferdinand to the great work of his life, the Suez Canal ; and we are told, at length, the single-handed firmness of purpose, the indefatigable labours, the undaunted perseverance, and the unconquerable energy which accomplished that enterprise in the teeth of the senseless resistance of England. Next follows, in equal detail, the unfortunate Panama Canal scheme. That it was undertaken imprudentlyespecially as regards the inevitable loss of life in that terrible climate—is now an acknowledged fact. But beyond that, Ferdinand de Lesseps himself seems to be clear of blame, on whomsoever that may ultimately rest. Among the causes of failure, sufficient prominence is not given to the great earthquake of September 1882 (p. 271). The late trial and its results are given at great length ; with touching scenes of the present childlike condition of the Great Engineer : what the French deserve for their action against Ferdinand personally, no words can say. The book is well written, occasionally a little prolix, but full of interest. There are some easily rectified mistakes—as Ciceronaccio for Ciceruacchio the Roman demagogue, and a hopelessly confused sentence at p. 17; and sufficient credit is not given to Lord Beaconsfield's statesmanly purchase of the Canal Shares in 1875 (pp. 177 et seq.). The book, however, will be read

with a sad pleasure by all. The text of the treaty of Paris in 1888, which fixes the international status of the Suez Canal is of permanent value.

11. Persian Literature, Ancient and Modern, by ELIZABETH A. REED (Chicago : S. G. Griggs and Co., 1893 ; $2.50). As a popular compilation of much information, this book does a service to the general reader by placing before him in a condensed form—with occasional inaccuracieswhat he would otherwise have to seek in many and not easily accessible books. The authoress deals with Cuneiform, Pahlavi, and Persian, including--goodness only knows why—the Qurán. There is a good deal of the style known in America as “High falutin” which often degenerates into sounding nonsense. The authoress continually speaks of the "feet" of mountains, but does not specify how many each has; and trips in her mythology, and, of course, in her Oriental words. Canopus, she says,

was a star”: what it has become now who may tell. At p. 224 she condescends to call the Shah Nameh “a valuable Persian Classic," and that “in the Persian tongue it exists only in manuscript form,” evidently ignorant of the book's true place in Persian literature, its peculiar purity of style, and the fact of its having been, long ago, printed in France and in India, not to mention other countries. We wish, nevertheless, to compliment her on her diligence and perseverance. She gives us frequent extracts from Persian books, and thus presents to her readers specimens of some of the gems of oriental thought and language. The book is utterly useless to orientalists, as wanting both in depth and accuracy ; but it will benefit the general reader, because in generally following approved authors—e.g., Sayce and Rawlinson-our authoress is not often astray. 12. Canadian Poems and Lays, edited by W. D. LIGHTHALL, M.A.,

of Montreal (London: Walter Scott, 1893 ; 1s.). A dainty little volume of selected poetry by Canadian authors, arranged under nine distinct heads, illustrative of Canadian national life and aspirations, Canadian history and scenery, Canadian sports and seasons. The versification throughout is as correct, varied and charming as the subject matter. The beautiful ballad form lies side by side with lordly Spenserian stanzas and the nervous long measure rendered familiar in Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome. The double nationality with its double history is well and justly reflected, as is also the blending of the two together in the new spirit of the united nation, loyal and true to British Imperialism. At pages 8 and 9 is a stirring popular song, of which we quote the concluding verse :

“O triune kingdom of the brave,

O Sea-girt Island of the free,
O Empire of the land and wave,

Our hearts, our hands are all for thee.
Stand, Canadians, firmly stand

Round the flag of Fatherland.” Our readers will appreciate the poetic spirit and sentiment of this little gem from p. 120 :

“O light canoe ! where dost thou glide ?
Below thee gleams no silvered tide,
But concave heaven's chiefest pride.

Above thee burns Eve's rosy bar :
Below thee throbs her darling star;
Deep 'neath thy keel her round worlds are !

Above, below, O sweet surprise !
To gladden happy lovers' eyes :-

No earth, no wave,-all jewelled skies !".
We strongly recommend this charming collection of beautiful poems.

13. The Story of a Dacoity, etc., by G. K. BETHAM (London: W. H. Allen, 1893 ; 6s.). This book consists of two parts. The first relates, in a graphic and pleasant style, a tale of Indian life fortunately of rare occurrence—the night attack by robbers on a village head-man's house, attended with unusual and harrowing fatalities,—the tracing of the murderous outrage to its actors and abettors,—their pursuit, capture, and execution. The characters are well drawn, and the narrative spirited and smooth. The second part describes the gaieties into which most Indian stations break out, at least once a year, when dances and dinners, races and athletic sports reign, amid some flirting and much merriment. Here too the narrative is graphic and good; and though it lacks the excitement of the dacoity story, it presents a well-drawn picture of Anglo-Indian life. The whole is a pleasant and interesting book. Publishers should remember that books on India require the revision of their proofs by competent readers. Here we are treated to “Trickinopoly,” and “Sahib-tok," " fines (ficus) Indica,” “maidau"; and so on. These might pass; but the unconscious use of an improper Hindustani word on page 258 should be rectified at once.

14. Parthia, by Prof. GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A., F.R.G.S. (London: T. Fisher Unwin; New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1893 ; 55.). This new volume,—the 34th of the Story of the Nations Series which is doing good work in popularizing ancient History in detail—is worthy of a place in the Series, and worthy of the high reputation of its author. A good map of Ancient Parthia and its surrounding countries accompanies the work, with several illustrations, especially of Parthian coins. Prof. Rawlinson first gives the geography of Parthia and its surroundings, and what is known of the ethnography of the people, whom he decides to belong to the Turanian race. Then he correctly traces their history in a clear, and pleasant style, through all its vicissitudes, from after the death of Alexander, its contests with its Seleucidan, Bactrian and Armenian neighbours, and its wars with the Romans, to its downfall from a revolt of the Persians, under Artaxerxes. The last chapter-Parthian Art, Religion and Customs

-forms a most interesting portion of a wholly interesting work, which, with the other publications of which it forms a part, we can sincerely recommend.

15. Hindustani as it Ought to be Spoken, by J. TWEEDIE, Beng. C.S., 2nd Ed. (Calcutta and London : Thacker and Co., 1893 ; 6s.). We are glad to welcome anything which is at all likely to help the study of Oriental languages. In this work, the last 225 pages consist of a double vocabulary, English-Hindustani and vice versa. Of the first 100 pages, no small part is made up of columns of words with their meanings, which the author, in his preface, tells us, one must learn. We hope not; otherwise he will learn much that is not Hindustani at all :-Barun (brown), Kauch (Couch), names of European wines and articles of clothing, etc., which one wonders to find in such a book. Glancing at random, we find numerous mistakes : Hisab likhna for doing accounts, p. 24; cha, e for Cha, p. 12 ; chiz sab for furniture ; ghuzl for bath ; several names of months and days at p. 66 ; and several ordinals at p. 103. Even the vocabularies are not trustworthy : firmness is not sakhti, and Aru is a better word for peach than Shaftalu.

16. Etudes économiques sur la republique de Nicaragua, par Desiré Pector (Neufchâtel, 1893), is a detailed report on this Central American State, containing useful and reliable information on its geography, politics and commercial statistics, very important for intending emigrants and investors, and interesting to the general reader.

17. The Great Palace of Constantinople, by Dr. A. G. PASPATES (London and Paisley : Alexander Gardener, 1893 ; 1os. 6d.). Mr. William Metcalfe presents us with an excellent translation, from the modern Greek, of the erudite work of the lamented Dr. Paspates. The stout 8vo. volume, accompanied by a map showing the position of the ancient buildings, is of commanding interest to archæologists and, though in a less degree, to readers and students of Byzantine history, which it enables us now to study more clearly by the assignment of localities, that were hitherto little more than mere names. Personal observations and excavations, where practicable, have been supplemented by a rare familiarity with Byzantine writers, whose works have been exhaustively studied for topographical references; and though these works are at times vague and even contradictory, their collation has enabled the erudite author to fix, at least approximately, the sites of most of the places mentioned in Byzantine history. He follows in the main Constantine Porphyrogenitus. Yet studying the text side by side with the map, we cannot but see that a great deal is guess-work and does not quite tally with the description quoted.--take, as an instance, the Hall of the Pearl, p. 216. It is not to be expected that one author alone could fix definitely, in one effort, the position of buildings of which all traces are either completely lost, or the sites are covered with modern abominations. Students of Roman Topography will understand the difficulty; and hence we are all the more grateful to Dr. Paspates and his translator for the present attempt, successful as it is almost beyond all hope.

18. Chips by an Old Chum (London : Cassell and Co., 1893 ; Is.) is a light and airy sketch of the author's experiences in Australia, some 40 years ago. Things have, of course, changed greatly in the meantime ; and the Australia here described can no more be a guide to the colony at the present time, than it can be to ancient Britain ; but it is a clear and detailed account of life in Australia in the olden days; and as the author tried town and country life and gold-digging, there is much variety as well as interest in the 94 pages of this well got-up little work.

10. The Spoilt Child, by PEARY CHAND MITTER (Calcutta and London: Thacker and Co., 1893 ; 45. 6d.). Mr. Oswell has done well in presenting the English reader with a genuine Bengali novel, written by a Bengali and dealing with Bengali life. Almost all the characters are natives of India, of various castes, religions and states of life. The story is meant to show the evil of excessive parental love, which, by indulging every whim and

neglecting to punish, forms that very common evil in India,—a spoilt child. The incidents narrated by the author are good, the tale is full of interest and is well told. Being a didactic tale, however, it, as a matter of course, is rather prosy and goody-goody. Its chief merit consists in the insight which it gives into native manners of life and thought-generally unknown quantities to most Europeans. The translator has done his part well, though there is an occasional slip, as at p. 152, when the visitor snaps his fingers when Matilal sighs--a practice with Hindus, when one yawns. The book is well got up; and we recommend it to our readers as one in which they will find much interest and amusement.

20. From Messrs. C. J. Clay we have received Book VIII. of Herodotus, with an introduction and notes by E. S. SHUCKBURGH, M.A. (Cambridge: University Press; London : C. J. Clay, 1893 ; 4s.). This volume fully maintains the character of the well-known and justly admired Pitt Press Series. Mr. Shuckburgh's notes are both numerous and good, and the Geographical and Historical Index is both full and valuable.

21. A Short History of China, by DEMETRIUS C. BOULGER (London: W. H. Allen and Co., 1893 ; 12s. 6d.). Mr. Boulger's larger History of China is favourably known ; and this shorter one, which, as he tells us, is more than a mere abridgment of the former, is a book we can recommend to those of our readers, who wish to form a correct idea of the present condition and government of the great Eastern Empire. Ten pages-and quite enough--dispose of the semi-mythical history of the centuries before our era ; the next 24 pages bring us nearly to the close of the viiith century A.D., when we reach more trustworthy sources of knowledge ; and 12 more pages land us at the Mongol conquest in the xiiith century. The character and deeds of Genghiz Khan are well commented on at pp. 54–56. The Manchu conquest brings us to p. 125; and in the remaining 294 pages, Mr. Boulger treats, in increasing detail, the modern history of China ; and more than half the volume deals with the present century. The decline of the Manchu power, the increasing contact with foreigners, the wars and troubles resulting therefrom, the military operations and rebellions that ensued, are all given in good order and proportion. Nor are the internal affairs of the Empire, its intricate system of government and policy, so unintelligible to the ordinary Western reader, neglected : all these points are brought down to date and are treated fairly and impartially. A chronological table of the dynasties and emperors, and, as an appendix, the texts of various treaties between England and China complete a very useful and well-written book. There are blemishes which few works are quite free from. At p. 12, Mr. Boulger who ought to know better repeats the shocking bad character given to Lucrezia Borgia chiefly by Victor Hugo-a character unknown to her good and faithful people of Ferrara. He often calls the Chinese troops opposed to the Taipings the “ever victorious army," forgetting that the name applied to them only after Gordon assumed their direction; and this misnomer is used even on the page where he himself records their defeat. Matteo Ricci, the well-known Jesuit Astronomer, becomes an astrologer at p. 101. The diction, too, is at times prolix, and often capable of useful condensation. But on the whole Mr. Boulger gives

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