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us a very readable and exact history, in which we note as a special characteristic, the justice with which he apportions blame, where blame is due, to the foreigners who have themselves pretty often caused that very hatred of the Chinese which they then decry. Instances will be found at pp. 100, 160, 248, etc. There is a useful map ; and the work is an excellent book of reference for Libraries.

22. Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Al Medinah and Meccah, by CAPTAIN SIR RICHARD BURTON, 2 vols. (London: Tylston and Edwards, 1893 ; 12.). Lady Burton has undertaken to issue, as a memorial to her late husband, a new edition of his works, at reasonable prices; and Messrs. Tylston and Edwards here give us the first instalment, in a re-issue of perhaps the best known and most popular of Burton's many writings. The two volumes are excellently got up, with the illustrations and maps well executed, and give a good earnest of the rest of Burton's works being made easily accessible to the general reader, in a very creditable form. the book itself, but little need be said here as a recommendation, as it had already reached a fourth edition before the author's death. The incidents of a journey, as daringly planned as it was perseveringly and ably conducted, are graphically set down ; the author's notes of manners and customs are of the deepest interest; and Burton's many great and good -qualities shine forth very prominently. The sustained pretence of being a Muhammadan when he was not, is a matter for more condemnation than it has met with. Many will agree that no arnount of knowledge acquired or information procured can compensate for the moral evil done by travestying things sacred for profane purposes. Of course this pretence of being a Musulman reduced considerably both the difficulty and the danger of the undertaking, though we have no intention of derogating from the one or the other. Burton went as an Afghan Muhammadan ; and we doubt whether there would have been any more danger for one who professed to be an English or a French Muhammadan. Worthy of all admiration are his talent for disguise, his powers of observation, his readiness in difficulty, his perseverance, tact, endurance and energy which have procured to the world so deeply interesting a narrative of a journey through countries and a description of places which had been till his visit almostbut not quite—a sealed book to the West. Our readers will peruse, with pleasure, even if it be not for the first time, Sir Richard's visit to the Hejjaz.

23. The Life of Sir R. F. Burton, K.C.M.G., by his wife (LADY) ISABEL BURTON; 2 vols. (London : Chapman and Hall, 1893 ; 42s.). These two very bulky volumes, which reflect every credit on the publishers, contain a most elaborate and detailed account of their hero, with copious extracts from his writings published and unpublished, the whole of his own autobiography, and a good deal of Lady Burton's additions, explanations and excursus. The result, though heavy and tiresome to read, is a perfect picture of Sir Richard, with all his gifts and all his defects. Not that Lady Burton ever could see any defect in him : to her he was, most excusably, the one man created while all others only grew. But in her blind adoration, she has given much which a more judicious biographer would have omitted ; and her indiscriminating publication of all that she can recall of his words and deeds, presents us the man as he really was : strong-minded, strong-bodied and learned in many oriental tongues ; passionate, pushing, plucky and persevering ; headstrong, venturesome, obstinate and eccentric; lively, jovial, and highspirited ; a good friend and a bitter enemy; an excellent writer, a daring traveller, a successful explorer; self-opinionated, if not vain ; with many fine qualities and great gifts, but also with no small defects. What Lady Burton says of the Press writers, that the Burton of their ideas was not the real Burton at all, but a man she had never seen or known (ii. p. 409) is true of herself. From the puerilities. related of her first seeing him (i. p. 166) to the moment of going to press with her book, she has worshipped before an ideal idol, unable to see the reality before her; and so far as her biography goes, the Nile, for him and of course for her, really issues out of the Tanganyika Lake, which Burton discovered! It goes without saying that Sir Richard's Biography in Lady Burton's hands becomes also a concurrent biography of Lady Burton ; that in trying unconsciously to paint him in false colours, she unwittingly shows more of his nature than the most skilful painter could have done ; and that her own character is laid bare before the reader of her pages as plainly as that of her husband. There is a good deal of unnecessary padding-e.g., long pages of extracts from his published works, extracts from his diary having no connexion with his life (as the Casa Micciola earthquake and other things at ii. p. 253); absurd details such as doses of medicine administered and their effects, newspaper extracts, and the like. Far more serious faults are the attempts to lower the characters of wellknown men, whether because Burton disliked them, or came into contrast with them, as the great Outram, W. G. Palgrave, Speke, Grant, Sir W. Williams of Kars, Monsignor Valerga, etc. Lady Burton's book, full of blemishes as a mere literary production and a conventional biography, is a perfect reproduction of her husband (and of herself), and as such is all the more interesting to read, as it is invaluable for acquiring a thorough knowledge of a remarkable and distinguished man, who is a profitable subject for study, if we admit that “The greatest study of mankind is man.”

24. The Chronicles of Budgepore, by ILTUDUS PRITCHARD, F.S.S., F.R.G.S. (London: H. Allen and Co., 1893; 6s.). We welcome this new edition of a book which excited much attention and did much good at its first appearance. The facile and graceful pen of the sometime editor of the Delhi Gazette not only charmingly describes the varied phases of Anglo-Indianļ life, but records also the evils of some workings of the Indian departmental service and especially the condition of our courts of justice and administration where the European officers are so completely under the thumb of their native officials or Amla, that they see and hear only with the latter's eyes and ears. Many things have changed since these Chronicles were first published at Agra; but we have no reason for thinking that India has changed in this last particular. On the contrary, the throwing open!of the service to natives under the competitive system often brings forward to even more prominent positions and places in more influence and power classes of Indians who, except in the matter of knowing English, are utterly unfitted to govern or even to help in governing. The

amount of injustice and oppression resulting from the old system and if possible now aggravated under the new development may be seen and guessed in the lively pages of Mr. Pritchard, who, as a practising Barrister in the Indian courts, was much behind the scenes, and, known to be unconnected with the Government, allowed to see and hear much which most Europeans resident in India little drea'n of. His Chronicles pass from grave to gay and from sad to amusing ; red tape and official routine, strict integrity and false accusations, absurd schemes and laughable occurrences, incredible folly and horrible injustice pass before the eyes of the reader in a long and brilliant array of varying incidents. The book is of equal value both to those who know India and those who do not.

25. Abridgment of the History of India, by J. C. MARSHMAN, C.S.I. (Edinburgh and London : W. Blackwood and Sons, 1893 ; 6s.). We welcome this abridgment of Marshman's well - known and much valued work, very neatly published in one handy volume. The early and the Muhammadan periods have been condensed, while the British epoch, as of much greater importance, has been expanded into fuller detail. It forms an accurate History of India, for reference regarding leading events, notable persons and important circumstances, from the earliest times to the assumption of the Government of India by the Crown directly. A subsequent section gives in 30 pages a summary of events from 1858 to 1891-appropriately concluding with the last census. Very unaccountably the date of 27th March 1893 is placed immediately after the statement that the Imperial census was taken this year”!

26. The Indian Mutiny : Selections from State Papers, edited by G. W. FORREST, B.A., Vol. I. (Calcutta : Military Dept. Press, 1893). Mr. Forrest is so well known for his painstaking and judicious selections from the records of the Government of India, over which he so ably and diligently presides as Director, that we need only say here that this volume -the first of a series to follow-is well worthy of his high reputation. The Series is to present to the public all the available State papers relating to the Mutiny. He has divided the mighty mass into three classes ; and the present volume gives us the first of these, relating to the Barrackpur, Berhampur, Meerut and Delhi revolts, down to the capture of the last named city. We have not space except for a brief review of this bulky book-pp. 493 + clviii +ci. The introduction gives an admirably clear and succinct account of the events till the capture of Delhi; but a few corrections are needed. At the Cashmere gate (p. 25) there was no "long drawbridge ; for it crossed only the moat, here but a few feet wide. Some Christians were left unmolested in Delhi (p. 30), mostly belonging to families that had served previous emperors. The Kussauli range does not rise abruptly from the plains (p. 32), but lies beyond the Sewalik ridge. A far more important mistake is that of decrying Lord Lawrence's advice of pushing straight for Delhi, and saying it must have led to disaster, forgetful of the fact that it was the delay in the attack which gave strength to the defence. The selection of papers is very good, and besides some new matter, furnishes most interesting details of the Siege of Delhi ; but the chief interest centres naturally round the vexed question of the cartridges. NEW SERIES. VOL. VI.

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Regarding this we note first that more information is required : why, for instance, are we not given the papers on which the Governor General's minute of the 27th March 1857 was based, p. 88: “Enquiry was immediately made as to the composition of the grease. The tallow used had been supplied by a contractor, and it was ascertained that no sufficient precautions had been taken in the Arsenal to ensure the absence in it of all matter which might be objectionable to the Sepoys." The only other paper bearing on this point is the rather off-hand D.O. of Col. A. Abbott, C.B., Inspector General of Ordnance, given at pp. 3 and 4: “I hear that objection has been made by the Sepoys to use the cartridges . . . because one end is . . . greasy. It is absolutely necessary that grease should be used. . . . It was of cocoanut oil and bees wax. The present grease is tallow. I think that a committee should decide what grease should be employed.” Surely there is more than this in the Indian archives. In fact, our impression is strengthened that, no matter how much designing malcontents may have utilized the feeling to provoke a rebellion, the chief and in truth the only thing that drove the soldiers to a mutiny was the supposed attack on their caste and religious system. General Hearsey seems to have been the only one to understand from the beginning that more than the Sepoys themselves were concerned in the matter ; and that even when they became convinced that the cartridges were innocent of all pollution, they still could not use them so long as their relatives and friends all over India, were persuaded that their use entailed loss of caste. Mr. Forrest fails to see this even now ; for at p. 6 he says: “Concessions made to the murmurs and threats of an ignorant race only increase their perversity and folly.” Should we then act on the principle that when the culpable folly of a few officers, as in 1857, has excited a universal fear of religious interference, we should do nothing to allay it? Who can say if Abbott and his assistants had been dismissed with ignominy from the service, and a plain straightforward proclamation been made to all India, the mutiny would not have been averted ? Mr. Forrest's own pages show that the Sepoys literally had no other grievance; that, to the last, they continued subordinate and respectful; and that only the blindness of the Government in failing to see that they had to deal with the public opinion of India, even more than with the demands of the Sepoys, forced the reluctant soldiery to their fatal act. When the 19th Regiment was disbanded, in the General Order read at that sad parade, there is some very vague generality, but no categorical denial of an attempt to tamper with the caste of the men. The disbanding, moreover, was about the best ineans that could have been adopted for spreading the evil. Had General Hearsey and Major J. Bontein's recommendations been followed in place of the ignorant and shortsighted ideas of higher placed officials, much evil might have been avoided. The book is sure to be studied with the greatest care, and will be read with the deepest interest ; for not only has lapse of time failed to lessen the captivating grasp of the story of the Indian Mutiny, but the papers here given both show more clearly its inner working, and convey lessons of care and caution in the details of administration which our officers, both Civil and Military, in India will do well to keep in mind. In England the book can be got at the India Office.

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27. A Practical Arabic Grammar, Part I., compiled by MAJOR A. O. GREEN, R.E., 3rd edition (Oxford : The Clarendon Press). The circumstance that this Grammar should, in so short a time have passed through a third edition, would lead one to suppose that it is a work of great excellence. No doubt, the book has its sphere of usefulness, but otherwise we have not been able to discover anything very remarkable in it. If this Grammar reaches a fourth edition the following corrections should, we think, be made : Page 5, No. 11-S is not a servile letter; p. 10, Lesson 2, in as much as there is nothing more regular in the Arabic language than the feminines of Adjectives denoting colour, it is absurd to call this an irregular formation ; on the same page şül with ş is a blunder and

. ; . , nation is zło, with Kasra not Damma, the same on p. 23 wole should have the Kasra and no Damma. P. 27 us is not a village, but a town. p. 64 "illustrious” is viso not uso. P. 120, 172, the w is also regularly changed into w after j and; as Sujl and wlu;l; this should have been mentioned. P. 120, the form Jeil is used to express any quality which is very conspicuous, especially colour or distortion, so gol is to become intensely black, not merely to become black.

28. English Arabic Vocabulary, by LIEUT.-COLONEL E. V. STACE, C.B. (London : Bernard Quaritch), 218 pp., 8vo. The author of this vocabulary takes pains to impress upon his readers that he is treating of colloquial and not classical Arabic, as if the former were not, at least three-fourths, in perfect accord with classical usage. To accentuate, no doubt, as much as possible the difference supposed to exist between so called colloquial and classical Arabic, the author carefully registers in his vocabulary the vulgarest and lowest expressions in preference to more refined—though not less colloquial terms—whenever he has the choice. It appears from a perusal of this book that the charmed circle of true colloquialism is somewhat narrow in Aden, for the following words seem to be unknown there, or perhaps the author has purposely omitted them on account of their classical associations : absent from Colonel Stace's colloquial vocabulary is the word Heaven—but Hell is well represented by three incisive Arabic words, all, no doubt, thoroughly in use. Mosque, Synagogue and Church are also, it seems, words that it is unnecessary to know in Aden Society. But what may be considered their opposites are conscientiously registered in the compilation before us. Prophet, Priest and Apostle are omitted but Missionary figures and so do useful words like Intriguer, Pimp, etc. Moslem, Christian and Jew are left unmentioned in these select colloquial leaves, as the author probably found that the term Infideltakes the place, in common parlance, of these three words. We believe the work aims at some completeness for we find an out-of-the-way word with an out-of-the-way spelling, to wit, hickledy-pickledy." We wish the student joy in his study of this vocabulary; if eminently successful, he may in time aspire to rival the language of an Arab menial. The plan of the author of illustrating the use of words by short phrases is excellent.

29. Village Communities, by Sir H. MAINE (London: John Murray).

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